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Journal Article

Crash Recorders in Racing - An Overview

2008-12-02
2008-01-2972
The crash recorder is an important data gathering device in motorsports. Since the introduction of crash recording in Indy Cars in 1993, the data gathered has been critical in developing improvements in race car structures and driver protection systems. This report will examine which sanctioning bodies use recorders, what type of data is gathered, and how that data is used to improve driver's safety in racing.
Journal Article

Stock Car Racing Driver Restraint – Development and Implementation of Seat Performance Specification

2008-12-02
2008-01-2974
Over the last decade large safety improvements have been made in crash protection for stock car racing drivers. It has been well established that in side and rear impacts the driver seat provides the primary source for occupant retention and restraint. With the implementation of NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) newest generation of stock car, the Car of Tomorrow (COT), into the racing schedule, the opportunity to develop and implement a universal stock car driver seat performance specification was accomplished. This paper describes the development of the Seat Performance Specification including the goals of the specification, the methodology used to develop it, a census of the existing driver seat population used in on-track competition, review of developmental dynamic specification sled tests and quasi-static tests as well as summation of the Seat Performance Specification requirements.
Technical Paper

Offset Frontal Collisions: A Review of the Literature and Analysis of UMTRI and NASS Crash Injury Data - CDC, AIS and Body Area Injuries

1995-02-01
950498
Using the CDC (SAE J224), a comparison of the NASS data and the UMTRI field accident files (UM series) indicates a similar distribution of offset frontal crashes. Offset frontal damage occurs in 56-61% of crashes, often involving more than one third of the front of the car. Lap-shoulder belted drivers sustain more AIS 2 or greater injuries when there is interior intrusion and occur more often when the offset damage is in front of the driver. However, this may well be due to the severity of the crash. European studies have no uniformity as to offset frontal collision descriptors are difficult to interpret, or to compare one to another.
Technical Paper

Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Injuries and the Lap-Shoulder Belt

1993-03-01
930640
From the authors' files, case examples of thoracolumbar injuries sustained by lap-shoulder belted front seat occupants, in frontal crashes, are presented. Additional cases were found in a review of the clinical literature. The biomechanical literature was reviewed, identifying laboratory studies on thoracolumbar spinal injuries. Suggested mechanisms in the production of these injuries in frontal type car crashes are postulated.
Technical Paper

Car Crashes and Non-Head Impact Cervical Spine Injuries in Infants and Children

1992-02-01
920562
The effects of child safety seats have been well documented in the medical literature. Scattered throughout the medical literature are individual case reports of cervical injury to children restrained in child restraint systems. A review of the literature is provided identifying previous documented cases. The authors also provide new case details of children with cervical spine injury without head contact. An overview of the growth of the infant and specific details in the cervical spine that may contribute to significant cervical injury without head impact is presented.
Technical Paper

Non-Head Impact Cervical Spine Injuries in Frontal Car Crashes to Lap-Shoulder Belted Occupants

1992-02-01
920560
Crash injury reduction via lap-shoulder belt use has been well documented. As any interior car component, lap-shoulder belts may be related to injury in certain crashes. Relatively unknown is the fact that cervical fractures or fracture-dislocations to restrained front seat occupants where, in the crash, no head contact was evidenced by both medical records and car inspection. An extensive review of the available world's literature on car crash injuries revealed more than 100 such cases. A review of the NASS 80-88 was also conducted, revealing more examples. Cases from the author's own files are also detailed.
Technical Paper

Basilar Skull Fractures Produced by Facial Impacts - Case Histories and a Review of the Literature

1988-10-01
881711
Basilar skull fractures have previously been described as the result of cranial vault impacts. Such fractures resulting from impacts to the chin, face and/or orbital areas (non-cranial vault areas) have not been adequately documented. These types of fractures and the motor vehicle incidents in which the injuries were sustained will be described according to the type of crash and vehicles involved. Data on the tolerance levels of the basilar region of the skull are sparce at best. Case histories of non-cranial vault impacts, presented in a variety of crash types, document that facial impacts can be the sole cause of basilar skull fractures. A historical review of the basilar skull fracture literature is presented.
Technical Paper

The Rear Seat Occupant from Data Analysis of Selected Clinical Case Studies

1987-02-23
870487
A review of the UM series and of NCSS, NASS, CPIR and FARS Files, as well as Michigan accident data files was undertaken, as well as a review of the NTSB “Rear Seat Study”. From these files rear seat occupany is approximately 10%, with children 6 years of age or less being 1/5th of these. About 50-60% of those in the sear seat are adults. Most of the injuries are at the lower AIS levels, with adults being more seriously injured. Of the more serious or fatal injuries, the head and face predominate by far, in all types of crashes involving unrestrainded rear seat occupants. When belts are worn there are few seriously or fatally injured rear occupants and of these, the abdominal area predominates. From available data, rear lap-belted passengers have the same MAIS level (or less) when compared to their front seat lap-shoulder belted counterparts.
Technical Paper

Review of Research on Thoracic Impact Tolerance and Injury Criteria Related to Occupant Protection

1982-02-01
820480
The technical and scientific literature dealing with thoracic injury, to or within the rib cage, from blunt loading is reviewed. The history of the development of associated Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards is reviewed from the aspect of its relationship to the history of development of the research information. Field case data from car-to-car and car-to-tree/pole crashes has been examined and summarized. This study suggests that the laboratory research has not adequately covered the principal variables found to exist in actual injury cases. Specifically, more research attention should be given to the shape of the impactor, to the loading location and direction, and to injuries in the contusion and/or laceration family. Correspondingly, the accident investigation process needs to be more sensitive to occupant/vehicle-interior interaction variables so that laboratory research can be properly guided.
Technical Paper

Anatomy, Injury Frequency, Biomechanics, and Human Tolerances

1980-02-01
800098
The purpose of this literature review was to determine areas of automotive injury information that may add to knowledge of injury type, frequency, severity, and cause. This paper is a review of the literature concentrating on the period between 1965 and present. Literature on car, van, or 1ight truck occupants has been reviewed for injury frequencies, types, and locations. Current experimental biomechanical articles are also included. A search was made for descriptions of injury frequency, restraint effectiveness, and the causes of specific injuries. Medical and engineering journals, texts, and books were reviewed. For convenience, this report is divided into sections by body region with an overview introduction on the anatomy of the specific region.
Technical Paper

Occupant Injury Assessment Criteria

1975-02-01
750914
This paper is a brief review of the complex subject of human injury mechanisms and impact tolerance. Automotive accident-related injury patterns are briefly described and the status of knowledge in the biomechanics of trauma of the head, neck, chest, abdomen and extremities is discussed.
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