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Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of Mixed-Mode HCCI/DI Combustion on a Common Rail Diesel Engine

2007-09-16
2007-24-0085
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is considered a very promising concept to achieve low NOx and Particulate Matter emissions in traditional spark ignition and Diesel engines. However, controlling the complex mechanisms which govern the combustion process and finding a proper method for the fuel introduction for Diesel HCCI engines have proven to still be a challenge. In addition, the well known IMEP limitations of HCCI combustion restrict the benefits on emissions to low engine load conditions. The current work attempts to extend the benefits of HCCI combustion to a broader range of engine operating conditions by blending the conventional Direct Injection (DI) with the external fuel atomization. A dual combustion system could potentially overcome the limits of low-load operations and allow for a gradual transition between the conventional DI mode at high load and the HCCI external mixture formation at idle and low load.
Technical Paper

Model Based Fault Diagnosis for Engine under Speed Control

2007-04-16
2007-01-0775
An appropriate fault diagnosis and Isolation (FDI) strategy is very useful to prevent system failure. In this paper, a model-based fault diagnosis strategy is developed for an internal combustion engine (ICE) under speed control. Engine throttle fault and the manifold pressure sensor fault are detected and isolated. A nonlinear observer based residual generation approach is proposed. Manifold pressure and throttle are observed. Fault codes are designed with redundancy to prevent bit error. Performance of fault diagnosis strategy has been evaluated with simulations.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Fault Diagnosis of Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine Using Nonlinear Estimations

2005-04-11
2005-01-0071
In this paper, the detection and isolation of actuator faults (both measured and commanded) occurring in the engine breathing and the fueling systems of a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine are described. The breathing system in an SIDI engine usually consists of a fresh air induction path via an electronically controlled throttle (ECT) and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) path via an EGR valve. They are dynamically coupled through the intake manifold to form a gas mixture, which eventually enters the engine cylinders for a subsequent combustion process. Meanwhile, the fueling system is equipped with a high-pressure common-rail injection for a precise control of the fuel quantity directly injected into the engine cylinders. Since the coupled system is highly nonlinear in nature, the fault diagnosis will be performed by generating residuals based on multiple nonlinear observers.
Technical Paper

The 2002 Ohio State University FutureTruck - The BuckHybrid002

2003-03-03
2003-01-1269
This year, in the third year of FutureTruck competition, the Ohio State University team has taken the challenge to convert a 2002 Ford Explorer into a more fuel efficient and environmentally friendly SUV. This goal was achieved by use of a post-transmission, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid diesel-electric drivetrain. The main power source is a 2.5-liter, 103 kW advanced CIDI engine manufactured by VM Motori. A 55 kW Ecostar AC induction electric motor provides the supplemental power. The powertrain is managed by a state of the art supervisory control system which optimizes powertrain characteristics using advanced energy management and emission control algorithms. A unique driver interface implementing advanced telematics, and an interior designed specifically to reduce weight and be more environmentally friendly add to the utility of the vehicle as well as the consumer appeal.
Technical Paper

Engine Control Using Torque Estimation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0995
In recent years, the increasing interest and requirements for improved engine diagnostics and control has led to the implementation of several different sensing and signal processing technologies. In order to optimize the performance and emission of an engine, detailed and specified knowledge of the combustion process inside the engine cylinder is required. In that sense, the torque generated by each combustion event in an IC engine is one of the most important variables related to the combustion process and engine performance. This paper introduces torque estimation techniques in the real-time basis for engine control applications using the measurement of crankshaft speed variation. The torque estimation scheme presented in this paper consists of two entirely different approaches, “Stochastic Analysis” and “Frequency Analysis”.
Technical Paper

An Application of Crabon Canister Modeling to Air Fuel Ratio Control and Idle By-Pass Control

1999-03-01
1999-01-1093
Due to the stringent emission regulations, On-Board Diagnostics II (OBD II) and the requirement of enhanced evaporative emissions test procedure, an aggressive canister purge control strategy is required for automotive vehicles. The enhanced evaporative emissions test procedure has forced car manufacturer to purge the carbon canister in the vehicle idle condition so that production vehicles meet the SHED and hot soak test requirements. This not only worsens the idle speed quality but also tends to increase exhaust emission levels. Using analytical models of evaporative air and fuel, feed-forward control strategy for both idle by-pass air and air to fuel ratio can be improved. This paper demonstrates an application of evaporative system modeling to the idle air and air to fuel ratio control.
Technical Paper

Fast Algorithm for On-Board Torque Estimation

1999-03-01
1999-01-0541
Electronic Throttle Control systems substitute the driver in commanding throttle position, with the driver acting on a potentiometer connected to the accelerator pedal. Such strategies allow precise control of air-fuel ratio and of other parameters, e.g. engine efficiency or vehicle driveability, but require detailed information about the engine operating conditions, in order to be implemented inside the Electronic Control Unit (ECU). In order to determine throttle position, an interpretation of the driver desire (revealed by the accelerator pedal position) is performed by the ECU. In our approach, such interpretation is carried out in terms of a torque request that can be appropriately addressed knowing the actual engine-vehicle operating conditions, which depend on the acting torques. Estimates of the torque due to in-cylinder pressure (indicated torque), as well as the torque required by the vehicle (load torque), must then be available to the control module.
Technical Paper

A Control-Oriented Carbon Canister Model

1999-03-01
1999-01-1103
Carbon canisters have been adapted for automobile use since the early 1970s to control evaporative emissions. Stringent emission regulations and the requirement for an enhanced evaporative emissions test procedure, make this an important issue. The air and evaporative fuel from the carbon canister therefore need important consideration with respect to air to fuel ratio (AFR) control and idle by-pass air control. Although a few complex models of the activated carbon canister have been developed, a control-oriented, simplistic carbon canister model needs to be developed. This paper explores the control-oriented modeling of a canister purge air system along with the on-line estimation of evaporative fuel loading of the activated carbon. An attempt was made at providing an analytical expression for the evaporative fuel and air entering the intake manifold.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Control for a High Performance Engine using Throttle Angle Information

1999-03-01
1999-01-1169
This paper presents the development of a model-based air/fuel ratio controller for a high performance engine that uses, in addition to other usual signals, the throttle angle to enable predictive air mass flow rate estimation. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to achieve a finer air/fuel ratio control during transients that involve sudden variations in the physical conditions inside the intake manifold, due, for example, to fast throttle opening or closing actions. The air mass flow rate toward the engine cylinders undertakes strong variation in such transients, and its correct estimation becomes critical mainly because of the time lag between its evaluation and the instant when the air actually enters the cylinders.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy Decision-Making System for Automotive Application

1998-02-23
980519
Fault diagnosis for automotive systems is driven by government regulations, vehicle repairability, and customer satisfaction. Several methods have been developed to detect and isolate faults in automotive systems, subsystems and components with special emphasis on those faults that affect the exhaust gas emission levels. Limit checks, model-based, and knowledge-based methods are applied for diagnosing malfunctions in emission control systems. Incipient and partial faults may be hard to detect when using a detection scheme that implements any of the previously mentioned methods individually; the integration of model-based and knowledge-based diagnostic methods may provide a more robust approach. In the present paper, use is made of fuzzy residual evaluation and of a fuzzy expert system to improve the performance of a fault detection method based on a mathematical model of the engine.
Technical Paper

AFR Control on a Single Cylinder Engine Using the Ionization Current

1998-02-23
980203
Over the years numerous researchers have suggested that the ionization current signal carries within it combustion relevant information. The possibility of using this signal for diagnostics and control provides motivation for continued research in this area. To be able to use the ion current signal for feedback control a reliable estimate of some combustion related parameter is necessary and therein lies the difficulty. Given the nature of the ion current signal this is not a trivial task. Fei An et al. [1] employed PCA for feature extraction and then used these feature vectors to design a neural network based classifier for the estimation of air to fuel ratio (AFR). Although the classifier predicted AFR with sufficient reliability, a major draw back was that the ion current signals used for prediction were averaged signals thus precluding a cycle to cycle estimate of AFR.
Technical Paper

Engine and Load Torque Estimation with Application to Electronic Throttle Control

1998-02-23
980795
Electronic throttle control is increasingly being considered as a viable alternative to conventional air management systems in modern spark-ignition engines. In such a scheme, driver throttle commands are interpreted by the powertrain control module together with many other inputs; rather than directly commanding throttle position, the driver is now simply requesting torque - a request that needs to be appropriately interpreted by the control module. Engine management under these conditions will require optimal control of the engine torque required by the various vehicle subsystems, ranging from HVAC, to electrical and hydraulic accessories, to the vehicle itself. In this context, the real-time estimation of engine and load torque can play a very important role, especially if this estimation can be performed using the same signals already available to the powertrain control module.
Technical Paper

Integrated Design of Control and Diagnostics for Air and Fuel Management System in SI Engines

1998-02-23
980520
The use of mathematical models derived from physical principles is gaining more widespread acceptance for automotive control and diagnostic applications. A suitable mathematical model may reduce, though not eliminate, the need for empirical calibrations, and may help in accommodating changes in operating conditions, external disturbances, vehicle to vehicle variability, aging etc. Recent studies have shown that model based approaches for both control and diagnostic design offer a viable alternative to empirical methods for industrial applications. However, until recently, model-based control and diagnostic algorithms have been designed separately, without considering their interactions explicitly. As a consequence, the performance of these algorithms may be limited, and even deteriorated in the presence of modeling uncertainty and disturbance.
Technical Paper

Combustion Diagnostics in Methane-Fueled SI Engines Using the Spark Plug as an Ionization Probe

1997-02-24
970033
The process of incorporating the spark plug as a combustion probe, to perform misfire and knock detection, air to fuel ratio and spark timing control has been the subject of research for some time now. [3], [4]. The feasibility of the approach however depends on being able to correlate some characteristic of the ion current signal to the in cylinder combustion process. Shimaski et al. [3] and Miyata et al. [4] suggest such a relationship. The objective of this research has been to extract combustion information from the measured ion current flowing between spark plug electrodes by using various advanced signal processing methods, and to develop a methodology that will permit combustion diagnostics and possibly control based on these measurements. Tests were carried out on a single-cylinder, methane-fueled CFR engine.
Technical Paper

The Application of Fuzzy Logic to the Diagnosis of Automotive Systems

1997-02-24
970208
The evolution of the diagnostic equipment for automotive application is the direct effect of the implementation of sophisticated and high technology control systems in the new generation of passenger cars. One of the most challenging issues in automotive diagnostics is the ability to assess, to analyze, and to integrate all the information and data supplied by the vehicle's on-board computer. The data available might be in the form of fault codes or sensors and actuators voltages. Moreover, as environmental regulations get more stringent, knowledge of the concentration of different species emitted from the tailpipe during the inspection and maintenance programs can become of great importance for an integrated powertrain diagnostic system. A knowledge-based diagnostic tool is one of the approaches that can be adopted to carry out the challenging task of detecting and diagnosing faults related to the emissions control system in an automobile.
Technical Paper

IC Engine Air/Fuel Ratio Feedback Control During Cold Start

1996-02-01
961022
This paper presents a method for air/fuel ratio control using combustion pressure feedback during cold start to be used as an aid in laboratory experiments. The effects of varying air/fuel ratio during cold start are so profound that small differences in air/fuel ratio can create effects that will mask the effects of significant changes in other variables. The ability to control air/fuel ratio is an important aid in comprehensive emission studies during cold start. This work will facilitate future studies of cold start emissions.
Technical Paper

Integrated Powertrain Diagnostic System: Linking On- and Off-Board Diagnostic Strategies

1996-02-01
960621
A number of automotive diagnostic equipment and procedures have evolved over the last two decades, leading to two generations of on-board diagnostic requirements (OBDI and OBDII), increasing the number of components and systems to be monitored by the diagnostic tools. The goal of On-Board Diagnostic is to alert the driver to the presence of a malfunction of the emission control system, and to identify the location of the problem in order to assist mechanics in properly performing repairs. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology for the development of an Integrated Powertrain Diagnostic System (EPDS) that can combine the information supplied by conventional tailpipe inspection programs with onboard diagnostics to provide fast and reliable diagnosis of malfunctions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Engine Misfire on Exhaust Emission Levels in Spark Ignition Engines

1995-02-01
950480
One of the gray areas in the implementation of regulations limiting the generation of pollutants from mobile sources is the actual effectiveness of the exhaust gas emissions control strategy in vehicles that have been in use for some time. While it is possible today to conduct limited diagnostics with the on-board engine computer by performing periodic checks to verify the validity of the signals measured by the on-board sensors, and to measure tailpipe emissions during routine inspection and maintenance, the task of correlating these measurements with each other to provide an on-line, accurate diagnosis of critical malfunctions has thus far proven to be a very challenging task, especially in the case of misfire.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Ceramic CO Sensor in the Automotive Exhaust System

1995-02-01
950478
A prototype CO sensor based on anatase TiO2 was fabricated and tested in a Ford V6 engine. Fuel combustion was programmed to be near stoichiometric conditions, and emissions were monitored with an FT-IR analytical instrument. The sensor, positioned near the oxygen sensor in the exhaust manifold, was successfully tested for 50 cycles of revving and idling, and was observed to respond quickly and reproducibly. The sensor response was correlated to the CO concentration at specific engine temperatures and was found to vary systematically with increasing concentrations. This sensor has promising potentials to monitor the efficiency of the catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Feedback Control During Cold-Start

1995-02-01
950842
Legislation pertaining to automobile emissions has caused an increased focus on the cold-start performance of internal combustion engines. Of particular concern is the period of time before all available sensors become active. Present engine control strategies must rely on methods other than feedback control while these sensors are not active. Without feedback control during this critical period, engine emissions performance is not optimized. These conditions cause difficulty in performing comprehensive cold-start experiments. For these reasons, we have developed several methods for feedback control during cold-start to aid in laboratory investigations of engine emissions phenomena.
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