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Technical Paper

Tractor-Semitrailer Stability Following a Steer Axle Tire Blowout at Speed and Comparison to Computer Simulation Models

2013-04-08
2013-01-0795
This paper documents the vehicle response of a tractor-semitrailer following a sudden air loss (Blowout) in a steer axle tire while traveling at highway speeds. The study seeks to compare full-scale test data to predicted response from detailed heavy truck computer vehicle dynamics simulation models. Full-scale testing of a tractor-semitrailer experiencing a sudden failure of a steer axle tire was conducted. Vehicle handling parameters were recorded by on-board computers leading up to and immediately following the sudden air loss. Inertial parameters (roll, yaw, pitch, and accelerations) were measured and recorded for the tractor and semitrailer, along with lateral and longitudinal speeds. Steering wheel angle was also recorded. These data are presented and also compared to the results of computer simulation models. The first simulation model, SImulation MOdel Non-linear (SIMON), is a vehicle dynamic simulation model within the Human Vehicle Environment (HVE) software environment.
Journal Article

Advanced Control Strategies for a Roll Simulator - A Feedback Linearization Technique Explored

2013-04-08
2013-01-0683
This paper presents a feedback linearization control technique as applied to a Roll Simulator. The purpose of the Roll Simulator is to reproduce in-field rollovers of ROVs and study occupant kinematics in a laboratory setting. For a system with known parameters, non-linear dynamics and trajectories, the feedback linearization algorithm cancels out the non-linearities such that the closed-loop dynamics behave in a linear fashion. The control inputs are computed values that are needed to attain certain desired motions. The computed values are a form of inverse dynamics or feed-forward calculation. With increasing system eigenvalue, the controller exhibits greater response time. This, however, puts a greater demand on the translational actuator. The controller also demonstrates that it is able to compensate for and reject a disturbance in force level.
Technical Paper

Establishing Occupant Response Metrics on a Roll Simulator

2012-04-16
2012-01-0099
This paper presents the results of an in-depth study of the measurement of occupant kinematic response on the S-E-A Roll Simulator. This roll simulator was built to provide an accurate and repeatable test procedure for the evaluation of occupant protection and restraint systems during roll events within a variety of occupant compartments. In the present work this roll simulator was utilized for minimum-energy, or threshold type, rollover events of recreational off-highway vehicles (ROVs). Input profiles for these tests were obtained through a separate study involving autonomous full vehicle tests [1]. During simulated roll events anthropomorphic test device (ATD) responses were measured using on-board high speed video, an optical three-dimensional motion capture system (OCMS) and an array of string potentiometers.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Roll Simulator for Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0241
A two-degree-of-freedom Roll Simulator has been developed to study the occupant kinematics of Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles (ROVs). To validate the roll simulator, test data was collected on a population of ROVs on the market today. J-turn maneuvers were performed to find the minimum energy limits required to tip up the vehicles. Two sets of tests were performed: for the first set, 10 vehicles were tested, where the motion was limited by safety outriggers to 10-15 degrees of roll; and for the second set, three of these vehicles were re-tested with outriggers removed and the vehicle motion allowed to reach 90 degrees of roll. These quarter-turn rollover tests were performed autonomously using an Automatic Steering Controller (ASC) and a Brake and Throttle Robot (BTR). Lateral and longitudinal accelerations as well as roll rate and roll angle were recorded for all tests.
Technical Paper

Adaptation of TruckSim Models to Simulate Experimental Heavy Truck Hard Braking Test Data Under Various Levels of Brake Disablement

2010-10-05
2010-01-1920
This research focuses on the development and performance of analytical models to simulate a tractor-semitrailer in straight-ahead braking. The simulations were modified and tuned to simulate full-treadle braking with all brakes functioning correctly, as well as the behavior of the tractor-semitrailer rig under full braking with selected brakes disabled. The models were constructed in TruckSim and based on a tractor-semitrailer used in dry braking performance testing. The full-scale vehicle braking research was designed to define limits for engineering estimates on stopping distance when Class 8 air-braked vehicles experience partial degradation of the foundation brake system. In the full scale testing, stops were conducted from 30 mph and 60 mph, with the combination loaded to 80,000 lbs (gross combined weight or GCW), half payload, and with the tractor-semitrailer unladen (lightly loaded vehicle weight, or LLVW).
Journal Article

Development of a Roll Stability Control Model for a Tractor Trailer Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0451
Heavy trucks are involved in many accidents every year and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is viewed as a means to help mitigate this problem. ESC systems are designed to reduce the incidence of single vehicle loss of control, which might lead to rollover or jackknife. As the working details and control strategies of commercially available ESC systems are proprietary, a generic model of an ESC system that mimics the basic logical functionality of commercial systems was developed. This paper deals with the study of the working of a commercial ESC system equipped on an actual tractor trailer vehicle. The particular ESC system found on the test vehicle contained both roll stability control (RSC) and yaw stability control (YSC) features. This work focused on the development of a reliable RSC software model, and the integration of it into a full vehicle simulation (TruckSim) of a heavy truck.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Shock Model for Vehicle Simulation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0845
This paper describes the development of a more accurate shock absorber model in order to obtain better vehicle simulation results. Previous shock models used a single spline to represent shock force versus shock velocity curves. These models produced errors in vehicle simulations because the damper characteristics are better represented by the application of a hysteresis loop in the model. Thus, a new damper model that includes a hysteresis loop is developed using Matlab Simulink. The damper characteristics for the new model were extracted from measurements made on a shock dynamometer. The new model better represents experimental shock data. The new shock model is incorporated into two different lumped-parameter vehicle models: one is a three degree-of-freedom vehicle handling model and the other is a seven degree-of-freedom vehicle ride model. The new damper model is compared with the previous model for different shock mileages (different degrees of wear).
Technical Paper

Model Validation of the 2006 BMW 330i for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

2007-04-16
2007-01-0817
This paper presents an evaluation of a complete vehicle dynamics model for a 2006 BMW 330i to be used for the National Advanced Driving Simulator. Vehicle handling and braking are evaluated and simulation results are compared with experimental field-testing. NADSdyna, the National Advanced Driving Simulator vehicle dynamics software, is used. The BMW evaluation covers vehicle directional dynamics that include steady-state, transient, and frequency domain responses. These evaluations are performed with the DSC (Dynamic Stability and Control) turned off to ensure the principle mechanical properties of the vehicle are properly modeled before enabling the electronic stability system. The evaluation also includes simulation runs with DSC turned on for the J-turn and severe lane change maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Parameter Determination and Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for The National Advanced Driving Simulator of the 2006 BMW 330i

2007-04-16
2007-01-0818
The paper discusses the development of a model for the 2006 BMW 330i for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's (NADS) vehicle dynamics simulation, NADSdyna. The front and rear suspensions are independent strut and link type suspensions modeled using recursive rigid-body dynamics formulations. The suspension springs and shock absorbers are modeled as force elements. The paper includes parameters for front and rear semi-empirical tire models used with NADSdyna. Longitudinal and lateral tire force plots are also included. The NADSdyna model provides state-of-the-art high-fidelity handling dynamics for real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The realism of a particular model depends heavily on how the parameters are obtained from the actual physical system. Complex models do not guarantee high fidelity if the parameters used were not properly measured. Methodologies for determining the parameters are detailed in this paper.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Worn Shocks on Vehicle Handling and Stability

2006-04-03
2006-01-0563
The intent of this research is to understand the effects worn dampers have on vehicle stability and safety through dynamic model simulation. Dampers, an integral component of a vehicle's suspension system, play an important role in isolating road disturbances from the driver by controlling the motions of the sprung and unsprung masses. This paper will show that a decrease in damping leads to excessive body motions and a potentially unstable vehicle. The concept of poor damping affecting vehicle stability is well established through linear models. The next step is to extend this concept for non-linear models. This is accomplished through creating a vehicle simulation model and executing several driving maneuvers with various damper characteristics. The damper models used in this study are based on splines representing peak force versus velocity relationships.
Technical Paper

Advancements in Tire Modeling Through Implementation of Load and Speed Dependent Coefficients

2005-11-01
2005-01-3543
An existing tire model was investigated for additional normal load-dependent characteristics to improve the large truck simulations developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). Of the existing tire model coefficients, plysteer, lateral friction decay, aligning torque stiffness and normalized longitudinal stiffness were investigated. The findings of the investigation led to improvements in the tire model. The improved model was then applied to TruckSim to compare with the TruckSim table lookup tire model and test data. Additionally, speed-dependent properties for the NADS tire model were investigated (using data from a light truck tire).
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Steering System Model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

2004-03-08
2004-01-1072
This paper presents the details of the model for the physical steering system used on the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The system is basically a hardware-in-the-loop (steering feedback motor and controls) steering system coupled with the core vehicle dynamics of the simulator. The system's torque control uses cascaded position and velocity feedback and is controlled to provide steering feedback with variable stiffness and dynamic properties. The reference model, which calculates the desired value of the torque, is made of power steering torque, damping function torque, torque from tires, locking limit torque, and driver input torque. The model also provides a unique steering dead-band function that is important for on-center feel. A Simulink model of the hardware/software is presented and analysis of the simulator steering system is provided.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vehicle Response Asymmetries During Severe Driving Maneuvers

2004-03-08
2004-01-1788
During Phase VI of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Light Vehicle Rollover Research Program, three of the twenty-six light vehicles tested exhibited significant response asymmetries with respect to left versus right steer maneuvers. This paper investigates possible vehicle asymmetric characteristics and unintended inputs that may cause vehicle asymmetric response. An analysis of the field test data, results from suspension and steering parameter measurements, and a summary of a computer simulation study are also given.
Technical Paper

Heavy Tractor-Trailer Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

2003-03-03
2003-01-0965
This paper presents the development of a real-time vehicle dynamics model of the heavy tractor-trailer combination used in the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The model includes multi-body dynamics of the tractor and trailer chassis, suspension, and steering mechanisms. The rigid body model is formulated using recursive multi-body dynamics code. This model is augmented with subsystem models that include tires, leaf springs, brakes, steering system, and aerodynamic drag. This paper also presents parameter measurement and estimations used to set up the model. Also included are models for brake fade, steering torque resistance, and defective tires.
Technical Paper

Kinematic Suspension Model Applicable to Dynamic Full Vehicle Simulation

2003-03-03
2003-01-0859
Computer simulations are popular for modeling vehicle system dynamics. However, further refinement of the vehicle dynamic model is required for extensive use in the automotive industry. In this paper, the model refining procedure is illustrated by developing reliable kinematic models verified with laboratory test results; instrument test data; and a mathematical optimization method. More specifically, simple kinematic models are developed for reduced computation times using ADAMS. They are tuned by the gradient-based optimization technique using the results from a laboratory testing facility, which includes the compliance effect in order to use the kinematic models in dynamic simulations. Also the Magic Formula tire model is developed using the optimization method and tire property data for the STI (Systems Technology, Incorporated) tire model.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Heavy Tractor-Trailer Model used in the National Advanced Driving Simulator

2003-03-03
2003-01-1324
This paper evaluates the heavy tractor-trailer handling dynamics model used in the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The comparison between simulation and experiments were done using lane change, slowly increasing steer, pulse steer, step steer, and straight-line braking maneuvers. The paper discusses tractor-trailer instrumentation and the results of field experiments.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Implementation of Steering System Feedback for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

2002-05-07
2002-01-1573
This paper presents a real-time steering system torque feedback model used in the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). The vehicle model is based on real-time recursive multi-body dynamics augmented with vehicle subsystems models including tires, power train, brakes, aerodynamics and steering. The steering system feel is of paramount importance for the fidelity of the simulator. The driver has to feel the appropriate torque as he/she steers the vehicle. This paper presents a detailed mathematical model of the steering physics from low-speed stick-slip to high-speed states. On-center steering weave handling and aggressive lane change inputs are used to validate the basic mathematical predictions. This validation is objective and open loop, and was done using field experiments.
Technical Paper

A Demographic Analysis and Reconstruction of Selected Cases from the Pedestrian Crash Data Study

2002-03-04
2002-01-0560
This study involves two areas of research. The first is the finalization of the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) in order to provide detailed information regarding the vehicle/pedestrian accident environment and how it has changed from the interim PCDS information. The pedestrian kinematics, injury contact sources, and injuries were analyzed relative to vehicle geometry. The second area presented is full-scale attempts at reconstruction of two selected PCDS cases using the Polar II pedestrian dummy to determine if the pre-crash motion of the pedestrian and vehicle could somehow be linked to the injuries and vehicle damage documented in the case.
Technical Paper

Model Validation of the 1998 Chevrolet Malibu for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

2001-03-05
2001-01-0141
This paper presents an evaluation of a complete vehicle dynamics model for a 1998 Chevrolet Malibu to be used for the National Advanced Driving Simulator. Vehicle handling, braking and powertrain dynamics are evaluated and simulation results are compared with experimental field-testing. NADSdyna, the National Advanced Driving Simulator vehicle dynamics software, is used. The Malibu evaluation covers vehicle directional dynamics that include steady state, transient frequency response, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics composed of acceleration and braking. Also, analyses of the effects of modified tire parameters on vehicle dynamics response is performed. The effects of wind gusts generated by a tractor-trailer and a bus on the Malibu vehicle directional dynamics are analyzed. For the steering system feel, we compare the handwheel torque feedback with the measured data during both high-speed dynamics and in the very low speed tire stick-slip regime.
Technical Paper

Parameter Determination and Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the NADS of the 1998 Chevrolet Malibu

2001-03-05
2001-01-0140
The paper discusses the development of a model for a 1998 Chevrolet Malibu for the National Advanced Driving Simulator’s (NADS) vehicle dynamics simulation, NADSdyna. The Malibu is the third vehicle modeled for the NADS, and this is the third paper dealing with model development. SAE Paper 970564 contains details of the model for the 1994 Ford Taurus and SAE Paper 1999–01-0121 contains details of the model for the 1997 Jeep Cherokee. The front and rear suspensions are independent strut and link type suspensions modeled using recursive rigid body dynamics formulations. The suspension springs and shock absorbers are modeled as elements in the rigid body formulation. To complement the vehicle dynamics for the NADS application, subsystem models that include tire forces, braking, powertrain, aerodynamics, and steering are added to the rigid body dynamics model. The models provide state-of-the-art high fidelity vehicle handling dynamics for real-time simulation.
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