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Technical Paper

Rollover Initiation Simulations for Designing Rollover Initiation Test System (RITS)

2014-04-01
2014-01-0530
Some rollover test methods, which impose a touchdown condition on a test vehicle, have been developed to study vehicle crashworthiness and occupant protection in rollover crashes. In ground-tripped rollover crashes, speed, steering maneuver, braking, vehicle inertial and geometric properties, topographical and road design characteristics, and soil type can all affect vehicle touchdown conditions. It is presumed that while there may be numerous possible combinations of kinematic metrics (velocity components and orientation) at touchdown, there are also numerous combinations of metrics that are not likely to occur in rollover crashes. To determine a realistic set of touchdown conditions to be used in a vehicle rollover crash test, a lateral deceleration sled-based non-destructive rollover initiation test system (RITS) with a fully programmable deceleration pulse is in development.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Biofidelity of Side Impact Computational Surrogates (ES-2re, WorldSID, GHBMC)

2014-04-01
2014-01-0541
The goal of this study was to evaluate the biofidelity of the three computational surrogates (GHBMC model, WorldSID model, and the FTSS ES-2re model) under the side impact rigid wall sled test condition. The responses of the three computational surrogates were compared to those of post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) and objectively evaluated using the correlation and analysis (CORA) rating method. Among the three computational surrogates, the GHBMC model showed the best biofidelity based on the CORA rating score (GHBMC =0.65, WorldSID =0.57, FTSS ES-2re =0.58). In general, the response of the pelvis of all the models showed a good correlation with the PMHS response, while the response of the shoulder and the lower extremity did not. In terms of fracture prediction, the GHBMC model overestimated bone fracture.
Technical Paper

Optical Measurement of High-Rate Dynamic Vehicle Roof Deformation during Rollover

2013-04-08
2013-01-0470
The goals of this study were to examine the dynamic force-deformation and kinematic response of a late model van subjected to an inverted drop test and to evaluate the accuracy of three-dimensional multi-point roof deformation measurements made by an optical system mounted inside the vehicle. The inverted drop test was performed using a dynamic rollover test system (Kerrigan et al., 2011 SAE) with an initial vehicle pitch of −5 degrees, a roll of +155 degrees and a vertical velocity of 2.7 m/s at initial contact. Measurements from the optical system, which was composed of two high speed imagers and a commercial optical processing software were compared to deformation measurements made by two sets of three string potentiometers. The optical and potentiometer measurements reported similar deformations: peak resultant deformations varied by 0.7 mm and 3 ms at the top of the A-pillar, and 1.7 mm and 2 ms at the top of the B-pillar.
Technical Paper

Impact Response of Restrained PMHS in Frontal Sled Tests: Skeletal Deformation Patterns Under Seat Belt Loading

2009-11-02
2009-22-0001
This study evaluated the response of restrained post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in 40 km/h frontal sled tests. Eight male PMHS were restrained on a rigid planar seat by a custom 3-point shoulder and lap belt. A video motion tracking system measured three-dimensional trajectories of multiple skeletal sites on the torso allowing quantification of ribcage deformation. Anterior and superior displacement of the lower ribcage may have contributed to sternal fractures occurring early in the event, at displacement levels below those typically considered injurious, suggesting that fracture risk is not fully described by traditional definitions of chest deformation. The methodology presented here produced novel kinematic data that will be useful in developing biofidelic human models.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Response to Shoulder Belt Loading: Investigation of Chest Stiffness and Longitudinal Strain Pattern of Ribs

2009-04-20
2009-01-0384
Two post-mortem human subjects were subjected to dynamic, non-injurious (up to 20% chest deflection) anterior shoulder belt loading at 0.5 m/s and 0.9 m/s loading rates. The human surrogates were mounted to a stationary apparatus that supported the spine and shoulder in a configuration comparable to that achieved in a 48 km/h sled test at the time of maximum chest deformation. A hydraulically driven shoulder belt was used to load the anterior thorax which was instrumented with a load cell for measuring reaction force and uniaxial strain gages at the 4th and 8th ribs. In addition, the deformation of the chest was measured using a 16- camera Vicon 3D motion capture system. In order to investigate the chest deformation pattern and ribcage loading in greater detail, a human finite element (FE) model of the thorax was used to simulate the tests.
Technical Paper

Rear Seat Occupant Safety: Kinematics and Injury of PMHS Restrained by a Standard 3-Point Belt in Frontal Crashes

2008-11-03
2008-22-0012
Very little experimental research has focused on the kinematics, dynamics, and injuries of rear-seated occupants. This study seeks to develop a baseline response for rear-seated post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) in frontal crashes. Three PMHS sled tests were performed in a sled buck designed to represent the interior rear-seat compartment of a contemporary midsized sedan. All occupants were positioned in the right-rear passenger seat and subjected to simulated frontal crashes with an impact speed of 48 km/h. The subjects were restrained by a standard, rear seat, 3-point seat belt. The response of each subject was evaluated in terms of whole-body kinematics, dynamics, and injury. All the PMHS experienced excessive forward translation of the pelvis resulting in a backward rotation of the torso at the time of maximum forward excursion.
Technical Paper

Blood Flow and Fluid-Structure Interactions in the Human Aorta During Traumatic Rupture Conditions

2007-10-29
2007-22-0010
Traumatic aortic rupture (TAR) accounts for a significant mortality in automobile crashes. A numerical method by means of a mesh-based code coupling is employed to elucidate the injury mechanism of TAR. The aorta is modeled as a single-layered thick wall composed of two families of collagen fibers using an anisotropic strain energy function with consideration of viscoelasticity. A set of constitutive parameters is identified from experimental data of the human aorta, providing strict local convexity. An in vitro aorta model reconstructed from the Visible Human dataset is applied to the pulsatile blood flow to establish the references of mechanical quantities for physiological conditions. A series of simulations is performed using the parameterized impact pulses obtained from frontal sled tests.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Strain and Loads Measured in the Long Bones With Observed Kinematics of the Lower Limb During Vehicle-Pedestrian Impacts

2007-10-29
2007-22-0018
The purpose of this study is to determine the loads in the long bones of the lower extremities during vehicle pedestrian impact tests, and to correlate load data with observed kinematics in an effort to understand how stature and vehicle shape influence pedestrian response. In tests with a large sedan and a small multi-purpose vehicle (MPV), four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) in mid-stance gait were struck laterally at 40 km/h. Prior to the tests, each PMHS was instrumented with four uniaxial strain gages around the mid-shaft cross section of the struck-side (right) tibia and the femora bilaterally. After the tests, the non-fractured bones were harvested and subjected to three-point bending experiments. The effective elastic moduli were determined by relating the applied bending loads with the measured strains using strain gage locations, detailed bone geometry, and elastic beam theory.
Technical Paper

Whole-body Kinematic and Dynamic Response of Restrained PMHS in Frontal Sled Tests

2006-11-06
2006-22-0013
The literature contains a wide range of response data describing the biomechanics of isolated body regions. Current data for the validation of frontal anthropomorphic test devices and human body computational models lack, however, a detailed description of the whole-body response to loading with contemporary restraints in automobile crashes.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Response of Belted PMHS, the Hybrid III, and the THOR-NT Mid-Sized Male Surrogates in Low-Speed, Frontal Crashes

2006-11-06
2006-22-0009
Injury to the thorax is the predominant cause of fatalities in crash-involved automobile occupants over the age of 65, and many elderly-occupant automobile fatalities occur in crashes below compliance or consumer information test speeds. As the average age of the automotive population increases, thoracic injury prevention in lower severity crashes will play an increasingly important role in automobile safety. This study presents the results of a series of sled tests to investigate the thoracic deformation, kinematic, and injury responses of belted post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS, average age 44 years) and frontal anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in low-speed frontal crashes. Nine 29 km/h (three PMHS, three Hybrid III 50th% male ATD, three THOR-NT ATD) and three 38 km/h (one PMHS, two Hybrid III) frontal sled tests were performed to simulate an occupant seated in the right front passenger seat of a mid-sized sedan restrained with a standard (not force-limited) 3-point seatbelt.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pelvis Design on the Lateral Pelvic Impact Response of the Polar-II Pedestrian Dummy

2006-04-03
2006-01-0682
Previous studies utilizing the Polar-II pedestrian dummy have suggested the need for a more biofidelic pelvis design in order to improve the overall dummy response kinematics. The current Polar-II dummy pelvis is a rigid steel structure. A preliminary version of a modified deformable pelvis equipped with sensors for measuring internal deflection and load has been designed. The goal of this study was to assess the biofidelity of these two pelves in full-scale tests with the Polar-II dummy that mimic lateral pelvic impact tests on PMHS (post-mortem human subjects) reported in the literature. The force - time, deflection - time, and force - deflection histories were compared to new PMHS response corridors determined using a normalization technique. In all tests with both pelves, the initial response (i.e., the first 3 ms to 5 ms following initial dummy - impactor contact) appeared to be totally determined by the mechanical behavior of the flesh.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Finite Element Model for the Polar-II Upper Body

2006-04-03
2006-01-0684
The goal of this study was to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the Polar-II pedestrian dummy. An upper body model consisting of the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, and abdomen was coupled with a previously validated model of the lower limb The viscoelastic material properties of the dummy components were determined from dynamic compression tests of shoulder urethane, shoulder rubber and abdominal foam. For validation of the entire upper body, the model was compared with NHTSA response requirements for their advanced frontal dummy (Thor) including head and neck pendulum tests as well as ribcage and abdominal impact tests. In addition, the Polar-II full body FE model was subjected to simulated vehicle-pedestrian impacts that recreated published experiments. Simulated head and pelvis accelerations as well as upper body trajectories reasonably reproduced the experiment.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Head Padding in Rear Facing Child Restraints

2005-04-11
2005-01-1839
Child restraint head padding is designed for the child's comfort under normal use. Under vehicle crash conditions, however, the padding in a rear facing child restraint may not be designed to sufficiently absorb impact energy. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of various head padding conditions in rear facing child restraints in frontal impacts. Five sled tests were performed to measure the response of a CRABI 12 month dummy to different padding conditions in a rear facing child restraint. Static loading tests were performed on the padding materials. Results show that using padding of low stiffness increases head acceleration and HIC15 values.
Technical Paper

A Method for the Experimental Investigation of Acceleration as a Mechanism of Aortic Injury

2005-04-11
2005-01-0295
Rupture of the thoracic aorta is a leading cause of rapid fatality in automobile crashes, but the mechanism of this injury remains unknown. One commonly postulated mechanism is a differential motion of the aortic arch relative to the heart and its neighboring vessels caused by high-magnitude acceleration of the thorax. Recent Indy car crash data show, however, that humans can withstand accelerations exceeding 100 g with no injury to the thoracic vasculature. This paper presents a method to investigate the efficacy of acceleration as an aortic injury mechanism using high-acceleration, low chest deflection sled tests. The repeatability and predictability of the test method was evaluated using two Hybrid III tests and two tests with cadaver subjects. The cadaver tests resulted in sustained mid-spine accelerations of up to 80 g for 20 ms with peak mid-spine accelerations of up to 175 g, and maximum chest deflections lower than 11% of the total chest depth.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Response to Dynamic, Non-Impact Loading from a Hub, Distributed Belt, Diagonal Belt, and Double Diagonal Belts

2004-11-01
2004-22-0022
This paper presents thoracic response corridors developed using fifteen post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) subjected to single and double diagonal belt, distributed, and hub loading on the anterior thorax. We believe this is the first study to quantify the force-deflection response of the same thorax to different loading conditions using dynamic, non-impact, restraint-like loading. Subjects were positioned supine on a table and a hydraulic master-slave cylinder arrangement was used with a high-speed materials testing machine to provide controlled chest deflection at a rate similar to that experienced by restrained PMHS in a 48-km/h sled test. All loading conditions were tested at a nominally non-injurious level initially. When the battery of non-injurious tests was completed, a single loading condition was used for a final, injurious test (nominal 40% chest deflection).
Technical Paper

The Utility of Hybrid III and THOR Chest Deflection for Discriminating Between Standard and Force-Limiting Belt Systems

2003-10-27
2003-22-0013
Recent field data studies have shown that force-limiting belt systems reduce the occurrence of thoracic injuries in frontal crashes relative to standard (not force-limiting) belt systems. Laboratory cadaver tests have also shown reductions in trauma, as well as in chest deflection, associated with a force-limiting belt. On the other hand, tests using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) have shown trends indicating increased, decreased, or unchanged chest deflection. This paper attempts to resolve previous experimental studies by comparing the anterior-posterior and lateral chest deflections measured by the THOR and Hybrid III (H-III) dummies over a range of experimental conditions. The analysis involves nineteen 48-km/h and 57-km/h sled tests utilizing force-limiting and standard seat belt systems, both with an air bag. Tests on both the driver side and the passenger side are considered.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Belted Hybrid III, THOR, and Cadaver Thoracic Responses in Oblique Frontal and Full Frontal Sled Tests

2003-03-03
2003-01-0160
This paper compares restrained Hybrid III and THOR thoracic kinematics and cadaver injury outcome in 30° oblique frontal and in full frontal sled tests. Peak shoulder belt tension, the primary source of chest loading, changed by less than four percent and peak chest resultant acceleration changed by less than 10% over the 30° range tested. Thoracic kinematics were likewise insensitive to the direction of the collision vector, though they were markedly different between the two dummies. Mid-sternal Hybrid III chest deflection, measured by the standard sternal potentiometer and by supplemental internal string potentiometers, was slightly lower (∼10%) in the oblique tests, but the oblique tests produced a negligible increase in lateral movement of the sternum. In an attempt to understand the biofidelity of these dummy responses, a series of 30-km/h human cadaver tests having several collision vectors (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°) was analyzed.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Vehicle Seat Belt Parameters on the Injury Risk for Children in Booster Seats

2003-03-03
2003-01-0500
The correct restraint for children, age 4-10 years, is a booster seat restrained by the vehicle's seat belt system. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of misuse of the restraint system by varying initial seat belt slack and to investigate the effects of modern countermeasures, like force limiting belts and pretensioners, on the injury risk of young children. A multi-body model of a Hybrid III 6-year old dummy positioned in a booster seat and restrained by the car seat belt was developed using MADYMO and validated using sled tests. As anticipated, adding initial slack resulted in higher peak accelerations and to an increase in forces and moments in the neck, both factors increasing the injury risk significantly. The countermeasures pretensioning and force limiting prove to be useful in lowering peak values but a high risk of injury persists. A combination of pretension and force limiting provides the safest restraint for this setup.
Technical Paper

A Madymo Model of the Foot and Leg for Local Impacts

1999-10-10
99SC12
It has been reported that lower extremity injuries represent a measurable portion of all moderate-to-severe automobile crash- related injuries. Thus, a simple tool to assist with the design of leg and foot injury countermeasures is desirable. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model which can predict load propagation and kinematics of the foot and leg in frontal automotive impacts. A multi-body model developed at the University of Virginia and validated for blunt impact to the whole foot has been used as basis for the current work. This model includes representations of the tibia, fibula, talus, hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot bones. Additionally, the model provides a means for tensioning the Achilles tendon. In the current study, the simulations conducted correspond to tests performed by the Transport Research Laboratory and the University of Nottingham on knee-amputated cadaver specimens.
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