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Technical Paper

Investigation of the Ignition Process of Pilot Injections Using CFD

2019-09-09
2019-24-0129
State of the art high-pressure fuel injectors offer the ability to inject multiple times per cycle, and can reach very low fuel amounts per injection event. This behaviour allows the application of pilot injections in diesel engine applications or dual fuel engines. In both diesel and dual fuel engines, the amount of pilot fuel affects the engine efficiency. The understanding of the underlying ignition mechanism of the pilot fuel is required to optimize injection parameters and the engines’ fuel consumption. The present work focuses on the differences of ignition mechanisms between long and short injections. The investigation has been performed numerically, using CFD with a well-proven combustion model. The setup used employs a well characterized single orifice injector, injecting into a high temperature, pressurized environment with a composition of 15% oxygen.
Technical Paper

POMDME as an Alternative Pilot Fuel for Dual-Fuel Engines: Optical Study in a RCEM and Application in an Automotive Size Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1734
Dual-fuel natural gas engines are seen as an attractive solution for simultaneous reduction of pollutant and CO2 emissions while maintaining high engine thermal efficiency. However, engines of this type exhibit a tradeoff between misfire as well as high UHC emissions for small pilot injection amounts and higher emissions of soot and NOX for operation strategies with higher pilot fuel proportion. The aim of this study was to investigate POMDME as an alternative pilot fuel having the potential to mitigate the emissions tradeoff, enabling smokeless combustion due to high degree of oxygenation, and being less prone to misfire due to its higher cetane number. Furthermore, POMDME can be synthetized carbon neutrally. First, characteristics of POMDME ignition in methane/air mixture and the transition into premixed flame propagation were investigated optically in a rapid compression-expansion machine (RCEM) by employing Schlieren and OH* chemiluminescence imaging.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Soot Dynamics at Engine-Relevant Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0204
Formation of soot in an auto-igniting n-dodecane spray under diesel engine relevant conditions has been investigated numerically. As opposed to research addressing turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) by coupling diffusive turbulence models with more sophisticated models in the context of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS), this study employs the advanced sub-grid scale k-equation model in the framework of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) together with the uninvolved Direct Integration (DI) approach. A reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism has been employed and artificially accelerated in order to predict the ignition for n-dodecane accurately. Soot processes have been modelled with an extended version of the semi-empirical, two-equation model of Leung, which considers C2H2 as the soot precursor and accounts for particle inception, surface growth by C2H2 addition, oxidation by O2, oxidation by OH and particle coagulation.
Journal Article

The Effect of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations on the NOx-SFC Tradeoff in Diesel Engines under Long Ignition Delay Conditions

2017-09-04
2017-24-0100
Cycle-to-cycle variations in internal combustion engines are known to lead to limitations in engine load and efficiency, as well as increases in emissions. Recent research has led to the identification of the source of cyclic variations of pressure, soot and NO emissions in direct injection common rail diesel engines, when employing a single block injection and operating under long ignition delay conditions. The variations in peak pressure arise from changes in the diffusion combustion rate, caused by randomly occurring in-cylinder pressure fluctuations. These fluctuations result from the excitation of the first radial mode of vibration of the cylinder gases which arises from the rapid premixed combustion after the long ignition delay period. Cycles with high-intensity fluctuations present faster diffusion combustion, resulting in higher cycle peak pressure, as well as higher measured exhaust NO concentrations.
Technical Paper

Spray Model Based Phenomenological Combustion Description and Experimental Validation for a Dual Fuel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0098
The operation of dual fuel engines, operated with natural gas as main fuel, offers the potential of substantial savings in CO2. Nevertheless, the operating map area where low pollutant emissions are produced is very narrow. Especially at low load, the raw exhaust gas contains high concentrations of unburned methane and, with high pilot fuel portions due to ignition limitations, also soot. The analysis of the combustion in those conditions in particular is not trivial, since multiple combustion modes are present concurrently. The present work focuses on the evaluation of the individual combustion modes of a dual fuel engine, operated with natural gas as main and diesel as pilot fuel, using a combustion model. The combustion has been split in two partwise concurrent combustion phases: the auto-ignition phase and the premixed flame propagation phase.
Journal Article

Development and Experimental Validation of a Fast Spray Ignition Model for Diesel Engines Using Insights from CFD Spray Calculations

2017-03-28
2017-01-0812
Modern Diesel engines have become ever more complex systems with many degrees of freedom. Simultaneously, with increasing computational power, simulations of engines have become more popular, and can be used to find the optimum set up of engine operation parameters which result in the desired point in the emission-efficiency trade off. With increasing number of engine operation parameter combinations, the number of calculations increase exponentially. Therefore, adequate models for combustion and emissions with limited calculation costs are required. For obvious reasons, the accuracy of the ignition timing is a key point for the following combustion and emission model quality. Furthermore, the combination of mixing and chemical processes during the ignition delay is very challenging to model in a fast way for a wide range of operation conditions.
Journal Article

Comparison and Sensitivity Analysis of Turbulent Flame Speed Closures in the RANS G-Equation Context for Two Distinct Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2236
Three-dimensional reactive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a crucial role in IC engine development tasks complementing experimental efforts by providing improved understanding of the combustion process. A widely adopted combustion model in the engine community for (partially) premixed combustion is the G-Equation where the flame front is represented by an iso-level of an arbitrary scalar G. A convective-reactive equation for this iso-surface is solved, for which the turbulent flame speed ST must be provided. In this study, the commonly used and well-established Damköhler approach is compared to a novel correlation, derived from an algebraic closure for the scalar dissipation of reaction progress as proposed by Kolla et al. [1].
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Characteristics of Sprays Representative for Large 2-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine Combustion Systems

2015-09-01
2015-01-1825
Fuel spray propagation and its morphology are important aspects for the in-cylinder mixture preparation in Diesel engines. Since there is still a lack of suitable measurements with regard to large 2-stroke marine Diesel engines combustion systems, a comprehensive data set of spray characteristics has been investigated using a test facility reflecting the specific features of such combustion systems. The spray penetration, area and cone angle were analysed for a variation of gas density (including the behaviour at evaporation and non-evaporating conditions), injection pressure and nozzle diameter. Moreover, spray and swirl flow interaction as well as fuel quality influences have been studied. To analyse the impacts and effects of each measured parameter, an empirical correlation for the spray penetration has been derived and discussed for all measurements presented.
Technical Paper

Simulations of In-Cylinder Processes in a Diesel Engine Operated with Post-Injections Using an Extended CMC Model

2014-10-13
2014-01-2571
In this study, numerical simulations of in-cylinder processes associated to fuel post-injection in a diesel engine operated at Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) have been performed. An extended Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model capable of accounting for an arbitrary number of subsequent injections has been employed: instead of a three-feed system, the problem has been described as a sequential two-feed system, using the total mixture fraction as the conditioning scalar. A reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism coupled with a two-equation soot model is employed. Numerical results have been validated with measurements from the optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine installed at Sandia National Laboratories by comparing apparent heat release rate (AHRR) and in-cylinder soot mass evolutions for three different start of main injection, and a wide range of post injection dwell times.
Journal Article

Extending the NOx Reduction Potential with Miller Valve Timing Using Pilot Fuel Injection on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2632
New emission legislations applicable in the near future to sea-going vessels, off-road and off-highway vehicles require drastic nitric oxides emission reduction. A promising approach to achieve part of this decrease is charge air temperature reduction using Miller timing. However, it has been shown in literature that the reduction potential is limited, achieving a minimum in NOx emissions at a certain end-of-compression temperature. Further temperature reduction has shown to increase NOx emissions again. Some studies have shown that this increase is correlated to an increased amount of premixed combustion. In this work, the effects of pilot injection on engine out NOx emissions for very early intake valve closure (i.e. extreme Miller), high boost pressures and cold end-of-compression in-cylinder conditions are investigated. The experiments are carried out on a 3.96L single cylinder heavy-duty common-rail Diesel engine operating at 1000 rpm and at constant global air-to-fuel ratio.
Journal Article

Numerical Study of the Influence of EGR on In-Cylinder Soot Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine using CMC

2014-04-01
2014-01-1134
This paper presents numerical simulations of in-cylinder soot evolution in the optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine of Sandia Laboratories performed with the conditional moment closure (CMC) model employing a reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism coupled with a two-equation soot model. The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on in-cylinder processes is studied considering different ambient oxygen volume fractions (8 - 21 percent), while maintaining intake pressure and temperature as well as the injection configuration unchanged. This corresponds to EGR rates between 0 and 65 percent. Simulation results are first compared with experimental data by means of apparent heat release rate (AHRR) and temporally resolved in-cylinder soot mass, where a quantitative comparison is presented. The model was found to fairly well reproduce ignition delays as well as AHRR traces along the EGR variation with a slight underestimation of the diffusion burn portion.
Journal Article

Predicting In-Cylinder Soot in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for Variations in SOI and TDC Temperature Using the Conditional Moment Closure Model

2013-09-08
2013-24-0016
Numerical simulations of in-cylinder soot evolution in the optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine of Sandia National Laboratories have been performed with the multidimensional conditional moment closure (CMC) model using a reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism coupled with a two-equation soot model. Simulation results are compared to the high-fidelity experimental data by means of pressure traces, apparent heat release rate (AHRR) and time-resolved in-cylinder soot mass derived from optical soot luminosity and multiple wavelength pyrometry in conjunction with high speed soot cloud imaging. In addition, spatial distributions of soot relevant quantities are given for several operating conditions.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Multi-In-Cylinder Pyrometer Measurements and Exhaust Soot Emissions Under Steady and Transient Operation of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0177
Future engine emission legislation regulates soot from Diesel engines strictly and requires improvements in engine calibration, fast response sensor equipment and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. The in-cylinder phenomena of soot formation and oxidation can be analysed using a pyrometer with optical access to the combustion chamber. The pyrometer collects the radiation of soot particles during diffusion combustion, and allows the calculation of soot temperature and a proportional value for the in-cylinder soot density (KL). A four-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel engine was equipped in all cylinders with prototype pyrometers and state of the art pressure transducers. The cylinder specific data was recorded crank angle-resolved for a set of steady-state and transient operating conditions, as well as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) addition and over a wide range of soot emissions.
Journal Article

Simulations of Diesel Sprays Using the Conditional Moment Closure Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-1618
Numerical simulations of diesel sprays in a constant-volume vessel have been performed with the conditional moment closure (CMC) combustion model for a broad range of conditions. On the oxidizer side these include variations in ambient temperature (800-1100 K), oxygen volume fraction (15-21%) and density (7.3-58.5 kg/m₃) and on the fuel side variation in injector orifice diameter (50-363 μm) and fuel pressure (600-1900 bar); in total 22 conditions. Results are compared to experimental data by means of ignition delay and flame lift-off length (LOL). Good agreement for both quantities is reported for the vast majority of conditions without any changes to model constants: the variations relating to the air side are quantitatively accurately predicted; for the fuel side (viz. orifice diameter and injection pressure) the trends are qualitatively well reproduced.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Composition and Combustion Process on Thermodynamic Parameters of SI Engines

2012-09-10
2012-01-1633
In the field of heavy-duty applications almost all engines apply the compression ignition principle, spark ignition is used only in the niche of CNG engines. The main reason for this is the high efficiency advantage of diesel engines over SI engines. Beside this drawback SI engines have some favorable properties like lower weight, simple exhaust gas aftertreatment in case of stoichiometric operation, high robustness, simple packaging and lower costs. The main objective of this fundamental research was to evaluate the limits of a SI engine for heavy-duty applications. Considering heavy-duty SI engines fuel consumption under full load conditions has a high impact on CO₂ emissions. Therefore, downsizing is not a promising approach to improve fuel consumption and consequently the focus of this work lies on the enhancement of thermal efficiency in the complete engine map, intensively considering knocking issues.
Journal Article

Transient simulation of NOx reduction over a Fe-Zeolite catalyst in an NH3-SCR system and study of the performance under different operating conditions

2011-08-30
2011-01-2084
The NO reduction in an ammonia SCR converter has been simulated by a 1D+1D model for a single representative channel to parametrically study the characteristics of the system under typical operating conditions. An appropriate model has been selected interpreting the chemical behavior of the system and the parameters are calibrated based on a comprehensive set of experiments with an Fe-Zeolite washcoated monolith for different feed concentrations, temperatures and flow rates. Physical and chemical properties are determined as well as kinetics and rate parameters and the model has been verified by experimental data at different operating conditions. Three different mechanisms for the surface kinetics to model NO reduction have been assessed and the results have been compared in the cases of steady DeNO performance and transient response of the system. Ammonia inhibition is considered in the model since it has a major effect specifically under transient operating conditions.
Journal Article

Soot Emission Measurements and Validation of a Mean Value Soot Model for Common-Rail Diesel Engines during Transient Operation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1904
Measurements of the soot emissions and engine operating parameters from a diesel engine during transient operation were used to investigate the influence of transient operation on the soot emissions, as well as to validate a realtime mean value soot model (MVSM, [1]) for transient operation. To maximize the temporal resolution of the soot emission and engine parameter measurements (in particular EGR), fast instruments were used and their dynamic responses characterized and corrected. During tip-in transients, an increase in the soot emissions was observed due to a short term oxygen deficit compared to steady-state operation. No significant difference was seen between steady-state and transient operation for acceleration transients. When the MVSM was provided with inputs of sufficient temporal resolution, it was capable of reproducing the qualitative and, in part, quantitative soot emission trends.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Phenomenological Mean Value Soot Model for Common-Rail Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1277
A mean value soot model (MVSM) was developed and validated for the realtime prediction of the raw, engine-out soot emissions from common rail diesel engines. Through the consideration of five representative states during the combustion cycle, the developed MVSM determines the engine out soot emissions based on the soot formation and oxidation processes, using only parameters available from a standard engine control unit. 16 model parameters are used to describe the engine, fuel, and combustion characteristics, and must be determined for each engine and fuel combination. The MVSM was parameterized and validated using the measured soot emissions from two different engines operating with a total of three different fuels. After parameterization, the MVSM was capable of qualitatively and quantitatively reproducing the soot emissions for operating points throughout the entire operating map, including for operating regimes not considered during the parameterization.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Diesel Particulate Emissions in Heavy-Duty DI-Diesel Engines with Common Rail Fuel Injection Influence of Injection Parameters and Fuel Composition

2001-09-24
2001-01-3573
The findings presented in this paper result from a collaboration between two Federal Laboratories in Switzerland. In this research project the characteristics of the particulates from internal combustion engines were investigated in detail. Measurements were carried out on a single-cylinder research engine focusing on exhaust particulate matter emissions. The single-cylinder diesel engine is supercharged and features a common-rail direct injection system. This work analyzes the influence of fuel properties and injection parameters on the particulate number size distribution. For the fuel composition, five different fuels including low sulfur diesel, zero-sulfur and zero-aromatics diesel, two blending portions of oxygenated diesel additive and rapeseedmethylester were used. For the injection parameters the injection pressure, the start of injection and the fuel amount in the pilot- and in the post-injection phases were varied.
Technical Paper

Influence of EGR on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of Heavy Duty DI-Diesel Engines Equipped with Common-Rail Injection Systems

2001-09-24
2001-01-3497
At the Internal Combustion Engines and Combustion Laboratory of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich we are currently developing low emission strategies for heavy duty diesel engines that engine manufacturers can implement to meet stringent emissions regulations. The technologies being studied include high-pressure fuel injection (with common-rail injection system), multiple injection strategies (with pilot or post injections), turbo charging, exhaust gas recirculation (cooled EGR), oxygenated fuels and the optimization of the air management system. This paper focuses on the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (cooled EGR) in combination with very high injection pressure. Measurements were carried out on a heavy-duty diesel single-cylinder research engine equipped with a modern common rail fuel injection. The engine investigations were conducted in different operating points in the engine map covering wide speed and load ranges.
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