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Technical Paper

Analysis of the Boost System for a High Performance 2-Stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2007
A 2-stroke boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine was researched and developed at Brunel University London to achieve higher power-to-mass ratio and thermal efficiency. In the BUSDIG engine concept, the intake scavenge ports are integrated to the cylinder liner and controlled by the movement of piston top while exhaust valves are placed in the cylinder head. Systematic studies on scavenging ports, intake plenum, piston design, valve opening profiles and fuel injection strategies have been performed to investigate and optimise the scavenging performance and in-cylinder fuel/air mixing process for optimised combustion process. In order to achieve superior power performance with higher thermal efficiency, the evaluation and optimisation of the boost system for a 1.0 L 2-cylinder 2-stroke BUSDIG engine were performed in this study using one dimensional (1D) engine simulations.
Technical Paper

Combustion Visualization and Experimental Study on Multi-Point Micro-Flame Ignited (MFI) Hybrid Lean-Burn Combustion in 4-Stroke Gasoline Engines

2020-09-15
2020-01-2070
Lean-burn combustion is an effective method for increasing the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines fueled with stoichiometric fuel-air mixture, but leads to an unacceptable level of high cyclic variability before reaching ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions emitted from conventional gasoline engines. Multi-point micro-flame ignited (MFI) hybrid combustion was proposed to overcome this problem, and can be can be grouped into double-peak type, ramp type and trapezoid type with very low frequency of appearance. This research investigates the micro-flame ignition stages of double-peak type and ramp type MFI combustion captured by high speed photography. The results show that large flame is formed by the fast propagation of multi-point flame occurring in the central zone of the cylinder in the double-peak type. However, the multiple flame sites occur around the cylinder, and then gradually propagate and form a large flame accelerated by the independent small flame in the ramp type.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Diesel-Spray-Orientated Piston Bowls on Natural Gas and Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0311
Low combustion efficiency and high hydrocarbon emissions at low loads are key issues of natural gas and diesel (NG-diesel) dual fuel engines. For better engine performance, two diesel-spray-orientated (DSO) bowls were developed based on the existing diesel injector of a heavy-duty diesel engine with the purpose of placing more combustible natural gas/air mixture around the diesel spray jets. A protrusion-ring was designed at the rim of the piston bowl to enhance the in-cylinder flame propagation. Numerical simulations were conducted for a whole engine cycle at engine speed of 1200 r/min and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 0.6 MPa. Extended coherent flame model 3 zones (ECFM-3Z) combustion model with built-in soot emissions model was employed. Simulation results of the original piston bowl agreed well with the experimental data, including in-cylinder pressure and heat released rate (HRR), as well as soot and methane emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of a Split-Injection Strategy on the Atomisation Rate Using a High Pressure Gasoline DI Injector

2020-04-14
2020-01-0322
The Gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine can emit high levels of particulate matter and unburned Hydrocarbons when operating under stratified charge combustion mode. Injecting late in the compression stroke means the fuel has insufficient time to atomise and evaporate. This could cause fuel film accumulation on the piston surface and combustion liner. Locally fuel rich diffusion combustion could also result in the formation of soot particles. Employing a split-injection strategy can help tackle these issues. The first injection is initiated early in the intake stroke and could ensure a global homogeneous charge. The second injection during the compression stroke could help form a fuel-rich charge in the vicinity of the spark plug. Many studies have established the crucial role that a split-injection strategy plays in the stratified charge operation of GDI engines.
Technical Paper

Effects of Direct Injection Timing and Air Dilution on the Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Stratified Flame Ignited (SFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke PFI/DI Gasoline Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-1139
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion can effectively improve the thermal efficiency of conventional spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines, due to shortened combustion processes caused by multi-point auto-ignition. However, its commercial application is limited by the difficulties in controlling ignition timing and violent heat release process at high loads. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion, a concept in which rich mixture around spark plug is consumed by flame propagation after spark ignition and the unburned lean mixture closing to cylinder wall auto-ignites in the increasing in-cylinder temperature during flame propagation, was proposed to overcome these challenges.
Technical Paper

Expansion of external EGR effective region and influence of dilution on boosted operation of a downsized turbocharged GDI engine

2019-12-19
2019-01-2252
Engine downsizing is an effective technology to lower automotive CO2 emissions. However, the high load low speed regions are plagued with knocking combustion that are usually overcome by retarding the ignition. This interferes with the efficiency gains due to very late combustion. This paper reports the use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on a Ford Ecoboost 1l downsized gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engine to improve efficiency by optimising combustion phasing unlocked by the improved knock resistance with EGR dilution. Further ignition system upgrades are tested for impact towards further efficiency improvements. 75mJ (standard) and 120mJ (high energy) ignition systems were compared. The experimental results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) can be improved by 5.6% with EGR dilution at 25%. When considering combined effects of EGR and high energy ignition upon engine fuel economy, the BSFC gain improves to 7.9%.
Technical Paper

Study on Flame Characteristics under Conditions of Stratified Flame Ignition Hybrid Combustion

2019-12-19
2019-01-2316
In Spark Ignition (SI)-Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) hybrid combustion, the in-cylinder temperature and total mass of dilution charge are usually increased compared to the traditional SI engine in order to achieve and control the auto-ignition combustion, which would in turn lead to the variations of the diluted flame propagation combustion. In this study, the optical measurements were performed to understand the flame characteristics at highly diluted conditions. The results showed that the decrease of the flame propagation speed of rich mixture was less than that of lean mixture at highly diluted conditions. However, the inhomogeneous distribution of residual gas led to asymmetric development of flame propagation. The high temperature, strong dilution and rich mixture created local auto-ignition sites which were located in front of the main flame and gradually merged with the main flame.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Knock Resistance with Turbulent Jet Ignition at Different Engine Load in an Optical Engine

2019-12-19
2019-01-2151
This research was focused on the effect of pre-chamber ignition and compared the knock limit of normal spark ignition in the main chamber and pre-chamber jet ignition combustion in a spark ignition gasoline engine. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder engine with optical access. Engine was operated with stoichiometric air/fuel mixtures at 1200 rev/min and different inlet pressures of 1, 1.2, and 1.4 bar. No auxiliary fuel was injected into the pre-chamber when jet-ignition mode was used. The results show that significant knock limit extension can be realized with use of a pre-chamber ignition unit. The main differences in engine performance, heat release and combustion, knock resistance and flame propagation were compared between the pre-chamber ignition and conventional spark ignition in the main chamber by in-cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed flame chemiluminescence imaging.
Technical Paper

Integrated CFD-Experimental Methodology for the Study of a Dual Fuel Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0093
This paper deals with the experimental and numerical investigation of a 2.0 litre single cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine fuelled by natural gas and diesel oil in Dual Fuel mode. Due to the gaseous nature of the main fuel and to the high compression ratio of the diesel engine, reduced emissions can be obtained. An experimental study has been carried out at three different load level (25%, 50% and 75% of full engine load). Basing on experimental data, the authors recreated a 45° mesh sector of the engine cylinder and performed CFD simulations for the cases at 50% and 75% load levels. Numerical simulations were carried out on the 3D code Ansys FORTE. The aim of this work is to study combustion phenomena and, in particular, the interaction between natural gas and diesel oil, respectively represented by methane and n-dodecane. A reduced kinetic scheme for methane auto-ignition was implemented while for n-dodecane two set of reactions were utilised.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of Gasoline Auxiliary Fueled Turbulent Jet Igniter at Different Speeds in Single Cylinder Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0105
Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) is a pre-chamber ignition system for an otherwise standard gasoline spark ignition engine. TJI works by injecting chemically active turbulent jets to initiate combustion in a premixed fuel/air mixture. The main advantage of TJI is its ability to ignite and burn, completely, very lean fuel/air mixtures in the main chamber charge. This occurs with a very fast burn rate due to the widely distributed ignition sites that consume the main charge rapidly. Rapid combustion of lean mixtures leads to lower exhaust emissions due to more complete combustion at a lower temperature. For this research, the effectiveness of the Mahle TJI system on combustion stability, lean limit and emissions in a single cylinder spark engine fueled with gasoline at different speeds was investigated. The combustion and heat release process was analyzed and the exhaust emissions were measured.
Technical Paper

The Application of Controlled Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engines -The Challenges and Solutions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0949
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to simultaneously reduce the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emissions of gasoline engines. However, narrow operating region in loads and speeds is one of the challenges for the commercial application of CAI combustion to gasoline engines. Therefore, the extension of loads and speeds is an important prerequisite for the commercial application of CAI combustion. The effect of intake charge boosting, charge stratification and spark-assisted ignition on the operating range in CAI mode was reviewed. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion is one form to achieve CAI combustion under the conditions of highly diluted mixture caused by the flame in the stratified mixture with the help of spark plug.
Technical Paper

Dilution Boundary Expansion Mechanism of SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion Based on Micro Flame Ignition Strategy

2019-04-02
2019-01-0954
In decade years, Spark Ignition-Controlled Auto Ignition (SI-CAI) hybrid combustion, also called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) has shown its high-efficiency and low emissions advantages. However, high dilution causes the problem of unstable initial ignition and flame propagation, which leads to high cyclic variation of heat release and IMEP. The instability of SI-CAI hybrid combustion limits its dilution degree and its ability to improve the thermal efficiency. In order to solve instability problems and expand the dilution boundary of hybrid combustion, micro flame ignition (MFI) strategy is applied in gasoline hybrid combustion engines. Small amount of Dimethyl Ether (DME) chosen as the ignition fuel is injected into cylinder to form micro flame kernel, which can stabilize the ignition combustion process.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Stoichiometric Stratified Flame Ignited (SFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke PFI/DI Gasoline Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0960
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), can improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. However, the difficulty in combustion phasing control and violent combustion at high loads limit the commercial application of CAI combustion. To overcome these problems, stratified mixture, which is rich around the central spark plug and lean around the cylinder wall, is formed through port fuel injection and direct injection of gasoline. In this condition, rich mixture is consumed by flame propagation after spark ignition, while the unburned lean mixture auto-ignites due to the increased in-cylinder temperature during flame propagation, i.e., stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Intake Pressure and Split Injection on Lean Combustion Characteristics of a Poppet-Valve Two-Stroke Direct Injection Gasoline Engine at High Loads

2018-09-10
2018-01-1723
Poppet-valve two-stroke gasoline engines can increase the specific power of their four-stroke counterparts with the same displacement and hence decrease fuel consumption. However, knock may occur at high loads. Therefore, the combustion with stratified lean mixture was proposed to decrease knock tendency and improve combustion stability in a poppet-valve two-stroke direct injection gasoline engine. The effect of intake pressure and split injection on fuel distribution, combustion and knock intensity in lean mixture conditions at high loads was simulated with a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic software. Simulation results show that with the increase of intake pressure, the average fuel-air equivalent ratio in the cylinder decreases when the second injection ratio was fixed at 70% at a given amount of fuel in a cycle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of advanced valve timing strategies for efficient spark ignition ethanol operation

2018-09-03
2018-36-0147
Biofuels for internal combustion engines have been explored worldwide to reduce fossil fuel usage and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, increased spark ignition (SI) engine part load efficiency has been demanded by recent emission legislation for the same purposes. Considering theses aspects, this study investigates the use of non-conventional valve timing strategies in a 0.35 L four valve single cylinder test engine operating with anhydrous ethanol. The engine was equipped with a fully variable valve train system enabling independent valve timing and lift control. Conventional spark ignition operation with throttle load control (tSI) was tested as baseline. A second valve strategy using dethrottling via early intake valve closure (EIVC) was tested to access the possible pumping loss reduction. Two other strategies, negative valve overlap (NVO) and exhaust rebreathing (ER), were investigated as hot residual gas trapping strategies using EIVC as dethrottling technique.
Technical Paper

Study of Exhaust Re-Breathing Application on a DI SI Engine at Partial Load Operation

2018-09-03
2018-36-0129
Using Exhaust Gas Recycling (EGR) on internal combustion engines enables the reduction of emissions with a low or even no cost to the engine efficiency at part-load operation. The charge dilution with EGR can even increase the engine efficiency due to de-throttling and reduction of part load pumping losses. This experimental study proposed the use of late exhaust valve closure (LEVC) to achieve internal EGR (increased residual gas trapping). A naturally aspirated single cylinder direct injection spark ignition engine equipped with four electro-hydraulic actuated valves that enabled full valve timing and lift variation. Eight levels of positive valve overlap (PVO) with LEVC were used at the constant load of 6.0 bar IMEP and the speed of 1500 rpm. The results have shown that later exhaust valve closure (EVC) required greater intake pressures to maintain the engine load due to the higher burned gases content. Hence, lower pumping losses and thus higher indicated efficiency were obtained.
Technical Paper

Exploring the NOx Reduction Potential of Miller Cycle and EGR on a HD Diesel Engine Operating at Full Load

2018-04-03
2018-01-0243
The reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines requires the development of more advanced combustion and control technologies to minimize the total cost of ownership (TCO), which includes both the diesel fuel consumption and the aqueous urea solution used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system. This drives an increased need for highly efficient and clean internal combustion engines. One promising combustion strategy that can curb NOx emissions with a low fuel consumption penalty is to simultaneously reduce the in-cylinder gas temperature and pressure. This can be achieved with Miller cycle and by lowering the in-cylinder oxygen concentration via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combination of Miller cycle and EGR can enable a low TCO by minimizing both the diesel fuel and urea consumptions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of the Direct Injection Dimethyl Ether Enabled Micro-Flame Ignited (MFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1247
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to improve gasoline engines’ efficiency and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. Two of the primary obstacles for applying CAI combustion are the control of combustion phasing and the maximum heat release rate. To solve these problems, dimethyl ether (DME) was directly injected into the cylinder to generate multi-point micro-flame through compression in order to manage the entire heat release of gasoline in the cylinder through port fuel injection, which is known as micro-flame ignited (MFI) hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Study of Flame Speed and Knocking Combustion of Gasoline, Ethanol and Hydrous Ethanol (10% Water) at Different Air/Fuel Ratios with Port-Fuel Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-0655
In this paper, an experimental study was performed to investigate characteristics of flame propagation and knocking combustion of hydrous (10% water content) and anhydrous ethanol at different air/fuel ratios in comparison to RON95 gasoline. Experiments were conducted in a full bore overhead optical access single cylinder port-fuel injection spark-ignition engine. High speed images of total chemiluminescence and OH* emission was recorded together with the in-cylinder pressure, from which the heat release data were derived. The results show that under the stoichiometric condition anhydrous ethanol and wet ethanol with 10% water (E90W10) generated higher IMEP with at an ignition timing slightly retarded from MBT than the gasoline fuel for a fixed throttle position. Under rich and stoichiometric conditions, the knock limited spark timing occurred at 35 CA BTDC whereas both ethanol and E90W10 were free from knocking combustion at the same operating condition.
Technical Paper

Multi-Cycle Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the Cycle-to-Cycle Variation (CCV) of Spark Ignition (SI) - Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Hybrid Combustion in a Gasoline Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2261
The spark ignition (SI) - controlled auto-ignition (CAI) hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is achieved by utilizing the temperature and pressure rise from the early flame propagation induced by the spark-ignition to trigger the auto-ignition of the remaining unburned mixture. This hybrid combustion concept can be used to effectively extend the operating range of gasoline CAI combustion and achieve smooth transitions between SI and CAI combustion mode in gasoline engines. However, the significant cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of the SI-CAI hybrid combustion hinders the practical application of the hybrid combustion. In order to understand the cause of its high CCVs, the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process in a gasoline engine was studied in this study by the large eddy simulations (LES). The turbulence is modelled by the sub-grid k model. The spark ignition and subsequent flame propagation were modelled by the ECFM-3Z LES model.
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