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Technical Paper

Feasibility Study on the Filter Design of Re-Crystallized SiC-GPF for TWC Coating Application

The Particle Number (PN) emission limit is implemented for Direct Injection (DI) gasoline from EU6 regulation in European region. The wall-flow type ceramic filter technology is an essential component for Diesel PN emission control, and will be one potential solution to be investigated for the future Gasoline DI PN emission control demand. Especially the requirement of lower pressure loss with smaller filter volume is very strong for the filter substrate for Gasoline DI compared to DPF, not to lose better fuel economy benefit of Gasoline DI engine. Re-crystallized SiC (R-SiC) has high strength as its own property, and enable for Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) design to make the wall thickness thinner and the porosity higher compared to the other ceramic materials.
Technical Paper

Further Experimental Study of Asymmetric Plugging Layout on DPFs: Effect of Wall Thickness on Pressure Drop and Soot Oxidation

In order to guide the development of asymmetric plugging layout Diesel Particulate Filters, hereafter referred to as “VPL-DPF”, in this paper we present some evaluation results regarding the effect of design parameters on the VPL-DPF performance. VPL-DPF samples which have different wall thicknesses (thin and thick walls) were evaluated in regards to their pressure drop and soot oxidation behaviors, with the aim to optimize the design of DPF structure. As a result of pressure drop evolution during soot loading, contrary to our expectation, in some cases, it was found out that VPL increases the transient pressure drop compared to the conventional plugging layout DPF. That meant there is an appropriate specific optimum wall thickness for adoption of VPL which has to be well defined at its structural design phase. Based on our previous research, it is expected that this result is due to interactions among the different (five) wall flows that exist in a VPL-DPF.
Technical Paper

Soot Loading Estimation Accuracy Improvement by Filtration Layer Forming on DPF and New Algorithm of Pressure Loss Measurement

A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a key component for reduction of engine soot emission. The soot collected in the DPF is periodically burned off, so-called DPF regeneration, and a behavior of the pressure drop increased by the soot loading is generally utilized to estimate the amount, which must be a trigger of the regeneration. However, it is said that the estimation of the soot loading amount has considerable dispersion caused by two main reasons. One is hysteresis of the transient pressure drop resulted from the combination of so-called deep-bed and cake filtration modes. The other is a fluctuation of exhaust gas temperature and flow rate as well as a pulsation from the engine. In this study, the accurate estimation method of the soot amount accumulated in the DPF was proposed in combination with filtration layers (FLs) technology and a new algorithm based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) technology.
Technical Paper

Durability of Filtration Layers Integrated into Diesel Particulate Filters

This paper describes the durability of the filtration layer integrated into Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) that we have developed to ensure low pressure loss and high filtration efficiency performances which also meet emission regulations. DPF samples were evaluated in regards to their performance deterioration which is brought about by ash loading and uncontrolled regeneration cycles, respectively. Ash was synthesized by using a diesel fuel/lubrication oil mixture and was trapped up to a level which corresponded to a 240,000km run, into the DPFs both with and without the filtration layer. Afterwards, aged-DPFs were measured with respect to their permeability, pressure loss, filtration efficiency, as well as soot oxidation speed using suitable analytical methods. Consequently, it has been confirmed that there was no noteworthy deterioration of the performances in the DPF with the filtration layer.
Technical Paper

Development of High Porosity SiC-DPF Which is Compatible with High Robustness and Catalyst Coating Capability for SCR Coated DPF Application

Diesel emission regulation becomes stringent more and more regarding both particulate matter (PM) and NOx in the worldwide. SCR coated DPF system is considered as one of the promising options for future diesel exhaust after-treatment because it has several benefits such as the downsizing of the system, quick light-off of the catalytic function due to mounting closed-couple position. To integrate the SCR converter into the DPF, it is necessary to design the DPF substrate's porosity higher and pore size larger than conventional DPF to improve SCR catalyst coating capability. However to make the porosity higher will lose the robustness in general. Against these problems, it was studied to improve the high porosity DPF performances by applying the new technology to modify the thermal shock resistance property.
Technical Paper

Study on Filter Substrate Structure for Lower Backpressure and Higher Regeneration Performance

The trade-off between NOx and particulate matter (PM) has been a technological challenge with respect to diesel engine emissions. However, the practical use of diesel particulate filters (DPF) has made diesel emission control possible, in which NOx emissions are reduced through engine control and nearly all emitted PM is completely removed by DPF from diesel exhaust emissions. This has helped to contribute to laying the foundation for pursuing of the high theoretical thermal efficiency of diesel engines. However, it is also a fact that such emission controls have resulted in considerable impairments on the original and greatest advantages of diesel engines. This includes fuel penalties with accompanying increases in fuel consumption caused by pressure losses due to the attachment of the DPF itself and the accumulation of PM in the DPF, as well as fuel losses that occur when fuel is used to regenerate collected PM.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Thin Wall SiC-DPF

We examined a filter structure of a SiC-DPF, and found that the reduction in a wall thickness is effective in decreasing a pressure loss. And we made it clear how this reduction in the wall thickness influences the performances of the DPF, that are the filtration efficiency and the accumulated soot mass limit which are important for the DPF. From the results of this study, it can be seen that the filter structure which is suitable for the catalyzed DPF should be controlled in a porosity and the wall thickness in proportion to an amount of catalyst required.
Technical Paper

Characterization of High Porosity SiC-DPF

The pore diameter and porosity of SiC-DPF has been increased by elaborating its porous structure. Increasing the porosity of DPF decreases its strength and thermal conductivity. It was clarified how these characteristics affect the performance such as filtration characteristics, low pressure loss, maximum soot loading limit, and thermal response characteristics required for DPF. It was found that the basic characteristics of SiC such as high strength and high thermal conductivity play an important role in its high porosity.
Technical Paper

Effect of SiC-DPF with High Cell Density for Pressure Loss and Regeneration

One technology for removing PM discharged from diesel-powered vehicles is the DPF system. The DPF system brings about increases in pressure loss because PM accumulates in the filter. DPF with a high cell density shows low pressure loss when PM accumulates because of the large filtration area, and in addition, it makes it possible to thin the cell wall because it has a high thermal diffusion ability. For the catalyzation of SiC, the pore size and porosity of the base material were changed. Even when a catalyst is borne, pressure loss which DPF changed pore structure hardly changes. This verification was done based on the theory and by means of experimentation.