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Technical Paper

Pre-Curve Braking Planning of Battery Electric Vehicle based on Vehicle Infrastructure Cooperative System

2020-10-05
2020-01-1643
Braking energy recovery is an important method for Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) to save energy and increase driving range. Vehicle braking system performs regenerative braking control based on driver operations. Different braking operations have a significant impact on energy recovery efficiency. This paper proposes a method for planning the braking process of a BEV based on Intelligent Vehicle Infrastructure Cooperative System (IVICS). By actively planning the braking process, the braking energy recovery efficiency is improved. Vehicles need to decelerate and brake before entering a curve. The IVICS is used to obtain information about the curve section in front of the vehicle's driving route. Then calculating the reference speed of the curve, and obtaining the vehicle's braking target in advance, so as to actively plan the vehicle braking process.
Technical Paper

Research on the Performance of Battery Thermal Management System Based on Optimized Arrangement of Flat Plate Heat Pipes

2020-04-14
2020-01-0162
The thermal management system is essential for the safe and long-term operation of the power battery. The temperature difference between the individual cells exceeds the acceleration of the battery performance, which leads to battery out of use and affects the performance of the vehicle. Compared with the low heat transfer coefficient of the air-cooling system, the complex structure of the liquid-cooling system and the large quality of phase change material system, the heat pipe has high thermal conductivity, strong isothermal performance and light weight, it’s an efficient cooling element that can be used for thermal management. In this study, the flat plate heat pipe(FPHP) is used to manage the temperature of the battery, through experiments, the optimized placement of the flat heat pipe is obtained.
Technical Paper

Research on Solar Thermal Energy Warming Diesel Engine Based on Reverse Heat Transfer of Coolant

2020-04-14
2020-01-1343
In winter, the temperature of the coldest month is below -20°C. Low temperature makes it difficult to start a diesel engine, combust sufficiently, which increases fuel consumption and pollutes the environment. The use of an electric power-driven auxiliary heating system increases the battery load and power consumption. Solar thermal energy has the advantages of easy access, clean and pollution-free. The coolant in the cylinder block of the diesel engine has a large contact area within the cylinder and is evenly distributed, which can be used as a heat transfer medium for the warm-up. A one-dimensional heat transfer model of the diesel engine block for the coolant warm-up is developed, and the total heat required for the warm-up is calculated by an iterative method in combination with the warm-up target.
Technical Paper

Research on Correction Algorithm of Head-up Display System in Vehicle Vibration

2020-04-14
2020-01-1368
The head-up display system can overlay the real object with the projected image to assist the driver in driving. However, when road conditions are bad, the continuous vibration of the vehicle will cause the vehicle to tilt and shift. At this time, the projected image and the real object do not overlap well. This paper presents a correction algorithm for a head-up display system. The algorithm corrects the position of the projected image by inputting the tilt state of the vehicle. In this paper, the coordinate axis with the driver's eye as the origin is first established. Then the tilt state of the vehicle is decomposed into the rotation angle in three directions and the displacement in the vertical direction. Finally, the position of the projected image is corrected by inputting the tilt state of the vehicle so that the projected image can remain on the real object at all times. The simulation model is established in Unity3D.
Technical Paper

Optimal Management of Charge and Discharge of Electric Vehicles Based on CAN Bus Communication

2020-04-14
2020-01-1297
With the shortage of energy and the continuous development of automotive technology, electric vehicles are gradually gaining popularity. The energy of electric vehicles mainly comes from the power grid, and its large-scale use is inseparable from the support of the power system. However, electric vehicles consume power quickly, have short driving ranges, and frequently charge, and there are plenty of problems such as disorder and randomness in charging, which is not conducive to rational planning of the power grid. Optimizing the charging problem of electric vehicles can not only save power resources but also bring huge economic benefits to operators of charging stations. In this paper, the CAN bus communication protocol, combined with GPS positioning, LabVIEW monitoring, GPRS transmitting and other technical means, can realize the information exchange of the "vehicle-charging device-distribution network".
Technical Paper

Parameter Optimization of Two-Speed AMT Electric Vehicle Transmission System

2020-04-14
2020-01-0435
At present, many electric vehicles are often equipped with only a single-stage final drive. Although the single-stage speed ratio can meet the general driving requirements of electric vehicles, if the requirements of the maximum speed and the requirements for starting acceleration or climbing are met at the same time, the power demand of the drive motor is relatively large, and the efficient area of the drive motor may be far away from the operating area corresponding to daily driving. If the two-speed automatic transmission is adopted, the vehicle can meet the requirements of maximum speed, starting acceleration and climbing at the same time, reduce the power demand of the driving motor, and improve the economy under certain power performance. This is especially important for medium and large vehicles.
Technical Paper

Real-time and Accurate Estimation of Road Slope for Intelligent Speed Planning System of Commercial Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0115
In the intelligent speed planning system, real-time estimation of road slope is the key to calculate slope resistance and realize the vehicles’ active safety control. However, if the road slope is measured by the sensor while the commercial vehicle is driving, the vibration of the vehicle body will affect its measurement accuracy. Therefore, the relevant algorithm is used to estimate the real-time slope of the road when the commercial vehicle is driving. At present, many domestic and foreign scholars have analyzed and tested the estimation of road slope by the least square method or Kalman filter algorithm. Although the two methods both can achieve the estimation, the real-time performance and accuracy still need to be improved. In this paper, for traditional fuel commercial vehicle, the Kalman filter algorithm based on the kinematics and the extended Kalman filter algorithm based on the longitudinal dynamics are respectively used to estimate the road slope.
Technical Paper

An Image Recognition Application Method for Vertical Movement of Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0733
In ITS, image processing technology is applied to a wide variety of areas such as visual-based intelligent vehicle navigation, visual-based traffic monitoring and visual-based traffic management. In the recognition system of the vehicle body characteristics, most of the recognition is the license plate and the car emblem, etc. This paper proposes an image recognition application method for the vertical motion of the car while driving, mainly including vertical height detection and vertical displacement velocity acceleration recognition. The edge detection model of the image object is established by using the gray image to obtain the car motion segmentation image. At the same time, an image length and actual length coordinate conversion model is established, which can calculate an arbitrary actual length of the image object. In this paper, Yuejin Shangjun X500 van was selected as the test vehicle, and the video data was captured with a camera.
Technical Paper

A Pre-Warning Method for Cornering Speed of Concrete Mixer Truck

2020-04-14
2020-01-1003
The high gravity center of the concrete mixer truck reduces the truck’s stability while steering. The rolling stirring tank makes the stability even worse than the regular engineering vehicle due to the dynamic variation of the centroid position. Most of the researches on the rollover stability of concrete mixer trucks focus on the rollover model establishment and dynamic simulation module. The change of concrete centroid is ignored when the safety cornering speed is calculated. This paper proposes a pre-warning method for the cornering speed of concrete mixer trucks based on centroid dynamic simulation. In the method, the mixing tank stirring model and the vehicle driving dynamic model are established on the Fluent and TruckSim simulation platforms, respectively. The theoretical speed threshold obtained by simulation is used as the evaluation index of the warning speed in the curve. Firstly, the dynamic simulation of the stirring tank model is carried out by Fluent.
Technical Paper

Research on the Performance of Magnetorheological Fluid Auxiliary Braking Devices Thermal Management System Based on Flat Plate Heat Pipes

2020-04-14
2020-01-0894
To prevent braking recession, heavy commercial vehicles are often equipped with fluid auxiliary braking devices, such as hydraulic retarder. Hydraulic retarder can convert the vehicle’s kinetic energy to the fluid heat energy, which can enormously alleviate the main brake’s workload. The traditional hydraulic retarder can provide enough braking torque but has a delay during the braking. In this paper, a new type of magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid) hydraulic retarder is introduced by replacing the traditional fluid with magnetorheological fluid because of its linear braking torque and quick response. By changing the magnetic field intensity, it is easier to control the braking torque than the traditional hydraulic retarder. The rise of magnetorheological fluid temperature during the braking period will reduce the hydraulic retarder’s performance.
Technical Paper

Kalman Filter Slope Measurement Method Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm-Back Propagation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0897
How to improve the measurement accuracy of road gradient is the key content of the research on the speed warning of commercial vehicles in mountainous roads. The large error of the measurement causes a significant effect of the vehicle speed threshold, which causes a risk to the vehicle's safety. Conventional measuring instruments such as accelerometers and gyroscopes generally have noise fluctuation interference or time accumulation error, resulting in large measurement errors. To solve this problem, the Kalman filter method is used to reduce the interference of unwanted signals, thereby improving the accuracy of the slope measurement. However, the Kalman filtering method is limited by the estimation error of various parameters, and the filtering effect is difficult to meet the project research requirements.
Technical Paper

Parameter Optimization of Anti-Roll Bar Based on Stiffness

2020-04-14
2020-01-0921
The anti-roll bar is an important structural component of the automobile, which can effectively prevent the automobile from rolling and improve the safety of the automobile during steering. In the design of the current anti-roll bar, the stiffness is determined by empirical or oversimplified mathematical models, often not reaching the optimal value. In this paper, eight parameters are used to determine the structure of the anti-roll bar. Combining the Deformation Energy theorem and Castigliano’s theorem, a mathematical model of the stiffness is established. The optimal solution and corresponding parameter values of the mathematical model are obtained by nonlinear programming and genetic algorithm. The influence of structural parameters on the anti-roll bar stiffness is analyzed, and the regular pattern of design is obtained. In addition, the finite element method is used to verify the stiffness solution model.
Technical Paper

Effect of Stator Surface Area on Braking Torque and Wall Heat Dissipation of Magnetorheological Fluid Retarder

2020-04-14
2020-01-0937
Magnetorheological fluid (MRF) is used as the transmission medium of the hydraulic retarder. The rheological properties are regulated by changing the magnetic field to achieve accurate control of the retarder's braking torque. Under the action of the external magnetic field, the flow structure and performance of the MRF retarder will be changed in a short time. The apparent viscosity coefficient increases by several orders of magnitude, the fluidity deteriorates and the heat generated by the brake cannot be transferred through the liquid circulation, which will affect the braking torque of the retarder. Changing the surface area of the stator also has an influence on the braking torque of the retarder and the wall heat dissipation. In this study, the relationship between the braking torque of the MRF retarder and the stator surface area of the retarder was analyzed.
Technical Paper

Research on the Best Driving Speed of the Deceleration Bump

2020-04-14
2020-01-1088
The ride performance and stability of the vehicle will decrease while the vehicle passing a deceleration bump with relatively high speed. If the speed is too low, the road efficiency and ride comfort will be affected. It is essential to identify the proper speed taking into account all the factors. In this paper, the dynamic model of the vehicle passing through the deceleration bump is established. Three kinds of indicators vibration weighted acceleration RMS, maximum vertical vibration acceleration and wheel load impact coefficient, are used to comprehensively evaluate the ride comfort and safety. The highway model, vehicle model, and common trapezoidal cross-sections bump models are set up in Carsim. Parameters such as vertical acceleration and tire force at different vehicle speeds are obtained. Then use the spline interpolation method to fit the data, and comprehensively consider the three indicators to get the best speed.
Technical Paper

Downhill Safety Assistant Driving System for Battery Electric Vehicles on Mountain Roads

2019-09-15
2019-01-2129
When driving in mountainous areas, vehicles often encounter downhill conditions. To ensure safe driving, it is necessary to control the speed of vehicles. For internal combustion engine vehicles, auxiliary brake such as engine brake can be used to alleviate the thermal load caused by the continuous braking of the friction brake. For battery electric vehicles (BEVs), regenerative braking can be used as auxiliary braking to improve brake safety. And through regenerative braking, energy can be partly converted into electrical energy and stored in accumulators (such as power batteries and supercapacitors), thus extending the mileage. However, the driver's line of sight in the mountains is limited, resulting in a certain degree of blindness in driving, so it is impossible to fully guarantee the safety and energy saving of downhill driving.
Technical Paper

Effect of Circumferential Magnetic Field on Braking Performance of a Direct Vane Magnetorheological Fluid Retarder

2019-04-02
2019-01-0342
The hydraulic retarder used in commercial vehicles can provide hydraulic damping to generate braking torque, reducing the pressure of the braking system on the slope section and increasing the safety. In this paper, the magnetorheological fluid with fast magnetic field reflection characteristics is used to increase the response speed of the hydraulic retarder, which can effectively reduce the response time of the hydraulic retarder. In this paper, the influence of the change of circumferential magnetic field on the braking torque of the magnetorheological fluid retarder is studied.
Technical Paper

A Non-Contact Overload Identification Method Based on Vehicle Dynamics

2019-04-02
2019-01-0490
The vehicle overload seriously jeopardizes traffic safety and affects traffic efficiency. At present, the static weighing station and weigh-in-motion station are both relatively fixed, so the detection efficiency is not high and the traffic efficiency is affected; the on-board dynamic weighing equipment is difficult to be popularized because of the problem of being deliberately damaged or not accepted by the purchaser. This paper proposes an efficient, accurate, non-contact vehicle overload identification method which can keep the road unimpeded. The method can detect the vehicle overload by the relative distance (as the characteristic distance) between the dynamic vehicle's marking line and the road surface. First, the dynamics model of the vehicle suspension is set up. Then, the dynamic characteristic distance of the traffic vehicle is detected from the image acquired by the calibrated camera based on computer vision and image recognition technology.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption Optimization for the Electric Vehicle Air Conditioning Using the Condensate Water

2019-04-02
2019-01-0148
In summer, the relatively low temperature water condenses in the evaporator when the vehicle air-conditioning (AC) is running. At present, the vehicle AC condensate water without well utilization is directly wasted. The condenser’s thermal transfer performance has a great influence on the AC performance, and to increase the convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) is the key to its design. In this paper, a method of using atomized condensate water (CW) to enhance the condenser’s thermal transfer performance is proposed, which can make the most of the CW's cold energy. It achieves the reuse of CW and increases the condenser’s CHTC. First, the CW flow calculation model in the evaporator and the calculation model of the condenser enhanced thermal transfer using atomized CW are both set up. The influence of the evaporation degree of atomized CW particles in the air on the enhancement effect is comprehensively considered.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Passive Low Power Phase Change Heat Dissipation Method for Electric Vehicle Motor

2019-04-02
2019-01-1256
The electric vehicle motor is developing toward high power density, at the same time brings serious temperature rise problem, which affect the driving motor performance, efficiency, and useful life. Liquid cooling is usually used to solve the problem, but its energy consumption is large and the reliability is poor. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a heat dissipation method to improve the reliability and energy efficiency of the driving motor heat dissipation system. The method uses heat pipes heat transfer, and the heat pipes cold end are cooled by vehicle facing the wind. By establishing the motor temperature rise model, heat transfer model and vehicle dynamics model, this paper analyzes the maximum temperature region and reliability of the driving motor heat dissipation system, calculates and analyzes the efficiency of the driving motor under different driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Passenger Cabin’s Parking Cooling System Based on TEC and Air Conditioning Condensate Water

2019-04-02
2019-01-1066
In the passenger cabin of the parking under the summer sun, the air’s average temperature will reach about 60°C. Such temperature can cause discomfort to the person who has just entered the passenger cabin, also can damage components of the passenger cabin. The reason for this phenomenon is because it is not convective with the outside air. Some vehicles use the electric power to drive the blower in order to ventilate, but the air’s temperature of cabin is so high that the blower’s effect of ventilation is limited. The system proposes to use solar energy to drive the automobile blower and the thermoelectric cooler(TEC) in order to cool the cabin’s air, and use the air-conditioning condensate water collected during the driving process to cool the TEC’s hot end to improve the cooling efficiency.
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