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Technical Paper

Analysis of the Correlation between Flow and Combustion Characteristics in Spark-ignited Engine

2021-04-06
2021-01-0463
As global emission standards are getting stringent, it is inevitable to increase the thermal efficiency through the high compression ratio in spark-ignited engines. Various researches are being conducted to mitigate knock caused by increased compression ratio, which requires an understanding of the combustion phenomena inside the combustion chamber. In particular, the flow is a major factor affecting the entire combustion process from the generation to propagation of flames. In the field of spark-ignited engine research, where interest in lean combustion concept and expansion of EGR supply is increasing, flow analysis is essential to secure rapid flame propagation speed and stable combustion process. In this study, the flow around the spark plug was measured by the Laser Doppler Velocimetry system, and then the correlation with combustion in the spark-ignited engine was analyzed.
Technical Paper

Development of High Efficiency Gasoline Engine with Thermal Efficiency over 42%

2017-10-08
2017-01-2229
The maximum thermal efficiency of gasoline engine has been improving and recently the maximum of 40% has been achieved. In this study, the potential of further improvement on engine thermal efficiency over 40% was investigated. The effects of engine parameters on the engine thermal efficiency were evaluated while the optimization of parameters was implemented. Parameters tested in this study were compression ratio, tumble ratio, twin spark configuration, EGR rate, In/Ex cam shaft duration and component friction. Effects of each parameter on fuel consumption reduction were discussed with experimental results. For the engine optimization, compression ratio was found to be 14, at which the best BSFC without knock and combustion phasing retardation near sweet spot area was showed. Highly diluted combustion was applied with high EGR rate up to 35% for the knock mitigation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector Nozzle Hole Geometry on Particulate Emissions in a Downsized Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0111
In this study, the effect of the nozzle tip geometry on the nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions was investigated. Various designs for the injector nozzle hole were newly developed for this study, focusing on the step hole geometry to reduce the nozzle tip wetting. The laser induced fluorescence technique was applied to evaluate the fuel wetting on the nozzle tip. A vehicle test and an emissions measurement in a Chassi-Dynamo were performed to investigate the particulate emission characteristics for injector nozzle designs. In addition, the in-cylinder combustion light signal measurement by the optical fiber sensor was conducted to observe diffusion combustion behavior during the vehicle test. Results showed that the step hole surface area is strongly related to nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions characteristics. Injectors without the step hole and with a smaller step hole geometry showed significant reduction of nozzle tip wetting and number of particulate emissions.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Turbocharger with TiAl Turbine Wheel in a Downsizing GDI Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2499
Steady and transient tests in a downsizing Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) in-line 4 cylinders 2.0 liter engine were carried out to investigate characteristics of turbocharger with Titanium aluminide (TiAl) turbine wheel. The density of TiAl material is lower than Inconel 718 (Inconel) which is raw material for conventional turbine wheel. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of light rotational inertia of turbine wheel on engine performance. Performance of TiAl turbine wheel turbocharger itself was also compared to that of Inconel turbine wheel turbocharger. Except for the turbine wheels, all experimental conditions were matched to be the same load and engine speed conditions. The compressor total-to-total pressure ratio of TiAl turbocharger was higher under part load condition due to higher turbocharger speed of TiAl turbocharger, which was led by lower rotational inertia of TiAl turbine wheel, while the engine performance was not much improved.
Technical Paper

Effect of the Multiple Injection on Stratified Combustion Characteristics in a Spray-Guided DISI Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0059
In this study, the single-cylinder engine experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of multiple injections on stratified combustion characteristics in a spray-guided direct injection spark ignition engine. The engine was operated at 1200 rpm. The total injection quantity applied was 11 mg/stroke to represent a low-load condition. Single injection and multiple injection were tested. Split ratio of each multiple strategies were 1:1 for double injection and 1:1:1 for the triple injection respectively. Dwell time between each injection was set to 200 μs. In the result of engine experiment with the single injection, indicated mean effective pressure was increased as injection timing was retarded to top dead center due to the increased effective work. However, the retardation of the injection timing was limited by the misfire occurrence resulted from the locally rich mixture generation under the high ambient pressure.
Journal Article

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Ethanol Blended Gasoline in a Spray Guided DISI Engine under Lean Stratified Operation

2010-10-25
2010-01-2152
An experimental study was performed to evaluate the effects of ethanol blending on to gasoline spray and combustion characteristics in a spray-guided direct-injection spark-ignition engine under lean stratified operation. The spray characteristics, including local homogeneity and phase distribution, were investigated by the planar laser-induced fluorescence and the planar Mie scattering method in a constant volume chamber. Therefore, the single cylinder engine was operated with pure gasoline, 85 %vol, 50 %vol and 25vol % ethanol blended with gasoline (E85, E50, E25) to investigate the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics. Ethanol was identified to have the potential of generating a more appropriate spray for internal combustion due to a higher vapor pressure at high temperature conditions. The planar laser-induced fluorescence image demonstrated that ethanol spray has a faster diffusion velocity and an enhanced local homogeneity.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Droplet Heat Transfer Using Dissolved Gases

2002-10-29
2002-01-3195
Droplet evaporation can be used to transfer large amounts of energy since heat is transferred across a thin liquid film. Spreading the drop over a larger area can enhance this heat transfer. One method of accomplishing this is to dissolve gas into the liquid. When the drop strikes the surface, a gas bubble nucleates and can grow and merge within the liquid, resulting in an increase in the droplet diameter. In this study, time and space resolved heat transfer characteristics for a single droplet striking a heated surface were experimentally investigated. The local wall heat flux and temperature measurements were provided by a novel experimental technique in which 96 individually controlled heaters were used to map the heat transfer coefficient on the surface. A high-speed digital video camera was used to simultaneously record images of the drop from below. The measurements to date indicate that significantly smaller droplet evaporation times can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Droplet Cooling Heat Transfer Model Validation

2000-10-31
2000-01-3644
Heat transfer by phase change is an attractive method of cooling since large amounts of heat can be removed with relatively small temperature differences. Droplet cooling is one method whereby very high heat transfer rates coupled with good temperature uniformity across surfaces can be provided, which is important in microelectronics where even small temperature gradients across the chip can cause component failure. When a droplet strikes a heated surface, it flattens into a splat whose thickness is much smaller than the diameter of the droplet, and high heat fluxes can be obtained due to the formation and evaporation of a thin liquid film on the heated surface. In this study, time and space resolved heat transfer characteristics for a single droplet striking a heated surface were experimentally measured, and the results are compared to a model of droplet evaporation.
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