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Technical Paper

Experimental Rattle Source Characterisation Using Matrix Inversion on a Reception Plate

2020-09-30
2020-01-1541
Minimizing rattle noises is becoming increasingly important for hybrid and electrical vehicles as masking from the internal combustion engine is missing and in view of the functional requirements of the office-like interiors of next generation automated vehicles. Rattle shall therefore be considered in the design phase of component systems. One hurdle is the modelling of the excitation mechanisms and its experimental validation. In this work we focus on excitation by loose parts having functional clearances such as gear systems or ball sensors in safety belt retractors. These parts are excited by relatively large low frequency displacements such as road-induced movements of the car body or low order rigid body engine vibrations generating multiple impacts with broad band frequency content. Direct measurement of the impact forces is in many cases not possible.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Capable Wind and Rolling Noise Synthesis for a More Realistic Vehicle Simulator Experience

2020-09-30
2020-01-1546
Nowadays a large proportion of the overall acoustic vehicle development takes place within virtual phases. Increasingly, projects require the auralization of virtually developed acoustics measures, e.g. from the disciplines of electro-acoustic, ride comfort, rolling noise or passive acoustic on dynamic or static driving simulators. In practice, it turns out that in addition to engine noise also a realistic reproduction of rolling and wind noise is important. In this article, approaches to synthetic rolling and wind noise generators are discussed. We developed such real-time capable sound generators that are parametrizable according to arbitrary driving conditions. Furthermore, spatial reproduction of the driving sounds is achieved for binaural headphones, as well as for other arbitrary loudspeaker setups, like often found in driving simulators. Derived models and parametrization are based on measurements and recordings from several real vehicles.
Technical Paper

3D Audio Reproduction via Headrest Equipped with Loudspeakers—Investigations on Acoustical Design Criteria

2020-09-30
2020-01-1567
This paper focuses on the analysis and evaluation of acoustical design criteria to produce a plausible 3D sound field solely via headrest with integrated loudspeakers at the driver/passenger seats in the car cabin. Existing audio systems in cars utilize several distributed loudspeakers to support passengers with sound. Such configurations suffer from individual 3D audio information at each position. Therefore, we present a convincing minimal setup focusing sound solely at the passenger’s ears. The design itself plays a critical role for the optimal reproduction and control of a sound field for a specific 3D audio application. Moreover, the design facilitates the 3D audio reproduction of common channel-based, scene-based, and object-based audio formats. In addition, 3D audio reproduction enables to represent warnings regarding monitoring of the vehicle status (e.g.: seat belts, direction indicator, open doors, luggage compartment) in spatial accordance.
Technical Paper

Seat Belt Retractor Noise Test Correlation to 2DOF Shaker Test and Real Vehicle Comfort

2018-06-13
2018-01-1507
Seatbelt retractors as important part of modern safety systems are mounted in any automotive vehicle. Their internal locking mechanism is based on mechanically sensing elements. When the vehicle is run over rough road tracks, the retractor oscillates by spatial mode shapes and its interior components are subjected to vibrations in all 6 degrees of freedoms (DOF). Functional backlash of sensing elements cause impacts with neighbouring parts and leads to weak, but persistent rattle sound, being often rated acoustically annoying in the vehicle. Current acoustic retractor bench tests use exclusively uni-directional excitations. Therefore, a silent 2 DOF test bench is developed to investigate the effect of multi-dimensional excitation on retractor acoustics, combining two slip-tables, each driven independently by a shaker. Tests on this prototype test bench show, that cross coupling between the two perpendicular directions is less than 1%, allowing to control both directions independently.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Eigenfrequencies and Eigenmodes of Seatbelt Retractors in the Vehicle Environment, Supporting an Acoustically Optimal Retractor Integration by CAE

2018-06-13
2018-01-1543
From an acoustical point of view, the integration of seatbelt retractors in a vehicle is a real challenge that has to be met early in the vehicle development process. The buzz and rattle noise of seat belt retractors is a weak yet disturbing interior noise. Street irregularities excite the wheels and this excitation is transferred via the car body to the mounting location of the retractor. Ultimately, the inertia sensor of the locking mechanism is also excited. This excitation can be amplified by structural resonances and generate a characteristic impact noise. The objective of this paper is to describe a simulation method for an early development phase that predicts the noise-relevant low frequency local modes and consequently the contact of the retractor with the mounting panel of the car body via the finite element method.
Journal Article

Comprehensive Array Measurements of In-Car Sound Field in Magnitude and Phase for Active Sound Generation and Noise Control

2014-06-30
2014-01-2046
When employing in-car active sound generation (ASG) and active noise cancellation (ANC), the accurate knowledge of the vehicle interior sound pressure distribution in magnitude as well as phase is paramount. Revisiting the ANC concept, relevant boundary conditions in spatial sound fields will be addressed. Moreover, within this study the controllability and observability requirements in case of ASG and ANC were examined in detail. This investigation focuses on sound pressure measurements using a 24 channel microphone array at different heights near the head of the driver. A shaker at the firewall and four loudspeakers of an ordinary in-car sound system have been investigated in order to compare their sound fields. Measurements have been done for different numbers of passengers, with and without a dummy head and real person on the driver seat. Transfer functions have been determined with a log-swept sine technique.
Technical Paper

Sound Optimization for Downsized Engines

2014-06-30
2014-01-2040
Today, the number of downsized engines with two or three cylinders is increasing due to an increase in fuel efficiency. However, downsized engines exhibit unbalanced interior sound in the range of their optimal engine speed, largely because of their dominant engine orders. In particular, the sound of two-cylinder engines yields half the perceived engine speed of an equivalent four-cylinder engine at the same engine speed. As a result when driving, the two-cylinder engine would be shifted to higher gears much later, diminishing the expected fuel savings. This contribution presents an active in-car sound generation system that makes a two-cylinder engine sound like the more familiar four-cylinder engine. This is done by active, load-dependent playback of signals extracted from the engine vibration through a shaker mounted on the firewall. A blind test with audio experts indicates a significant reduction of the engine speed when shifting to a higher gear.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Sound Quality of Engines with Low Cylinder Numbers

2014-06-30
2014-01-2041
Due to future directives of the European Union regarding fuel consumption and CO2 emissions the automotive industry is forced to develop new and unconventional technologies. These include for example stop-start-systems, cylinder deactivation or even reduction of the number of cylinders which however lead to unusual acoustical perceptions and customer complaints. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sound character of engines with low numbers of cylinders (2 and 3 cylinders) and also the differences to the character of the more common 4-cylinder engines. Psychoacoustic parameters are used to describe and understand the differences. Based on the gained knowledge possible potentials for improvement can be derived in the future. The used data base consists of artificial head recordings of car interior noise according to defined driving conditions measured on the AVL test track. Naturally, there are more recordings available for 4-cylinder engines than for 2- and 3-cylinder engines.
Journal Article

Improved Comfort Analysis and Drivability Assessment by the Use of an Extended Power Train Model for Automatic Transmissions

2012-06-13
2012-01-1529
The new generation of automatic transmissions is characterized by a compact and highly efficient design. By the use of a higher overall gear ratio and lightweight components combined with optimal gear set concepts it is possible to improve significantly fuel consumption and driving dynamics. Precise and efficient real time models of the whole power train including models for complex subsystems like the automatic transmission are needed to combine real hardware with virtual models on XiL test rigs. Thereby it's possible to achieve a more efficient product development process optimized towards low development costs by less needed prototypes and shorter development times by pushing front loading in the process. In this paper a new real time model for automatic transmissions including approved models for the torque converter, the lock-up clutch and the torsional damper are introduced. At the current development stage the model can be used for comfort analysis and drivability assessment.
Journal Article

Predicted Roughness Perception for Simulated Vehicle Interior Noise

2012-06-13
2012-01-1561
In the past the exterior and interior noise level of vehicles has been largely reduced to follow stricter legislation and due to the demand of the customers. As a consequence, the noise quality and no longer the noise level inside the vehicle plays a crucial role. For an economic development of new powertrains it is important to assess noise quality already in early development stages by the use of simulation. Recent progress in NVH simulation methods of powertrain and vehicle in time and frequency domain provides the basis to pre-calculated sound pressure signals at arbitrary positions in the car interior. Advanced simulation tools for elastic multi-body simulation and novel strategies to measure acoustical transfer paths are combined to achieve this goal. In order to evaluate the obtained sound impression a roughness prediction model has been developed. The proposed roughness model is a continuation of the model published by Hoeldrich and Pflueger.
Journal Article

Power Train Model Refinement Linked with Parameter Updating Through Nonlinear Optimization

2010-06-09
2010-01-1421
In the virtual development process validated simulation models are requested to accurately predict power train vibration and comfort phenomena. Conclusions from refined parameter studies enable to avoid costly tests on rigs and on the road. Thereby, an appropriate modeling approach for specific phenomena has to be chosen to ensure high quality results. But then, parameters for characterizing the dynamic properties of components are often insufficient and have to be roughly estimated in this development stage. This results in a imprecise prediction of power train resonances and in a less conclusive understanding of the considered phenomena. Conclusions for improvements remain uncertain. This paper deals with the two different aspects of model refinement and parameter updating. First an existing power train model (predecessor power train) is analyzed whether the underlying modeling approach can reproduce the physical behavior of the power train dynamics adequately.
Technical Paper

Power Train Model Characteristics for Vibration Analyses – Conflicting Demands in Off Line and HiL Environments

2009-05-19
2009-01-2072
High quality predicting of power train vibration behaviour is desired in the early design stage for efficient vehicle development. Conflicting demands arise, since precise, fast simulation models are required. High precision of the models will allow for the elimination of resonance phenomena for future products, thereby ensuring their comfort for the customers. Fast simulations are becoming increasingly important for linking test environments with virtual prototypes under development. This paper deals with different aspects in these conflicting demands for power train vibration models. First, the paper investigates real-time capable mechanical models and decided in favor of the object-oriented modeling approach “for requirements of Hardware in the Loop” (HiL). This paper takes a closer look at the advantages of the object-oriented approach, the model setup, its validation and the test results.
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