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Technical Paper

Study of the Influence of the Injection System in a Multi-Dimensional Spray Simulation

The introduction of the high-pressure fully electronic-controlled injection systems has opened a number of new possibilities to optimize diesel engine performance and to reduce pollutant emissions. However greater research efforts are required to meet future European emission legislation. The control of the combustion process, which determines to a large extent the amount of pollutant emissions, requires primarily an understanding of its physics and chemistry as well as the capability to modify one or more of the interdependent process parameters in a given direction. Since many parameters have to be considered, a combined experimental-numerical approach is required.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Spray Simulation of a DI Turbocharged Diesel Engine

The recent innovations on automotive Diesel engines require significant research efforts. The new generation of fully electronically controlled injection systems have opened new ways to reduce emissions and improve the efficiency of the engine. The free mapping of injection law together with the enhanced injection pressures favor, in fact, the optimization of mixture formation. In this field, the 3D simulation is playing a substantial role to support the design of combustion chamber. This paper presents a computational model to simulate the multi-injection process, the mixture formation and the combustion of DI diesel engines with high-pressure injection systems. The main code is a modified version of the KIVA 3V and the modifications presented in this work are a high pressure break up model and a multi component evaporation model. The code has been validated through experimental data on a 4-cylinder, 1910 cc, DI turbocharged Diesel engine (Fiat 1.9 JTD).
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a GDI Spray Model

A computational model and an experimental analysis have been performed to study the atomisation processes of hollow cone fuel sprays from a high pressure swirl injector for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The objective has been to obtain reliable simulations and better understood structure and evolution of the spray and its interaction with air the flow field. The 3D computations are based on the KIVA 3 code in which basic spray sub models have been modified to simulate break-up phenomena and evaporation process. Spray characteristics have been measured using a system, able to gather and to process spray images, including a CCD camera, a frame grabber and a pulsed sheet obtained by the second harmonic of Nd-YAG laser (wavelength 532 nm, width 12 ns, thickness 80 μm). The readout system has been triggered by a TTL signal synchronized with the start of injection. A digital image processing software has been used to analyse the collected pictures.
Technical Paper

Study of the Impact of Variations in the Diesel-Nozzle Geometry Parameters on the Layout of Multiple Injection Strategy

In the present paper the impact of three different geometrical layouts of the discharge nozzle of a high-pressure diesel injector designed is examined for a common rail second generation direct injection system. The paper presents a comparative study of the spray behavior of the three different nozzle layouts connected to a 150 MPa rail-pressure when mounted on a 1.6 liter European passenger car engine. To evaluate experimentally the differences in the fundamental physical spray parameters several specially developed optical visualization techniques are used, which enable phase-Doppler, Laser-sheet and high-speed recordings of dense high pressure sprays. The change in basic spray parameters (time-resolved droplet distribution and spray momentum) caused by the nozzle geometry variation is examined. The impact on the in-cylinder penetration and mixing characteristics is studied with a 3D-numerical simulation code NCF-3D.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Mixture Preparation Approach for Lean Stratified SI-Combustion by a Combined Use of GDI and Electronically Controlled Valve-Timing

The first part of the paper gives an overview of the current status in fuel consumption gain of the GDI-vehicles previously launched on the European market. In order to increase the potential for a further gain in specific fuel consumption the behaviour of 3 different combustion chamber layouts are studied. The chamber layouts are aimed to adapt as well as possible to the particular requirements for application to a small displacement/small bore engine working in stratified lean conditions. The paper continues with a description of the application that shows the different steps of a structured optimisation methodology for a 1.2 litre, small bore 4-cylinder engine. The applications of an air-motion-guided and a wall-guided layout with a mechanically actuated valve train to the same combustion chamber are discussed. The potential of the air-motion-guided concept is enhanced through the introduction of an electromagnetic fully variable valve train.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Approach to Injection and Ignition Optimization of Lean GDI-Combustion Behavior

The first part of the paper gives an overview of the current development status of the GDI system layout for the middle displacement engine, typically 2 liter, using the stoichiometric or weak lean concept. Hereafter are discussed the particular requirements for the transition to a small displacement/small bore engine working in stratified lean conditions. The paper continues with a description of the application of the different steps of the optimization methodology for a 1.2 liter, small bore 4 cylinder engine from its original base line MPI version towards the lean stratified operation mode. The latest changes in the combustion model, used in the numerical simulation software applied to the combustion chamber design, are discussed and comparison made with the previous model. The redesign of the combustion chamber geometry, the proper choice of injector atomizer type and location and the use of two-stage injection and multi-spark strategies are discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Mass Transfer Improvements in Catalytic Converter Channels: An Hybrid BGK-Finite Volume Numerical Simulation Method

For compliance with future LEV/ULEV emission standards in United States and Euro 2000/Euro 2005 standards in European Community, catalytic converter performance has to be remarkably improved. The development of simulation codes allows to investigate a high range of possible exhaust system configurations and engine operating parameters. In the present study an hybrid Lattice BGK-finite volume technique will be described, able to determine the mass transfer rates of the chemical species to the catalyzed wall of the monolith channels. The BGK code solves the fluid motion governing equations in a reduced form obtained by discretizing the continuum in a fixed number of particles. Each of them will be moved by a set of discrete velocities and collide with the neighbour particles according to a fixed pattern of particle-interaction.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Evaluation in 3D Computations of Premixed SI Engines

3D calculations of homogeneous charge spark ignition engines were carried out using the KIVA III code. A modified wall function was introduced by an approximate solution of the one -dimensional simplified equations of energy and mass balance. The model takes into account the pressure unsteadiness and the mean rate of combustion in boundary layer. Moreover a modified turbulent conductivity law was proposed following the classical Prandtl approach. The predictions of heat transfer model were compared with the mean heat flows calculated by thermodynamic processing of pressure cycles in motored engines. Two engines with different geometry were used. Namely: a CFR engine running 900 rpm and an AVL engine, running at 2200 rpm. The results regarding heat transfer seem very encouraging. The combustion phase was simulated using a Fractal Flame Model (FFM) elsewhere describe. Simulations in firing conditions were compared with measurements carried out on a CFR engine and on an AVL engine.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for a High Pressure Injection Systems

Pollutant emissions from D.I. Diesel engines strongly depend on injection system characteristics and mainly on injection pressure and timing. In the latest years some solutions have been proposed based on very high fuel pressure values (up to 150 MPa). Among them, the so called “Common rail” system configuration, being able to electronically control needle lift and injection pressure, seems to be particularly promising. Much experimental and theoretical work has been done to improve system performance for automotive applications. With the aim of investigating the influence of some details of geometrical configuration on the injector operating mode, a mathematical model able to describe the pressure-time history in any section of the delivery pipe and the fuel injection rate through the nozzle has been developed, based on a semi-implicit finite volumes approach. The computed results have been compared with experimental data provided by the Institut Français du Pétrole.