Refine Your Search



Search Results

Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effects of Engine Size and Rotation Speed on Diesel Combustion based on Similarity Rules

This paper presents a study on the effects of the engine size and rotation speed on diesel combustion characteristics and engine performance of two differently sized diesel engines (85 mm and 135 mm bores). For simplification of the evaluation, the experimental conditions were set based on the similarity rules proposed by Chikahisa. The combustion characteristics and the indicated thermal efficiencies were compared for the small and the large engines at the same engine speed. To examine the effects of the velocities of the in-cylinder gas and the fuel spray on the combustion and the thermal efficiency, the engine speed was changed in the small engine, while maintaining a non-dimensional engine speed.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Lean Homogeneous Combustion Engine System with a Fuel Reformer Cylinder

The Dual-Fuel (DF) combustion is a promising technology for efficient, low NOx and low exhaust particulate matter (PM) engine operation. To achieve equivalent performance to a DF engine with only the use of conventional liquid fuel, this study proposes the implementation of an on-board fuel reformation process by piston compression. For concept verification, DF combustion tests with representative reformed gas components were conducted. Based on the results, the controllability of the reformed gas composition by variations in the operating conditions of the reformer cylinder were discussed.
Technical Paper

Thermal Efficiency Improvements with Split Primary Fuel Injections in Semi-Premixed Diesel Combustion with Multi-Peak Shaped Heat Release

To improve the combustion characteristics in semi-premixed diesel combustion, consisting in the first-stage premixed combustion of the primary fuel injection and the second-stage spray combustion of the secondary injection, the effect of splitting the primary injection was investigated in a diesel engine and analyzed with a CFD. The indicated thermal efficiency improves due to reductions in heat transfer losses to the in-cylinder wall and the combustion noise is suppressed with the split primary injections. The CFD analysis showed that the reduction in heat transfer loss with the split primary injections is due to a decrease in the combustion quantity near the combustion chamber wall.
Technical Paper

Thermal Efficiency Improvement and its Mechanism at Low Load Conditions in Semi-Premixed Diesel Combustion with Twin Peak Shaped Heat Release

Semi-premixed diesel combustion with a twin peak shaped heat release with the two-stage fuel injection (twin combustion) has the potential to establish efficient, low emission, and low noise operation. However, with twin combustion at low loads the indicated thermal efficiencies are poorer than at medium loads due to the lower combustion efficiencies. In this report, to increase the combustion efficiencies at low loads, the thermal efficiency related parameters were investigated in a 0.55 L single cylinder diesel engine. The results show that the indicated thermal efficiency improves with increases in the intake gas temperatures at low loads. However, at the higher loads where the combustion efficiencies are somewhat higher the indicated thermal efficiencies decrease with increases in the intake gas temperatures due to increases in the cooling losses.
Journal Article

Chemical Reaction Processes of Fuel Reformation by Diesel Engine Piston Compression of Rich Homogeneous Air-Fuel Mixture

To extend the operational range of premixed diesel combustion, fuel reformation by piston induced compression of rich homogeneous air-fuel mixtures was conducted in this study. Reformed gas compositions and chemical processes were first simulated with the chemistry dynamics simulation, CHEMKIN Pro, by changing the intake oxygen content, intake air temperature, and compression ratio. A single cylinder diesel engine was utilized to verify the simulation results. With the simulation and experiments, the characteristics of the reformed gas with respect to the reformer cylinder operating condition were obtained. Further, the thermal decomposition and partial oxidation reaction mechanisms of the fuel in extremely low oxygen concentrations were obtained with the characteristics of the gas production at the various reaction temperatures.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Transient DPF Pressure Drop under Cold Start Conditions in Diesel Engines

To monitor emission-related components/systems and to evaluate the presence of malfunctioning or failures that can affect emissions, current diesel engine regulations require the use of on-board diagnostics (OBD). For diesel particulate filters (DPF), the pressure drop across the DPF is monitored by the OBD as the pressure drop is approximately linear related to the soot mass deposited in a filter. However, sudden acceleration may cause a sudden decrease in DPF pressure drop under cold start conditions. This appears to be caused by water that has condensed in the exhaust pipe, but no detailed mechanism for this decrease has been established. The present study developed an experimental apparatus that reproduces rapid increases of the exhaust gas flow under cold start conditions and enables independent control of the amount of water as well as the gas flow rate supplied to the DPF.
Journal Article

Combustion Noise Reduction with High Thermal Efficiency by the Control of Multiple Fuel Injections in Premixed Diesel Engines

Premixed diesel combustion is effective for high thermal efficiency and reductions of NOx and PM emissions, but a reduction of combustion noise is necessary for medium-high load engine operation. The control of the fuel injection has become more accurate because of the technical progress of the common rail fuel injection system, and the target heat release shape, calculated by computation, can be achieved by control of EGR, boosting, fuel injection timing, and injection quantity of multiple fuel injections. In this paper, the reduction of premixed diesel combustion noise maintaining high thermal efficiency has been investigated by the control of injection timings and heating values of multiple fuel injections. There are two aspects of the combustion noise reduction by multiple fuel injections. One is the reduction of the maximum rate of pressure rise in each combustion cycle, and the other is noise reduction effects by the noise cancelling spike (NCS) combustion.
Technical Paper

Impingement and Adhesion on Cylinder Liners with Post Diesel Fuel Injections

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are widely used in diesel engines, and forced regeneration is necessary to remove particulate matter (PM) accumulating on the DPF. This may be achieved with fuel injected after the main combustion is complete, the socalled “post fuel injection”, and supplied to the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of the DPF. This increases the exhaust gas temperature in the DOC and the DPF is regenerated with the high temperature gas flow. In most cases, the post fuel injection takes place at 30-90CA ATDC, and fuel may impinge on and adhere to the cylinder liner wall in some cases. Buddie and Pischinger [1] have reported a lubricant oil dilution with the post fuel injection by engine tests and simulations, and adhering fuel is a cause of worsening fuel consumption. In this paper, the impingement and adhesion of post diesel fuel injections on the cylinder liner was investigated by an optical method with a high pressure constant volume chamber (ϕ110mm, 883cm3).
Technical Paper

Performance Improvements in a Natural Gas Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine with 250 MPa Pilot Injection of Diesel Fuel as an Ignition Source

The engine performance and the exhaust gas emissions in a dual fuel compression ignition engine with natural gas as the main fuel and a small quantity of pilot injection of diesel fuel with the ultra-high injection pressure of 250 MPa as an ignition source were investigated at 0.3 MPa and 0.8 MPa IMEP. With increasing injection pressure the unburned loss decreases and the thermal efficiency improves at both IMEP conditions. At the 0.3 MPa IMEP the THC and CO emissions are significantly reduced when maintaining the equivalence ratio of natural gas with decreasing the volumetric efficiency by intake gas throttling, but the NOx emissions increase and excessive intake gas throttling results in a decrease in the indicated thermal efficiency. Under the 250 MPa pilot injection condition simultaneous reductions in the NOx, THC, and CO emissions can be established with maintaining the equivalence ratio of natural gas by intake gas throttling.
Technical Paper

Semi-Premixed Diesel Combustion with Twin Peak Shaped Heat Release Using Two-Stage Fuel Injection

Characteristics of semi-premixed diesel combustion with a twin peak shaped heat release (twin combustion) were investigated under several in-cylinder gas conditions in a 0.55 L single cylinder diesel engine with common-rail fuel injection, super-charged, and with low pressure loop cooled EGR. The first-stage combustion fraction, the second injection timing, the intake oxygen concentration, and the intake gas pressure influence on thermal efficiency related parameters, the engine noise, and the exhaust gas emissions was systematically examined at a middle engine speed and load condition (2000 rpm, 0.7 MPa IMEP). The twin peak shaped heat release was realized with the first-stage premixed combustion with a sufficient premixing duration from the first fuel injection and with the second fuel injection taking place just after the end of the first-stage combustion.
Journal Article

Diesel Engine Combustion Noise Reduction by the Control of Timings and Heating Values in Two Stage High Temperature Heat Releases

Reductions in combustion noise are necessary in high load diesel engine operation and multiple fuel injections can achieve this with the resulting reductions in the maximum rate of pressure rise. In 2014, Dr. Fuyuto reported the phenomenon that the combustion noise produced in the first combustion can be reduced by the combustion noise of the second fuel injection, and this has been named “Noise Cancelling Spike Combustion (NCS combustion)”. To investigate more details of NCS combustion, the effects of timings and heating values of the first and second heat releases on the reduction of overall combustion noise are investigated in this paper. The engine employed in the research here is a supercharged, single cylinder DI diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system.
Journal Article

Low Temperature Premixed Diesel Combustion with Blends of Ordinary Diesel Fuel and Normal Heptane

Premixed diesel combustion blending high volatility fuels into diesel fuel were investigated in a modern diesel engine. First, various fractions of normal heptane and diesel fuel were examined to determine the influence of the blending of a highly ignitable and volatile fuel into diesel fuel. The indicated thermal efficiency improves almost linearly with increasing normal heptane fraction, particularly at advanced injection timings when the fuel is not injected directly into the piston cavity. This improvement is mainly due to decreases in the other losses, ϕother which are calculated with the following equation based on the energy balance. ηu: The combustion efficiency calculated from the exhaust gas compositions ηi: The indicated thermal efficiency ϕex: The exhaust loss calculated from the enthalpy difference between intake and exhaust gas The decreases in the other losses with normal heptane blends are due to a reduction in the unburned fuel which does not reach the gas analyzer.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Volatility on Evaporation Characteristics of Diesel Sprays in Various Low Temperature and Low Density Surrounding Conditions Like at Early Pilot or Late Post Injections

The diesel spray characteristics in early pilot and late post fuel injections in a constant volume chamber which can create the in-cylinder conditions of a diesel engine were visualized with high speed video. At the early pilot and late post fuel injection, there was a longer penetration of the liquid phase fuel spray as well as slower evaporation. With normal heptane the impingement of liquid spray with early pilot and post fuel injections can be avoided due to a faster evaporation. The penetration of liquid phase fuel spray increases significantly at low IMEP and late post injection conditions with diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Combustion and Emissions in a Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine with Natural Gas as the Main Fuel

Dual fuel combustion with premixed natural gas as the main fuel and diesel fuel as the ignition source was investigated in a 0.83 L, single cylinder, DI diesel engine. At low loads, increasing the equivalence ratio of natural gas to around 0.5 with intake throttling makes it possible to reduce the THC and CO emissions as well as to improve the thermal efficiency. At high loads, increasing the boost pressure moderates the combustion, but increases the THC and CO emissions, resulting in deterioration of the thermal efficiency. The EGR is essential to suppress the rapid combustion. As misfiring occurs with a compression ratio of 14.5 and there is excessively rapid combustion with 18.5 compression ratio, 16.5 is a suitable compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Heat Release Shape and the Connecting Rod Crank Radius Ratio for Low Engine Noise and High Thermal Efficiency of Premixed Diesel Engine Combustion

Premixed diesel combustion offers the potential of high thermal efficiency and low emissions, however, because the rapid rate of pressure rise and short combustion durations are often associated with low temperature combustion processes, noise is also an issue. The reduction of combustion noise is a technical matter that needs separate attention. Engine noise research has been conducted experimentally with a premixed diesel engine and techniques for engine noise simulation have been developed. The engine employed in the research here is a supercharged, single cylinder DI diesel research engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. In the experiments, the engine was operated at 1600 rpm and 2000 rpm, the engine noise was sampled by two microphones, and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer.
Journal Article

Molecular Structure of Hydrocarbons and Auto-Ignition Characteristics of HCCI Engines

The chemical composition of marketed gasoline varies depending on the crude oil, refinery processes of oil refineries, and season. The combustion characteristics of HCCI engines are very sensitive to the fuel composition, and a fuel standard for HCCI is needed for HCCI vehicles to be commercially viable. In this paper, the effects of the structure of the fuel components on auto-ignition characteristics and HCCI engine performance were investigated. The engine employed in the experiments is a research, single cylinder HCCI engine with a compression ratio of 14.7. The intake manifold was equipped with a heater attachment allowing control of the intake air temperature up to 150 °C at 2000 rpm. Thirteen kinds of hydrocarbons, 4 kinds of paraffins, 3kinds of naphthenes, and 6 kinds of aromatics, were chosen for the investigation, and 20vol% of each of the pure hydrocarbons was blended with the 80 vol% of PFR50 fuel.
Technical Paper

Visualization Analysis of Diesel Combustion with Water and Diesel Fuel Emulsified Blend in a Constant Volume Chamber Vessel

Diesel-like combustion of an emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel in a constant volume chamber vessel was visualized with high speed color video, further analyzing with a 2-D two color method and shadowgraph images. When the temperature at the fuel injection is 900 K, here while the combustion with unblended diesel fuel in the vessel is similar to ordinary diesel combustion with diffusive combustion, combustion with the emulsified fuel is similar to premixed diesel combustion with a large premixed combustion and very little diffusive combustion. With the emulsified fuel the flame luminosity and temperature are lower, the luminous flame and high temperature regions are smaller, and the duration of the luminous flame is shorter than with diesel fuel. This is due to promotion of premixing with increases in the ignition delay and decreases in the combustion temperature with the water vaporization.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Diesel Combustion with Premixed Ethanol as the Main Fuel

Dual fuel combustion with premixed ethanol as the main fuel and direct injection of diesel fuel as an ignition source poses problems including large unburned emissions and excessively rapid combustion. In this report the influence of compression ratios, injection timings of diesel fuel, and intake oxygen concentrations was systematically investigated in a modern diesel engine. The combustion process was classified into three stages: the first rapid combustion of diesel fuel and the ethanol mixture entrained into the diesel fuel spray; the second mild combustion with flame propagation of the ethanol mixture; and the third rapid combustion with auto-ignition of the unburned ethanol mixture without knocking. The third stage combustion occurs occasionally at several operating conditions and has been termed as PREMIER (premixed mixture ignition in the end-gas region) combustion.
Technical Paper

Combustion Noise Analysis of Premixed Diesel Engine by Engine Tests and Simulations

When fuel is vaporized and mixed well with air in the cylinder of premixed diesel engines, the mixture auto-ignites in one burst resulting in strong combustion noise, and combustion noise reduction is necessary to achieve high load premixed diesel engine operation. In this paper, an engine noise analysis was conducted by engine tests and simulations. The engine employed in the experiments was a supercharged single cylinder DI diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The engine noise was sampled by two microphones and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer. The engine was equipped with a pressure transducer and the combustion noise was calculated from the power spectrum of the FFT analysis of the in-cylinder pressure wave data from the cross power spectrum of the sound pressure of the engine noise.
Journal Article

Influence of Fuel Properties on Operational Range and Thermal Efficiency of Premixed Diesel Combustion

The influence of fuel properties on the operational range and the thermal efficiency of premixed diesel combustion was evaluated with an ordinary diesel fuel, a primary reference fuel for cetane numbers, three primary reference fuels for octane numbers, and two normal heptane-toluene blend fuels in a single-cylinder DI diesel engine. The fuel injection timing was set at 25°CA BTDC and the maximum rate of pressure rise was maintained below 1.0 MPa/°CA when lowering the intake oxygen concentration by cooled EGR. With increasing octane numbers, the higher intake oxygen concentration can be used, resulting in higher indicated thermal efficiency due to a higher combustion efficiency. The best thermal efficiency at the optimum intake oxygen concentration with the ordinary diesel fuel is lower than with the primary reference fuels with the similar ignitability but higher volatility.