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Technical Paper

Effect of a Split-Injection Strategy on the Atomisation Rate Using a High Pressure Gasoline DI Injector

The Gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine can emit high levels of particulate matter and unburned Hydrocarbons when operating under stratified charge combustion mode. Injecting late in the compression stroke means the fuel has insufficient time to atomise and evaporate. This could cause fuel film accumulation on the piston surface and combustion liner. Locally fuel rich diffusion combustion could also result in the formation of soot particles. Employing a split-injection strategy can help tackle these issues. The first injection is initiated early in the intake stroke and could ensure a global homogeneous charge. The second injection during the compression stroke could help form a fuel-rich charge in the vicinity of the spark plug. Many studies have established the crucial role that a split-injection strategy plays in the stratified charge operation of GDI engines.
Technical Paper

Effect of a split-injections strategy on the atomisation rate for charge stratification using a high pressure gasoline multi-hole injector

Some of the challenges of optimising the gasoline direct-injection engines are achieving high rates of atomisation and evaporation of fuel sprays for effective fuel-air mixture formation. This is especially important for the stratified charge when operating under cold-start and part-load conditions. Poorly mixed charge results in the increased production of total Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Oxides. Many studies have previously focused on improving the spray characteristics of a single fuel injection strategy from direct-injection gasoline injectors, with fuel rail pressures of up to 20MPa. The current study focuses on a split injections strategy and its influence on the spray's structure, fuel-air mixing and atomisation rates. Short pulse widths in the range of 0.3ms to 0.8ms are employed. In particular, the effects of dwell times between the two injections on the second injection's spray characteristics are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Knock Resistance with Turbulent Jet Ignition at Different Engine Load in an Optical Engine

This research was focused on the effect of pre-chamber ignition and compared the knock limit of normal spark ignition in the main chamber and pre-chamber jet ignition combustion in a spark ignition gasoline engine. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder engine with optical access. Engine was operated with stoichiometric air/fuel mixtures at 1200 rev/min and different inlet pressures of 1, 1.2, and 1.4 bar. No auxiliary fuel was injected into the pre-chamber when jet-ignition mode was used. The results show that significant knock limit extension can be realized with use of a pre-chamber ignition unit. The main differences in engine performance, heat release and combustion, knock resistance and flame propagation were compared between the pre-chamber ignition and conventional spark ignition in the main chamber by in-cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed flame chemiluminescence imaging.
Technical Paper

Integrated CFD-Experimental Methodology for the Study of a Dual Fuel Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

This paper deals with the experimental and numerical investigation of a 2.0 litre single cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine fuelled by natural gas and diesel oil in Dual Fuel mode. Due to the gaseous nature of the main fuel and to the high compression ratio of the diesel engine, reduced emissions can be obtained. An experimental study has been carried out at three different load level (25%, 50% and 75% of full engine load). Basing on experimental data, the authors recreated a 45° mesh sector of the engine cylinder and performed CFD simulations for the cases at 50% and 75% load levels. Numerical simulations were carried out on the 3D code Ansys FORTE. The aim of this work is to study combustion phenomena and, in particular, the interaction between natural gas and diesel oil, respectively represented by methane and n-dodecane. A reduced kinetic scheme for methane auto-ignition was implemented while for n-dodecane two set of reactions were utilised.
Technical Paper

Exploring the NOx Reduction Potential of Miller Cycle and EGR on a HD Diesel Engine Operating at Full Load

The reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines requires the development of more advanced combustion and control technologies to minimize the total cost of ownership (TCO), which includes both the diesel fuel consumption and the aqueous urea solution used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system. This drives an increased need for highly efficient and clean internal combustion engines. One promising combustion strategy that can curb NOx emissions with a low fuel consumption penalty is to simultaneously reduce the in-cylinder gas temperature and pressure. This can be achieved with Miller cycle and by lowering the in-cylinder oxygen concentration via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combination of Miller cycle and EGR can enable a low TCO by minimizing both the diesel fuel and urea consumptions.
Technical Paper

Engine Downsizing through Two-Stroke Operation in a Four-Valve GDI Engine

With the introduction of CO2 emissions legislation in Europe and many countries, there has been extensive research on developing high efficiency gasoline engines by means of the downsizing technology. Under this approach the engine operation is shifted towards higher load regions where pumping and friction losses have a reduced effect, so improved efficiency is achieved with smaller displacement engines. However, to ensure the same full load performance of larger engines the charge density needs to be increased, which raises concerns about abnormal combustion and excessive in-cylinder pressure. In order to overcome these drawbacks a four-valve direct injection gasoline engine was modified to operate in the two-stroke cycle. Hence, the same torque achieved in an equivalent four-stroke engine could be obtained with one half of the mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Computational Study of the Effects of Injection Timing, EGR and Swirl Ratio on a HSDI Multi-Injection Diesel Engine Emission and Performance

Reductions in fuel consumption, noise level, and pollutant emissions such as, Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM), from direct-injection (DI) diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these reductions, many technologies such as high injection pressure, multiple injection, retarded injection timing, EGR, and high swirl ratio have been used in high-efficiency DI diesel engines in order to achieve combustion and emission control. However, each technology has its own advantages and disadvantages, and there is a very strong interaction between these methods when they are simultaneously used in the engine. This study presents a computational study of both the individual effect and their interactions of injection timing, EGR and swirl ratio separately and their interaction in a HSDI common rail diesel engine using the KIVA-3V code.
Technical Paper

Diesel Soot Oxidation under Controlled Conditions

A quantitative relationship between diesel soot oxidation rate and oxidation temperature and oxygen partial pressure was investigated by burning the diesel exhaust soot particles in a controlled flat flame supplied with methane/air/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The oxidation temperature and the oxygen partial pressure were controlled in the ranges of 1530 to 1820 K and 0.01 to 0.05 atm (1atm = 1.01325 bar) respectively. Soot particle size distribution measurements were achieved with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for particle samples that were collected on copper grids at different positions along the flame centerline. Oxidation periods were determined by means of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). The experimental results showed that the experimental oxidation rates fall between the values predicted by the Nagle and Strickland-Constable formula and those by the Lee formula.