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Technical Paper

Characterizing Spray Propagation of GDI Injectors under Crossflow Conditions

In DISI engines spray distribution and atomization directly influence mixture formation, the quality of combustion and the resulting emissions. Constant Volume Chambers (CVC) are commonly used to characterize sprays of gasoline injectors. The CVCs provide good optical access but the flow condition of the engine cannot be reproduced. Optically accessible engines in contrast deliver realistic flow conditions but have restricted optical access. In former investigations we compared the spray propagation of different injectors in constant volume chambers and in optical accessible engines. These results showed a clear difference of the spray propagation in the CVC and the engine, especially at high charge motion conditions in the engine. To find an appropriate way to investigate the impact of different charge motion a flow channel was built with adjustable crossflow velocities from 5-50 m/s. The spray propagation during the injection process was measured with high-speed shadowgraphy.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Shadowgraph Imaging, Laser-Doppler Anemometry and X-Ray Imaging for the Analysis of Near Nozzle Velocities of GDI Fuel Injectors

The fuel spray behavior in the near nozzle region of a gasoline injector is challenging to predict due to existing pressure gradients and turbulences of the internal flow and in-nozzle cavitation. Therefore, statistical parameters for spray characterization through experiments must be considered. The characterization of spray velocity fields in the near-nozzle region is of particular importance as the velocity information is crucial in understanding the hydrodynamic processes which take place further downstream during fuel atomization and mixture formation. This knowledge is needed in order to optimize injector nozzles for future requirements. In this study, the results of three experimental approaches for determination of spray velocity in the near-nozzle region are presented. Two different injector nozzle types were measured through high-speed shadowgraph imaging, Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and X-ray imaging.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Jet Fuel Surrogates in an Optical Engine

Three jet fuel surrogates were compared against their target fuels in a compression ignited optical engine under a range of start-of-injection temperatures and densities. The jet fuel surrogates are representative of petroleum-based Jet-A POSF-4658, natural gas-derived S-8 POSF-4734 and coal-derived Sasol IPK POSF-5642, and were prepared from a palette of n-dodecane, n-decane, decalin, toluene, iso-octane and iso-cetane. Optical chemiluminescence and liquid penetration length measurements as well as cylinder pressure-based combustion analyses were applied to examine fuel behavior during the injection and combustion process. HCHO* emissions obtained from broadband UV imaging were used as a marker for low temperature reactivity, while 309 nm narrow band filtered imaging was applied to identify the occurrence of OH*, autoignition and high temperature reactivity.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation in a CNG-DI Engine in Stratified Operation

In a study using a single-cylinder engine a significant potential in fuel efficiency and emission reduction was found for stratified operation of a high pressure natural gas direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine. The control of the mixture formation process appeared to be critical to ensure stable inflammation of the mixture. Therefore, optical investigations of the mixture formation were performed on a geometric equivalent, optically accessible single-cylinder engine to investigate the correlation of mixture formation and inflammability. The two optical measurement techniques infrared (IR) absorption and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were employed. Mid-wavelength IR absorption appeared to be qualified for a global visualization of natural gas injection; LIF allows to quantify the equivalence ratio inside a detection level. While LIF measurements require complex equipment, the IR setup consists merely of a black body heater and a mid-wavelength sensitive IR camera.
Technical Paper

Systematic Investigation of the Influence of Ethanol Blending on Sooting Combustion in DISI Engines Using High-Speed Imaging and LII

Modern direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine concepts have the drawback of higher particulate matter emission as compared to port fuel injection concepts. Especially, when driven with biofuels, the operation of DISI engines requires a deeper insight into particulate formation processes. In this study a modern optical accessible DISI engine is used. Pure isooctane, ethanol, E20 (20vol% of ethanol in isooctane) and E85 were investigated as fuels. Simultaneous OH*-chemiluminescence and soot radiation imaging was conducted by a high-speed camera system in order to separate premixed combustion with the sooting combustion. Furthermore, a laser-induced incandescence (LII) sensor was used to measure exhaust elementary carbon mass concentration. Systematically, operation points were chosen, which correspondent to the main sooting mechanisms, poolfire, mixture inhomogeneities and global low air-fuel ratio. Furthermore, they were compared to a homogenous charge combustion strategy.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Gasoline Spray Propagation Behaviour Characteristic for Multihole Injectors

Modern concepts of downsized DI gasoline engines set up high requirements on the injection system to meet the emission targets. The fundamental knowledge and understanding of spray propagation physics are essential for the development of nozzles and injection strategies, due to reduced displacements in combination with the continuing trend of elevated fuel pressures. A detailed analysis of micro- and macroscopic spray parameters was carried out using a multihole solenoid driven DI injector. The measurements were performed in a continuously scavenged pressure chamber with full optical access. Fuel pressure up to 38MPa and backpressures in a range from 0.03 - 0.2 MPa were varied. Optical investigations were done by Shadowgraphy imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry. The combination of micro- and macroscopic spray results are used to discuss the propagation behaviour of gasoline spray.
Technical Paper

GDi Nozzle Parameter Studies Using LES and Spray Imaging Methods

Development of in-cylinder spray targeting, plume penetration and atomization of the gasoline direct-injection (GDi) multi-hole injector is a critical component of combustion developments, especially in the context of the engine downsizing and turbo-charging trend that has been adopted in order to achieve the European target CO2, US CAFE, and concomitant stringent emissions standards. Significant R&D efforts are directed towards the optimization of injector nozzle designs in order to improve spray characteristics. Development of accurate predictive models is desired to understand the impact of nozzle design parameters as well as the underlying physical fluid dynamic mechanisms resulting in the injector spray characteristics. This publication reports Large Eddy Simulation (LES) analyses of GDi single-hole skew-angled nozzles, with β=30° skew (bend) angle and different nozzle geometries.
Technical Paper

Soot Formation of Different Diesel-Fuels Investigated by Chemical Luminescence and Laser Induced Incandescence

Differences in thermo-physical parameters of fuels have high impact on the ignition, combustion and emission. Pure rapeseed FAME and diesel fuel with a cetane number of 60 have been compared to reference fuel. In an optical accessible vessel the fuels have been injected in order to investigate the spray, the ignition and soot formation. The high cetane number fuel showed similar behavior in spray phase to the reference fuel but the FAME fuel is more present at all operating points due to low volatile fuel components. The ignition and combustion process was investigated via chemical luminescence (CL) and laser induced incandescence (LII). In engine investigations a reduced ignition delay is detected in case of high cetane-number. The more sensitive optical techniques show differences in the combustion process. The ignition behavior of the reference fuel and the increased cetane number fuel were similar until the cetane increaser of the high cetane fuel came into effect.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fuel Atomization and Evaporation of a DISI Injector Spray Under Homogeneous Charge Conditions

Understanding the causal loop from injection to combustion in modern direct injection engines is essential to improve combustion and reduce emissions. In this work, the section from injection to fuel-evaporation in this causal loop was investigated using different optical measurement techniques, with a focus on drop size measurements using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). One spray jet of a modern DISI multi-hole injector was investigated using gasoline RON 95 fuel and two single component alkane fuels (n-hexane / n-decane). In a first step the macroscopic spray formation and propagation of this spray jet were studied using a 2D-Mie-scattering technique in an optical injection chamber at homogenous charge DISI conditions. Furthermore, the droplet size distribution and mean diameter were determined spatially and temporally resolved for an ambient pressure of 0.3MPa and different ambient temperature (323K / 423K / 523K) conditions in the optical chamber using Phase Doppler Anemometry.
Technical Paper

Self-Ignition Calculation of Diesel Spray

This paper describes a computer simulation of Diesel spray formation and the locations of self-ignition nuclei. The spray is divided into small elementary volumes in which the amounts of fuel and fuel vapours, air, mean, maximum and minimum fuel droplet diameter are calculated, as well as their number. The total air-fuel and air-fuel vapour ratios are calculated for each elementary volume. The paper introduces a new criterion for determining self-ignition nuclei, based on assumptions that the strongest self-ignition probability lies in those elementary volumes containing the stoichiometric air ratio, where the fuel is evaporated or the fuel droplet diameter is equal to or lower than 0.0065 mm. The most efficient combustion in regard to consumption and emission will be in those elementary volumes containing stoichiometric air ratio, and fuel droplets with the lowest mean diameters. Measurements of injection and combustion were carried out in a transparent research engine.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fuel Effects on Spray Atomization and Evaporation Studied for a Multi-hole DISI Injector with a Late Injection Timing

The influence of fuel composition on sprays was studied in an injection chamber at DISI conditions with late injection timing. Fuels with high, mid and low volatility (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-decane) and a 3-component mixture with similar fuel properties like gasoline were investigated. The injection conditions were chosen to model suppressed or rapid evaporation. Mie scattering imaging and phase Doppler anemometry were used to investigate the liquid spray structure. A spray model was set up applying the CFD-Code OpenFOAM. The atomization was found to be different for n-decane that showed a smaller average droplet size due to viscosity dependence of injected mass. And for evaporating conditions, a stratification of the vapor components in the 3-component fuel spray was observed.
Technical Paper

Influence of the fuel quantity on the spray formation and ignition under current engine relevant conditions

Flexible and multiple injections are an important strategy to fulfill today's exhaust emission regulations. To optimize injection processes with an increasing number of adjustable parameters knowledge about the basic mechanisms of spray breakup, propagation, evaporation and ignition is mandatory. In the present investigation the focus is set on spray formation and ignition. In order to simulate current diesel-engine conditions measurements were carried out in a high-temperature (1000 K) and high-pressure (10 MPa) vessel with optical accesses. A piezo servo-hydraulic injector pressurized up to 200 MPa was used to compare four single injection durations and four multi-injection patterns in the ignition phase. All measurements were performed with CEC RF-03-06, a legislative reference fuel. For the spray measurements, a program of 16 to 18 different operating points was chosen to simulate engine conditions from cold start to full load.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Internal flow and Spray of Multihole DI Gasoline Spray using X-ray Imaging and CFD

Multi-hole DI injectors are being adopted in the advanced downsized DISI ICE powertrain in the automotive industry worldwide because of their robustness and cost-performance. Although their injector design and spray resembles those of DI diesel injectors, there are many basic but distinct differences due to different injection pressure and fuel properties, the sac design, lower L/D aspect ratios in the nozzle hole, closer spray-to-spray angle and hense interactions. This paper used Phase-Contrast X ray techniques to visualize the spray near a 3-hole DI gasoline research model injector exit and compared to the visible light visualization and the internal flow predictions using with multi-dimensional multi-phase CFD simulations. The results show that strong interactions of the vortex strings, cavitation, and turbulence in and near the nozzles make the multi-phase turbulent flow very complicated and dominate the near nozzle breakup mechanisms quite unlike those of diesel injections.
Technical Paper

Interactions of Multi-hole DI Sprays with Charge Motion and their Implications to Flexible Valve-trained Engine Performance

Advanced valvetrain coupled with Direct Injection (DI) provides an opportunity to simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and emissions. Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole injectors are being adopted as gasoline DI fuel injectors. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the performance of a turbo-charged DI gasoline engine, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valvetrain engine architecture. This paper presents Mie-scattering spray imaging results taken with an Optical Accessible Engine (OAE). OAE offers dynamic and realistic in-cylinder charge motion with direct imaging capability, and the interaction with the ethanol spray with the intake air is studied. Two types of cams which are designed for Early Intake Valve Close (EIVC) and Later Intake Valve Close (LIVC) are tested, and the effect of variable valve profile and deactivation of one of the intake valves are discussed.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Multi-hole Spray and Mixing of Ethanol and Gasoline Fuels under DI Engine Conditions

Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole gasoline injectors are being adopted as the direct injection (DI) fuel injector of choice as vehicle manufacturers look for ways to reduce fuel consumption without sacrificing power and emission performance. To realize the full benefits of direct injection, the resulting spray needs to be well targeted, atomized, and appropriately mixed with charge air for the desirable fuel vapor concentration distributions in the combustion chamber. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the turbo-charged DI gasoline performance, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valve-train engine architecture. This paper presents the spray imaging results from two multi-hole DI gasoline injectors with different design, fueled with pure ethanol (E100) or gasoline (E0), under homogeneous and stratified-charge conditions that represent typical engine operating points.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Cell Material Properties on Water Management Using CFD Simulation and Neutron Imaging

Effects of fuel cell material properties on water management were numerically investigated using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in the FLUENT. The results show that the channel surface wettability is an important design variable for both serpentine and interdigitated flow channel configurations. In a serpentine air flow channel, hydrophilic surfaces could benefit the reactant transport to reaction sites by facilitating water transport along channel edges or on channel surfaces; however, the hydrophilic surfaces would also introduce significantly pressure drop as a penalty. For interdigitated air flow channel design, it is observable that liquid water exists only in the outlet channel; it is also observable that water distribution inside GDL is uneven due to the pressure distribution caused by interdigitated structure. An in-situ water measurement method, neutron imaging technique, was used to investigate the water behavior in a PEM fuel cell.
Journal Article

Spray Characterization of Ethanol Gasoline Blends and Comparison to a CFD Model for a Gasoline Direct Injector

Operation of flex fuel vehicles requires operation with a range of fuel properties. The significant differences in the heat of vaporization and energy density of E0-E100 fuels and the effect on spray development need to be fully comprehended when developing engine control strategies. Limited enthalpy for fuel vaporization needs to be accounted for when developing injection strategies for cold start, homogeneous and stratified operation. Spray imaging of multi-hole gasoline injectors with fuels ranging from E0 to E100 and environmental conditions that represent engine operating points from ambient cold start to hot conditions was performed in a spray chamber. Schlieren visualization technique was used to characterize the sprays and the results were compared with Laser Mie scattering and Back-lighting technique. Open chamber experiments were utilized to provide input and validation of a CFD model.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Interaction of MultipleGDI Injections using Laser Diagnostics

In present GDI engines, multiple injection strategies are often employed for engine cold start mixture formation. In the future, these strategies may also be used to control the combustion process, and to prevent misfiring or high emission levels. While the processes occurring during individual injections of GDI injectors have been investigated by a number of researchers, this paper concentrates on the interactions of multiple injection events. Even though multiple injection strategies are already applied in most GDI engines, the impact of the first injection event on the second injection event has not been analyzed in detail yet. Different optical measurement techniques are used in order to investigate the interaction of the two closely timed injection events, as well as the effect of dwell time and the in-cylinder conditions. The injector investigated is a GDI piezo injector with an outwardly opening needle.
Technical Paper

Near-Nozzle Structure of Diesel Sprays Affected by Internal Geometry of Injector Nozzle: Visualized by Single-Shot X-ray Imaging

By taking advantage of high-intensity and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), ultrafast (150 ps) propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed to visualize high-pressure high-speed diesel sprays in the optically dense near-nozzle region. The sub-ns temporal and μm spatial resolution allows us to capture the morphology of the high-speed fuel sprays traveling at 500 m/s with a negligible motion blur. Both quality and quantitative information about the spray feature can be readily obtained. In the experiment, two types of single-hole nozzles have been used, one with a hydroground orifice inlet and the other with a sharp one. Within 3 mm from the nozzle, the sprays from these nozzles behave differently, ranging from laminar flow with surface instability waves to turbulent flow. The sprays are correlated with the nozzle internal geometry, which provides practical information for both nozzle design and supporting numerical simulation models.
Journal Article

Characterization of Diesel Common Rail Spray Behavior for Single- and Double-hole Nozzles

Double-hole nozzle and multiple injections have the potential for better fuel atomization and mixing in DI engine. In order to evaluate the behavior of the spray for the double-hole nozzles against traditional single-hole ones, high-speed spray visualization was carried out using a streak film camera and a copper vapor laser, and in combination with a long-distance camera when taking microscopic movies. The spray penetration and the cone angle were measured based on the images and compared for variable injection pressures, and for single and split injections, under ambient and elevated chamber pressure conditions. The results showed that the spray of the double-hole nozzle has comparable penetration but smaller cone angle when viewed from the nozzle end, compared to the single-hole nozzle with the same total hole discharge cross-sectional area. For microscopic view, it was observed that the interaction between the dual sprays is very dynamic.