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Journal Article

Improvement of DME HCCI Engine Performance by Fuel Injection Strategies and EGR

2008-06-23
2008-01-1659
The combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a DME fueled HCCI engine were investigated. Different fuel injection strategies were tested under various injection quantities and timings with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combustion phase in HCCI was changed by an in-cylinder direct injection and EGR, due to changes in the in-cylinder temperature and mixture homogeneity. The gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPgross) increased and the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions decreased as the equivalence ratio was augmented. The IMEPgross with direct injection was greater than with the port injection due to retarded ignition timing resulting from latent heat of direct injected DME fuel. It was because that most of burn duration was completed before top dead center owing to higher ignitability for DME with high cetane number. However, HC and CO emissions were similar for both injection locations.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Droplet and Icing Formation of an injector for Liquid Phase LPG Injection System

2007-07-23
2007-01-2050
The use of clean gaseous fuel in automotive engines has been continuously increased in order to meet the reinforcing emission regulations and to efficiently utilize limited natural resources. Since the liquid phase LPG injection (LPLI) system has an advantage of higher power and lower emission characteristics than the mixer type fuel supply system, many studies and applications have been conducted. However, the heat extraction, due to the evaporation of liquid LPG fuel, causes not only a dropping of LPG fuel but also icing phenomenon that is a frost of moisture in the air around the nozzle tip. Because both lead to a difficulty in the control of accurate air fuel ratio, it can result in poor engine performance and a large amount of HC emissions. The main objective of this study is to examine the characteristics of icing phenomenon and also aims to improve it through the use of anti-icing injection tip. An experimental investigation was carried out on the bench test rig in this study.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Simulation and Experimental Analysis of Needle Response and Controlled Injection Rate Shape Characteristics in a Piezo-driven Diesel Injector

2006-04-03
2006-01-1119
The More precise control of the multiple-injection is required in common-rail injection system of direct injection diesel engine to meet the low NOx emission and optimal PM filter system. The main parameter for obtaining the multiple-injections is the mechanism controlling the injector needle energizing and movement. In this study, a piezo-driven diesel injector, as a new method driven by piezoelectric energy, has been applied with a purpose to develop the analysis model of the piezo actuator to predict the dynamics characteristics of the hydraulic component (injector) by using the AMESim code and to evaluate the effect of this control capability on spray formation processes. Aimed at simulating the hydraulic behavior of the piezo-driven injector, the circuit model has been developed and verified by comparison with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Effects of Stratified EGR on the Performance of a Liquid Phase LPG Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0982
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and lean burn utilize the diluents into the engine cylinder to control combustion leading to enhanced fuel economy and reduced emissions. However, the occurrence of excessive cyclic variation with high diluent rates, brings about an undesirable combustion instability within the engine cylinder resulting in the deterioration of both engine performance and emissions. Proper stratification of mixture and diluents could improve the combustion stability under high diluent environment. EGR stratification within the cylinder was made by adopting a fast-response solenoid valve in the midst of EGR line and controlling its timing and duty. With EGR in both homogeneous mode and stratified mode, in-cylinder pressure and emissions were measured. The thermodynamic heat release analysis showed that the burning duration was decreased in case of stratified EGR. It was found that the stratification of EGR hardly affected the emissions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification in a Liquid-Phase LPG Injection Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1777
To investigate the mixture distributions in an LPG engine with Liquid phase port injection for heavy duty vehicles, an optical single cylinder engine, which is optically accessible both in side and bottom view, and laser diagnostic system were incorporated to apply PLIF (planar laser induced fluorescence) technique. Acetone was used as a dopant in LPG fuel, which was excited by KrF excimer laser (248nm), and its fluorescence images were acquired with ICCD camera. The effects of fuel injection timing, swirl intensity and excess air ratio were investigated. For the case of open valve injection, favorable stratification of fuel, both in axial and radial direction, was clearly observed compared to the closed valve injection, where reverse stratification in axial direction was observed. At the Ricardo swirl ratio of 3.4, it was apparent that excessive axial stratification of fuel got dominant, which would lead to poor engine performances.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Icing Phenomenon on Injector in a Liquid Phase LPG Injection SI Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1919
A liquid phase LPG injection (LPLi) system has been considered as one of the next generation fuel supply system, since it has a very strong potential to accomplish the higher power, higher efficiency, and lower emission characteristics than the mixer type that is classified as a second generation technology, whereas the LPLi system is classified as a third generation technology. However, when a liquid LPG fuel is injected into the inlet duct of an engine, a large quantity of heat is extracted due to its high latent heat of evaporation. This leads the moisture in the air to freeze around the nozzle exit, which is called icing phenomenon. It may cause damage to the outlet nozzle of an injector or inlet valve seat. In this work, the experimental investigation of the icing phenomenon was carried out. The results showed that humidity of air rather than the temperature of air in the inlet duct mainly controlled the icing process.
Technical Paper

Flame Propagation Characteristics in a Heavy Duty LPG Engine with Liquid Phase Port Injection

2002-05-06
2002-01-1736
Combustion and flame propagation characteristics of the liquid phase LPG injection (LPLI) engine were investigated in a single cylinder optical engine. Lean burn operation is needed to reduce thermal stress of exhaust manifold and engine knock in a heavy duty LPG engine. An LPLI system has advantages on lean operation. Optimized engine design parameters such as swirl, injection timing and piston geometry can improve lean burn performance with LPLI system. In this study, the effects of piston geometry along with injection timing and swirl ratio on flame propagation characteristics were investigated. A series of bottom-view flame images were taken from direct visualization using a UV intensified high-speed CCD camera. Concepts of flame area speed, in addition to flame propagation patterns and thermodynamic heat release analysis, was introduced to analyze the flame propagation characteristics.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Performance and Combustion of an LPG MPI Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2002-03-04
2002-01-0449
An LPG engine for heavy duty vehicles has been developed using liquid phase LPG injection (hereafter LPLI) system, which has regarded as as one of next generation LPG fuel supply systems. In this work the optimized piston cavities were investigated and chosen for an LPLI engine system. While the mass production of piston cavities is considered, three piston cavities were tested: Dog-dish type, bathtub type and top-land-cut bathtub type. From the experiments the bathtub type showed the extension of lean limit while achieving the stable combustion, compared to the dog-dish type at the same injection timing. Throughout CFD analysis, it was revealed that the extension of lean limit was due to an increase of turbulence intensity by the enlarged crevice area, and the enlargement of flame front surface owing to the shape of the bathtub piston cavity compared to that of the dog-dish type.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of an 11L LPG MPI Engine for City Buses

2002-03-04
2002-01-0448
An 11L heavy duty LPG MPI engine has been developed using the liquid phase LPG injection system, which is one of the next generation LPG fueling technologies, since the LPG MPI engine can achieve the higher power and efficiency, and lower exhaust emissions than the conventional mixer type system. Two prototypes - a natural aspiration(NA) engine and a turbocharged inter-cooler(TCI) engine - were developed in this work and tested to measure the performance and emissions. For a NA type engine, in order to achieve the low emissions, the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio was adapted with a three-way catalytic converter. Whereas, for a TCI type, the lean burn technology was introduced to minimize the thermal loading due to an increase of the engine power. The results in this work demonstrated that the LPG MPI engines have the higher engine performance and lower exhaust emissions than the base diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Performance of an Liquid Phase LPG Injection Engine for Heavy duty Vehicles

2001-05-07
2001-01-1958
A LPG engine for heavy duty vehicle has been developed using liquid phase LPG injection (hereafter LPLI) system, which has a strong potential as a next generation LPG fuel supply system. It has been revealed in this work that an LPLI system generates higher power, efficiency, and emits lower emission pollutants than the conventional mixer type system. As a preliminary study on the LPLI system applicable to a heavy duty LPG engine, the engine output and combustion performance were investigated with various operating conditions using a single cylinder engine equipped with the different fuel supply systems. Experimental results showed that no problems occurred and the volumetric efficiency and engine output increased, respectively by about 10%, when the LPLI system is used. A decrease of the intake manifold temperature by the LPLI system has also been observed.
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