Water Recovery and Urine Collection in the Russian Orbital Segment of the International Space Station (Mission 1 Through Mission 17)
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-17 (since November 2, 2000, through October 23, 2008). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is emphasized. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.