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Technical Paper

Initial Design and Refinement of a High-Efficiency Electric Drivetrain for a Zero-Emissions Snowmobile

2009-11-03
2009-32-0108
The University of Wisconsin - Madison Clean Snowmobile team has designed, constructed and now refined an electric snowmobile with 40 km (24 mi) range and acceleration comparable to a 75 kW (100 hp) internal-combustion-powered snowmobile. Starting with a Polaris IQ Fusion chassis, a direct-drive chain-case was engineered to couple a General Motors EV1 copper-bar rotor AC induction electric motor to the track drive shaft. The battery pack uses 104 28 V, 2.8 A-hr Lithium-Ion battery modules supplied by Milwaukee Tool to store 8.2 kW-hr of energy at a nominal voltage of 364 V. Power is transmitted to the electric motor via an Azure Dynamics DMOC445LLC motor controller. All of the components fit within the original sled envelope, leading to a vehicle with conventional appearance and a total mass of 313 kg (690 lb). The vehicle, dubbed the BuckEV, accelerates to 150 m (500 ft) in 6.9 seconds and has a top speed of 122 km/hr (76 mph) with a pass-by sound level of 55 dB.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Testing of a Through the Road Parallel, Hybrid-Electric, Crossover Sports Utility Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-1318
The University of Wisconsin Hybrid Vehicle Team has implemented and optimized a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, split-parallel hybrid-electric crossover vehicle for entry into the 2008 ChallengeX competition. This four year project is based on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox platform. Fuel economy, greenhouse gas impact (GHGI), acceleration, component packaging and consumer acceptability were appropriately weighted to determine powertrain component selections. Wisconsin's Equinox, nicknamed the Moovada, is a split-parallel hybrid utilizing a General Motors (GM) 110 kW 1.9L CDTi (common rail diesel turbo injection) engine coupled to an F40 6-speed manual transmission. The rear axle is powered by a SiemensVDO induction motor/gearbox power-limited to 65 kW by a 40-module (288 volts nominal) Johnson Controls Inc, nickel-metal hydride battery pack.
Technical Paper

Improving Upon Best Available Technology: A Clean Flex Fuel Snowmobile

2008-09-09
2008-32-0049
The University of Wisconsin-Madison Snowmobile Team has designed and constructed a clean, quiet, high performance snowmobile for entry in the 2008 Society of Automotive Engineers' Clean Snowmobile Challenge. Built on a 2003 cross-country touring chassis, this machine features a 750 cc fuel-injected four-stroke engine equipped with a fuel sensor which allows operation ranging from regular gasoline to an 85% blend of ethanol and gasoline (E85). The engine has been customized with a Mototron control system which allows for full engine optimization using a range of fuels from E00 to E85. Utilizing a heated oxygen sensor and a 3-way catalyst customized for this engine by W.C. Heraeus-GmbH, this sled reduces NOx, HC and CO emissions by up to 89% to an average specific mass of 0.484, 0.154, 4.94 g/kW-hr respectively. Finally, the Mototron system also allowed Wisconsin to extract another 4 kW from the Weber 750cc engine; producing 45 kW and 65 Nm of torque.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Hybrid-Electric Split-Parallel Crossover Sports Utility Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-1068
The University of Wisconsin - Madison Hybrid Vehicle Team has designed, fabricated, tested and optimized a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, split-parallel hybrid-electric crossover vehicle for entry into the 2006 Challenge X competition. This multi-year project is based on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox platform. Trade-offs in fuel economy, greenhouse gas impact (GHGI), acceleration, component packaging and consumer acceptability were weighed to establish Wisconsin's Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Wisconsin's Equinox, nicknamed the Moovada, utilizes a General Motors (GM) 110 kW 1.9 L CIDI engine coupled to GM's 6-speed F40 transmission. The rear axle is powered by a 65 kW Ballard induction motor/gearbox powered from a 44-module (317 volts nominal) Johnson Controls Inc., nickel-metal hydride hybrid battery pack. It includes a newly developed proprietary battery management algorithm which broadcasts the battery's state of charge onto the CAN network.
Technical Paper

Integration of Hybrid-Electric Strategy to Enhance Clean Snowmobile Performance

2006-11-13
2006-32-0048
The University of Wisconsin-Madison Snowmobile Team designed and constructed a hybrid-electric snowmobile for the 2005 Society of Automotive Engineers' Clean Snowmobile Challenge. Built on a 2003 cross-country touring chassis, this machine features a 784 cc fuel-injected four-stroke engine in parallel with a 48 V electric golf cart motor. The 12 kg electric motor increases powertrain torque up to 25% during acceleration and recharges the snowmobile's battery pack during steady-state operation. Air pollution from the gasoline engine is reduced to levels far below current best available technology in the snowmobile industry. The four-stroke engine's closed-loop EFI system maintains stoichiometric combustion while dual three-way catalysts reduce NOx, HC and CO emissions by up to 94% from stock. In addition to the use of three way catalysts, the fuel injection strategy has been modified to further reduce engine emissions from the levels measured in the CSC 2004 competition.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Midsize Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility

2004-10-25
2004-01-3062
The University of Wisconsin - Madison hybrid vehicle team has designed and constructed a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2003 competition. This is a multi-year project utilizing a 2002 4.0 liter Ford Explorer as the base vehicle. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs 2000 kg and includes a prototype aluminum frame. The Moolander uses a high efficiency, 1.8 liter, common rail, turbo-charged, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine supplying 85 kW of peak power and an AC induction motor that provides an additional 60 kW of peak power. The 145 kW hybrid drivetrain will out-accelerate the stock V6 powertrain while producing similar emissions and drastically reducing fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) combined driving cycle fuel economy of 16.05 km/L (37.8 mpg).
Technical Paper

Knock Behavior of a Lean-Burn, H2 and CO Enhanced, SI Gasoline Engine Concept

2004-03-08
2004-01-0975
Experiments were performed to identify the knock trends of lean hydrocarbon-air mixtures, and such mixtures enhanced with hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO). These enhanced mixtures simulated 15% and 30% of the engine's gasoline being reformed in a plasmatron fuel reformer [1]. Knock trends were determined by measuring the octane number (ON) of the primary reference fuel (mixture of isooctane and n-heptane) supplied to the engine that just produced audible knock. Experimental results show that leaner operation does not decrease the knock tendency of an engine under conditions where a fixed output torque is maintained; rather it slightly increases the octane requirement. The knock tendency does decrease with lean operation when the intake pressure is held constant, but engine torque is then reduced.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility Vehicle

2003-03-03
2003-01-1259
The University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureTruck Team has designed and built a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2002 competition. This is a two-year project with tiered goals; the base vehicle for both years is a 2002 Ford Explorer. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs approximately 2050 kg. The vehicle uses a high efficiency, 2.5 liter, turbo-charged, compression ignition common rail, direct-injection engine supplying approximately 100 kW of peak power and a AC induction motor that provides an additional 33 kW of peak power. This hybrid drivetrain is an attractive alternative to the large displacement V6 drivetrain, as it provides comparable performance with similar emissions and drastically reduced fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A Clean, Quiet, Environmentally Friendly Snowmobile

2002-10-21
2002-01-2763
In an attempt to reach a compromise between the views of environmentalists and snowmobile enthusiasts, the University of Wisconsin-Madison Clean Snowmobile Team set out to design a machine that maintains performance while decreasing air and noise pollution. After careful consideration of all possible design avenues, the decision was made to select a four-stroke power plant. In order to optimize the engine's efficiency, an engine control unit was chosen that was both capable and affordable. Engine modifications were made to allow the snowmobile's stock transmission to be used. Alterations were also made to intake, exhaust, and cooling systems to allow the engine to fit comfortably under the snowmobile's stock hood. Modifications were made to the snowmobile's chassis to accommodate the additional mass associated with the four-stroke engine. The final product is a snowmobile that minimizes environmental impact but still has the appearance and performance necessary to satisfy consumers.
Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility Vehicle

2002-03-04
2002-01-1211
The University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureTruck Team has designed and built a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2001 competition. The base vehicle is a 2000 Chevrolet Suburban. Our FutureTruck is nicknamed the “Moollennium” and weighs approximately 2427 kg. The vehicle uses a high efficiency, 2.5 liter, turbo-charged, compression ignition common rail, direct-injection engine supplying approximately 104 kW of peak power and a three phase AC induction motor that provides an additional 68.5 kW of peak power. This hybrid drivetrain is an attractive alternative to the large displacement V8 drivetrain, as it provides comparable performance with lower emissions and fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) urban driving cycle fuel economy of 11.24 km/L (26.43 mpg) with California Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) emissions levels.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Aluminum Intensive Vehicle

2000-03-06
2000-01-0593
The University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureCar Team has designed and built a lightweight, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric vehicle for entry into the 1999 FutureCar Challenge. The base vehicle is a 1994 Mercury Sable Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV), nicknamed the “Aluminum Cow,” weighing 1275 kg. The vehicle utilizes a high efficiency, Ford 1.8 liter, turbo-charged, direct-injection compression ignition engine. The goal is to achieve a combined FTP cycle fuel economy of 23.9 km/L (56 mpg) with California ULEV emissions levels while maintaining the full passenger/cargo room, appearance, and feel of a full-size car. Strategies to reduce the overall vehicle weight are discussed in detail. Dynamometer and experimental testing is used to verify performance gains.
Technical Paper

The Development of the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Aluminum Intensive Vehicle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0613
For competition in the 1998 FutureCar Challenge (FCC98), the University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureCar Team has designed and built a lightweight, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid electric vehicle by modifying a 1994 Mercury Sable Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV), nicknamed the Aluminum Cow. The Wisconsin team is striving for a combined, FTP cycle gasoline-equivalent fuel economy of 21.3 km/L (50 mpg) and Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) federal emissions levels while maintaining the full passenger/cargo room, appearance, and feel of a full-size car. To reach these goals, Wisconsin has concentrated on reducing the overall vehicle weight. In addition to customizing the drivetrain, the team has developed a vehicle control strategy that both aims to achieve these goals and also allows for the completion of a reliable hybrid in a short period of time.
Technical Paper

Design of a Charge Regulating, Parallel Hybrid Electric FutureCar

1998-02-23
980488
Students, as members of Team Paradigm, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have designed a charge regulating, parallel hybrid electric Dodge Intrepid for the 1997 FutureCar Challenge (FCC97). The goals for the Wisconsin “FutureCow” are to achieve an equivalent fuel consumption of 26 km/L (62 mpg) and Tier 2 Federal Emissions levels while maintaining the full passenger/cargo room, appearance, and feel of a stock Intrepid. These goals are realized through drivetrain simulations, a refined vehicle control strategy, decreased engine emissions, and aggressive weight reduction. The vehicle development has been coupled with 8,000 km of reliability and performance testing to ensure Wisconsin will be a strong competitor at the FCC97.
Technical Paper

Cylinder-Averaged Histories of Nitrogen Oxide in a D.I. Diesel with Simulated Turbocharging

1994-10-01
942046
An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct injection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine run conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERC modified KIVA-II computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Split Injection on Soot and NOx Production in an Engine-Fed Combustion Chamber

1993-10-01
932655
This research focused on the effects of split injection on combustion in a diesel environment. It was done in a specially designed engine-fed combustion chamber (swirl ratio of 5) with full field optical access through a quartz window. The simulated engine combustion chamber used a special backwards spraying injector (105°). The electronically controlled injector could control the size and position of it's, two injections. Both injections were through the same nozzle and it produced very rapid injections (1.5 ms) with a maximum injection pressure of 130 MPa. Experimental data included: rate of injection, injector pressure, combustion chamber dumping (NO & NOx concentrations), flame temperature, KL factor (soot concentration) combustion pressure, and rate of pressure rise. Injection rates indicate that the UCORS injection system creates very rapid injections with the ability to produce controllable split injections.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Split Injection on Fuel Distribution in an Engine-Fed Combustion Chamber

1993-03-01
930864
This research focused on the effects of split injection on fuel spray behavior in a diesel environment. It was done in a special designed engine-fed combustion chamber (swirl ratio of 5) with full field optical access through a quartz window. The simulated engine combustion chamber used a special backwards spraying injector (105°). The electronically controlled injector could control the size and position of it's two injections. Both injections were through the same nozzle and it produced very rapid injections (1.5 ms) with a maximum injection pressure of 130 MPa. Experimental data included: rate of injection, injector pressure, spray plume images, tip penetration, liquid and vapor fuel distributions, combustion pressure, and rate of pressure rise. From 105° forward scatter images, tip penetration was observed to be very rapid and reached a plateau at 25 mm.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Bosch and Zuech Rate of Injection Meters

1991-02-01
910724
This paper will discuss the fundamentals of the Bosch rate of injection meter which has been the standard measurement tool for the last 25 years and a newly developed tool which uses the Zuech constant volume technique. A fundamental and experimental comparison is presented. Using a high pressure accumulator type injector, each of the injection systems produced almost identical injection rate shapes. The integrated values of these traces (injection quantity) were within a few percent of the physically measured quantities.
Technical Paper

Data from a Variable Rate Shape High Pressure Injection System Operating in an Engine Fed Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

1990-10-01
902082
In current systems, for a given nozzle and injection pressure (pump speed), the shape of the injection rate is fixed and the injection timing is the only variable the engine designer can vary. For this non-interactive injection system, changing the injector nozzle (number and diameter of holes) will proportionately change the injection shape. New injection systems in which the rate of injection is a controlled variable are being developed. Results from one such injector, called the UCORS (Universal Combustion Optimization and Rate Shaping), are reported in this paper. The system can dynamically control its injection rate shape by controlling the position and size of a pilot injection relative to the main injection. Data and analysis from an out-of-engine and combustion chamber study of the UCORS injection system are presented.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Characteristics of a High Pressure Injector

1989-09-01
892101
This paper will focus on the spray characteristics of a high pressure (up to 155 MPa) accumulator type injector in a high pressure (chosen density) quiescent spray chamber. The injector uses a standard single orifice nozzle which produces a full cone spray. Using this apparatus, we are examining the fundamental aspects of high pressure spray formation under controlled conditions. Experimental data was collected using high speed photography (10,000 frames per second) which used a pulsed copper-vapor laser as a light source. Two photographic techniques are being utilized. Direct attenuation allows measurement of tip penetration, spray cone angle, and injection duration. Scattering from a sheet of laser light perpendicular to the camera field of view is being developed in an attempt to resolve inner spray cone structure. In addition to the quantitative data from the high speed photography, injector accumulator pressure, supply pressure and injection rate histories were recorded.
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