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Technical Paper

Real World Performance of an Onboard Gasoline/Ethanol Separation System to Enable Knock Suppression Using an Octane-On-Demand Fuel System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0879
Higher compression ratio and turbocharging, with engine downsizing can enable significant gains in fuel economy but require engine operating conditions that cause engine knock under high load. Engine knock can be avoided by supplying higher-octane fuel under such high load conditions. This study builds on previous MIT papers investigating Octane-On-Demand (OOD) to enable a higher efficiency, higher-boost higher compression-ratio engine. The high-octane fuel for OOD can be obtained through On-Board-Separation (OBS) of alcohol blended gasoline. Fuel from the primary fuel tank filled with commercially available gasoline that contains 10% by volume ethanol (E10) is separated by an organic membrane pervaporation process that produces a 30 to 90% ethanol fuel blend for use when high octane is needed. In addition to previous work, this paper combines modeling of the OBS system with passenger car and medium-duty truck fuel consumption and octane requirements for various driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen as an Additive on Lean Limit and Emissions of a Turbo Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1886
For gasoline engine, thermal efficiency can be improved by using lean burn. However, combustion instability occurs when gasoline engine is operated on lean condition. Hydrogen has features that can be used for improving combustion stability of gasoline engine. In this paper, an experimental study of hydrogen effect on lean limit was carried out using a four-cylinder 2.0L turbo gasoline direct injection engine. The engine torque was fixed at 110Nm on 1600RPM, 2000RPM and 2400RPM. The results showed that lean limit was extended and brake thermal efficiency was improved by hydrogen addition. Especially, at lower engine speed, the large improvement of lean limit was achieved. However, improvement of brake thermal efficiency was achieved at high speed. HC and CO2 emissions were decreased and NO emissions increased with hydrogen addition. CO emissions were slightly reduced with hydrogen addition.
Technical Paper

Performance Maps of Turbocharged SI Engines with Gasoline-Ethanol Blends: Torque, Efficiency, Compression Ratio, Knock Limits, and Octane

2014-04-01
2014-01-1206
1 Downsizing and turbocharging a spark-ignited engine is becoming an important strategy in the engine industry for improving the efficiency of gasoline engines. Through boosting the air flow, the torque is increased, the engine can thus be downsized, engine friction is reduced in both absolute and relative terms, and engine efficiency is increased. However knock onset with a given octane rating fuel limits both compression ratio and boost levels. This paper explores the operating limits of a turbocharged engine, with various gasoline-ethanol blends, and the interaction between compression ratio, boost levels, and spark retard, to achieve significant increases in maximum engine mean effective pressure and efficiency.
Technical Paper

Benefits of a Higher Octane Standard Gasoline for the U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet

2014-04-01
2014-01-1961
This paper explores the benefits that would be achieved if gasoline marketers produced and offered a higher-octane gasoline to the U.S. consumer market as the standard grade. By raising octane, engine knock constraints are reduced, so that new spark-ignition engines can be designed with higher compression ratios and boost levels. Consequently, engine and vehicle efficiencies are improved thus reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet over time. The main objective of this paper is to quantify the reduction in fuel consumption and GHG emissions that would result for a given increase in octane number if new vehicles designed to use this higher-octane gasoline are deployed. GT-Power simulations and a literature review are used to determine the relative brake efficiency gain that is possible as compression ratio is increased.
Technical Paper

Effect of In-Cylinder Liquid Fuel Films on Engine-Out Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions for an SI Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1712
An experimental study was performed in a firing SI engine at conditions representative of the warmup phase of operation in which liquid gasoline films were established at various locations in the combustion chamber and the resulting impact on hydrocarbon emissions was assessed. Unique about this study was that it combined, in a firing engine environment, direct visual observation of the liquid fuel films, measurements of the temperatures these films were subjected to, and the determination from gas analyzers of burned and unburned fuel quantities exiting the combustion chamber - all with cycle-level resolution or better. A means of deducing the exhaust hydrocarbon emissions that were due to the liquid fuel films in the combustion chamber was developed. An increase in exhaust hydrocarbon emissions was always observed with liquid fuel films present in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Charge Cooling Effects on Knock Limits in SI DI Engines Using Gasoline/Ethanol Blends: Part 1-Quantifying Charge Cooling

2012-04-16
2012-01-1275
Gasoline/ethanol fuel blends have significant synergies with Spark Ignited Direct Injected (SI DI) engines. The higher latent heat of vaporization of ethanol increases charge cooling due to fuel evaporation and thus improves knock onset limits and efficiency. Realizing these benefits, however, can be challenging due to the finite time available for fuel evaporation and mixing. A methodology was developed to quantify how much in-cylinder charge cooling takes place in an engine for different gasoline/ethanol blends. Using a turbocharged SI engine with both Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and Direct Injection (DI), knock onset limits were measured for different intake air temperatures for both types of injection and five gasoline/ethanol blends. The superior charge cooling in DI compared to PFI for the same fuel resulted in pushing knock onset limits to higher in-cylinder maximum pressures. Knock onset is used as a diagnostic of charge cooling.
Journal Article

Characterizations of Deployment Rates in Automotive Technology

2012-04-16
2012-01-1057
Passenger cars in the United States continue to incorporate increasing levels of technology and features. However, deployment of technology requires substantial development and time in the automotive sector. Prior analyses indicate that deployment of technology in the automotive sector can be described by a logistic function. These analyses refer to maximum annual growth rates as high as 17% and with developmental times of 10-15 years. However, these technologies vary widely in complexity and function, and span decades in their implementation. This work applies regression with a logistic form to a wide variety of automotive features and technologies and, using secondary regression, identifies broader trends across categories and over time.
Journal Article

Charge Cooling Effects on Knock Limits in SI DI Engines Using Gasoline/Ethanol Blends: Part 2-Effective Octane Numbers

2012-04-16
2012-01-1284
Spark Ignited Direct Injection (SI DI) of fuel extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the large in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in direct injection (DI) is therefore especially advantageous due to the high heat of vaporization of ethanol. In addition to the thermal benefit due to charge cooling, ethanol blends also display superior chemical resistance to autoignition, therefore allowing the further extension of knock limits. Unlike the charge cooling benefit which is realized mostly in SI DI engines, the chemical benefit of ethanol blends exists in Port Fuel Injected (PFI) engines as well. The aim of this study is to separate and quantify the effect of fuel chemistry and charge cooling on knock. Using a turbocharged SI engine with both PFI and DI, knock limits were measured for both injection types and five gasoline-ethanol blends.
Journal Article

A Forward-Looking Stochastic Fleet Assessment Model for Analyzing the Impact of Uncertainties on Light-Duty Vehicles Fuel Use and Emissions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0647
Transport policy research seeks to predict and substantially reduce the future transport-related greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption to prevent negative climate change impacts and protect the environment. However, making such predictions is made difficult due to the uncertainties associated with the anticipated developments of the technology and fuel situation in road transportation, which determine the total fuel use and emissions of the future light-duty vehicle fleet. These include uncertainties in the performance of future vehicles, fuels' emissions, availability of alternative fuels, demand, as well as market deployment of new technologies and fuels. This paper develops a methodology that quantifies the impact of uncertainty on the U.S. transport-related fuel use and emissions by introducing a stochastic technology and fleet assessment model that takes detailed technological and demand inputs.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of SOF Effects on Deposit Characteristics of the EGR Cooler Using a PM Generator

2011-04-12
2011-01-1156
The high concentration of particulate matter (PM) in diesel exhaust gas causes significant soot deposition on the wall of EGR cooler, and reduces the heat transfer performance of the EGR cooler and the reduction rate of NOx. The deposition of PM tends to be occurred more severely with "heavy wet PM," which is more frequently at the LTC (low temperature combustion) engine. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of soluble organic fraction (SOF) on deposit characteristics of the EGR cooler. To measure reliable mean particle concentration values and surrogate SOFs, the soot generator with SOF vaporizer was used. As for two surrogate SOFs, n-dodecane and diesel lube oil, deposit mass increased when they were injected. Especially from the experiment results, it was found that the lube oil effect was more significant than the n-dodecane effect and lube oil also had a stronger effect on reduction of thermal conductivity by filling pores in deposits.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Effect on the DeNOX Efficiency Enhancement of Fresh and Aged Ag/Al2O3 HC-SCR in a Diesel Engine Exhaust

2011-04-12
2011-01-1278
HC-SCR is more convenient when compared to urea-SCR, since for HC-SCR, diesel fuel can be used as the reductant which is already available onboard the vehicle. However, the DeNOX efficiency for HC-SCR is lower than that of urea-SCR in both low and high temperature windows. In an attempt to improve the DeNOX efficiency of HC-SCR, the effect of hydrogen were evaluated for the fresh and aged catalyst over 2 wt.% Ag/Al₂O₃ using a Euro-4 diesel engine. In this engine bench test, diesel fuel as the reductant was injected directly into the exhaust gas stream and the hydrogen was supplied from a hydrogen bomb. The engine was operated at 2,500 rpm and BMEP 4 bar. The engine-out NOX was around 180 ppm-200 ppm. H₂/NOX and HC₁/NOX ratios were 5, 10, 20, and 3, 6, 9, respectively. The HC-SCR inlet exhaust gas temperatures were around 215°C, 245°C, and 275°C. The catalyst volumes used in this test were 2.5L and 5L for both fresh and aged catalysts.
Journal Article

Effects of Secondary Air Injection During Cold Start of SI Engines

2010-10-25
2010-01-2124
An experimental study was performed to develop a more fundamental understanding of the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on exhaust gas emissions and catalyst light-off characteristics during cold start of a modern SI engine. The effects of engine operating parameters and various secondary air injection strategies such as spark retardation, fuel enrichment, secondary air injection location and air flow rate were investigated to understand the mixing, heat loss, and thermal and catalytic oxidation processes associated with SAI. Time-resolved HC, CO and CO₂ concentrations were tracked from the cylinder exit to the catalytic converter outlet and converted to time-resolved mass emissions by applying an instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate model. A phenomenological model of exhaust heat transfer combined with the gas composition analysis was also developed to define the thermal and chemical energy state of the exhaust gas with SAI.
Journal Article

Coordinated Strategies for Ethanol and Flex Fuel Vehicle Deployment: A Quantitative Assessment of the Feasibility of Biofuel Targets

2010-04-12
2010-01-0735
The goal of this paper is to quantitatively assess the implications of congressionally mandated biofuel targets on requirements for ethanol blending, distribution, and usage in spark ignition engines in the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet. The “blend wall” is a term that refers to the maximum amount of ethanol that can be blended into the gasoline pool without exceeding the legal volumetric blend limit of 10%. Beyond the blend wall, the additional ethanol fuel must be used in higher blends of ethanol like E85. Once the blend wall is reached, the existing fleet of flex fuel vehicles (FFVs) will be required to use E85 for some percentage of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in order to achieve the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets.
Journal Article

The Underlying Physics and Chemistry behind Fuel Sensitivity

2010-04-12
2010-01-0617
Recent studies have shown that for a given RON, fuels with a higher sensitivity (RON-MON) tend to have better antiknock performance at most knock-limited conditions in modern engines. The underlying chemistry behind fuel sensitivity was therefore investigated to understand why this trend occurs. Chemical kinetic models were used to study fuels of varying sensitivities; in particular their autoignition delay times and chemical intermediates were compared. As is well known, non-sensitive fuels tend to be paraffins, while the higher sensitivity fuels tend to be olefins, aromatics, diolefins, napthenes, and alcohols. A more exact relationship between sensitivity and the fuel's chemical structure was not found to be apparent. High sensitivity fuels can have vastly different chemical structures. The results showed that the autoignition delay time (τ) behaved differently at different temperatures. At temperatures below 775 K and above 900 K, τ has a strong temperature dependence.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Active Regeneration of Soot Using Hydrogen in a Multi-Channel Catalyzed DPF

2010-04-12
2010-01-0562
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems are being used to reduce the particulate matter emissions of diesel vehicles. The DPF should be regenerated after certain driving hours or distance to eliminate soot in the filter. The most widely used method is active regeneration with oxygen at 550~650°C. Fuel penalty occurs when the exhaust gas temperature is increased. The low temperature oxidation technique is needed to reduce fuel consumption. In this study, we found that hydrogen could be used to decrease the PM oxidation temperature significantly on a catalyzed DPF (CDPF). The oxidation characteristics of PM with hydrogen supplied to CDPF were studied using a partial flow system. The partial flow system was used to control temperature and a flow rate independently. The CDPF was coated with Pt/Al₂O₃ 25g/ft₃, and a multi-channel CDPF (MC CDPF) with a square cross section of 1.65 cm width and length of 10 cm was used.
Journal Article

The Shift in Relevance of Fuel RON and MON to Knock Onset in Modern SI Engines Over the Last 70 Years

2009-11-02
2009-01-2622
Since the advent of the spark ignition engine, the maximum engine efficiency has been knock limited. Knock is a phenomena caused by the rapid autoignition of fuel/air mixture (endgas) ahead of the flame front. The propensity of a fuel to autoignite corresponds to its autoignition chemistry at the local endgas temperature and pressure. Since a fuel blend consists of many components, its autoignition chemistry is very complex. The octane index (OI) simplifies this complex autoignition chemistry by comparing a fuel to a Primary Reference Fuel (PRF), a binary blend of iso-octane and n-heptane. As more iso-octane is added into the blend, the PRF is less likely to autoignite. The OI of a fuel is defined as the volumetric percentage of iso-octane in the PRF blend that exhibits similar knocking characteristics at the same engine conditions.
Journal Article

Trends in Performance Characteristics of Modern Automobile SI and Diesel Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1892
A prior study (Chon and Heywood, [1]) examined how the design and performance of spark-ignition engines evolved in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s. This paper carries out a similar analysis of trends in basic engine design and performance characteristics over the past decade. Available databases on engine specifications in the U.S., Europe, and Japan were used as the sources of information. Parameters analyzed were maximum torque, power, and speed; number of cylinders and engine configuration, cylinder displacement, bore, stroke, compression ratio; valvetrain configuration, number of valves and their control; port or direct fuel injection; naturally-aspirated or turbocharged engine concepts; spark-ignition and diesel engines. Design features are correlated with these engine’s performance parameters, normalized by engine and cylinder displacement.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Soot Oxidation Characterization of Pt/CeO2 Catalyst with NO and O2 Using a Flow Reactor System

2009-04-20
2009-01-1475
The oxidation of soot (carbon black) which is assisted by Pt/CeO2 catalyst is studied using a flow reactor system simulating the condition of diesel exhaust. In this study, the temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) scheme is mainly used for different NO and O2 concentrations and soot oxidation rate is evaluated by monitoring both CO and CO2 concentrations. Pt/CeO2 catalyst lowers the temperature of the peak CO/CO2 concentrations significantly when there is either NO or O2. Oxidation starts at 200°C and the peak CO2 concentration is observed at 360°C, which depends on the amount of catalyst and NO concentration. The effect of catalyst on NO2 recycling is also investigated. For this purpose, two different types of sample have been prepared. For the mixed case, 10mg of carbon black is mixed with 50mg of Pt/CeO2 catalyst under conditions of loose contact. For the unmixed case, the catalyst layer is placed on top of soot layer without mixing.
Journal Article

Fuel Economy Benefits and Aftertreatment Requirements of a Naturally Aspirated HCCI-SI Engine System

2008-10-06
2008-01-2512
This vehicle simulation study estimates the fuel economy benefits of an HCCI engine system and assesses the NOx, HC and CO aftertreatment performance required for compliance with emissions regulations on U.S. and European regulatory driving cycles. The four driving cycles considered are the New European Driving Cycle, EPA City Driving Cycle, EPA Highway Driving Cycle, and US06 Driving Cycle. For each driving cycle, the following influences on vehicle fuel economy were examined: power-to-weight ratio, HCCI combustion mode operating range, driving cycle characteristics, requirements for transitions out of HCCI mode when engine speeds and loads are within the HCCI operating range, fuel consumption and emissions penalties for transitions into and out of HCCI mode, aftertreatment system performance and tailpipe emissions regulations.
Technical Paper

The Relevance of Fuel RON and MON to Knock Onset in Modern SI Engines

2008-10-06
2008-01-2414
The Octane Index (OI) relates a fuel's knocking characteristics to a Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) that exhibits similar knocking characteristics at the same engine conditions. However, since the OI varies substantially with the engine operating conditions, it is typically measured at two standard conditions: the Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) tests. These tests are intended to bracket the knock-limited operating range, and the OI is taken to be a weighted average of RON and MON: OI = K MON + (1-K) RON where K is the weighing factor. When the tests were established, K was approximately 0.5. However, recent tests with modern engines have found that K is now negative, indicating that the RON and MON tests no longer bracket the knock-limited operating conditions. Experiments were performed to measure the OI of different fuels in a modern engine to better understand the role of fuel sensitivity (RON-MON) on knock limits.
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