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Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Aftertreatment System Cooling for Hybrid Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0989
Exhaust aftertreatment systems are essential components in modern powertrains, needed to reach the low legislated levels of NOx and soot emissions. A well designed diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system can have NOx conversion rates above 95%. However, to achieve high conversion the aftertreatment system must be warm. Because of this, large parts of the total NOx emissions come from cold starts where the engine has been turned off long enough for the aftertreatment system to cool down and loose its capacity to reduce NOx. It is therefore important to understand how the aftertreatment cools down when the engine in turned off. Experimental data for a catalyst cool-down process is presented and analyzed. The analysis shows that it is important to capture the spatial distribution of temperatures both in axial and radial directions. The data and analysis are used to design a catalyst thermal model that can be used for model based catalyst temperature monitoring and control.
Technical Paper

System Identification, Trajectory Optimization and MPC for Time Optimal Turbocharger Testing in Gas-Stands with Unknown Maps

2019-04-02
2019-01-0321
Turbocharger testing is a time consuming process, and as rapid-prototyping technology advances, so must other areas in the development chain. As an example, in one study a compressor map took over 34 hours to measure. In this paper, an effort to combat the main bottleneck of turbocharger testing, namely the thermal inertia, is made. When changing operating point during the measurement process, several minutes can be required before the turbocharger components reach temperature steady state. In an earlier paper, a method based on non-linear trajectory optimization was developed that significantly reduced the testing time required to produce compressor performance maps. The time was reduced by a factor of over 60, compared to waiting for the system to reach steady state with constant inputs. However, the method required a model of the turbocharger. This paper extends the method with system identification and model predictive control (MPC).
Journal Article

Control-Oriented Compressor Model with Adiabatic Efficiency Extrapolation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1032
Downsizing and turbocharging with single or multiple stages has been one of the main solutions to decrease fuel consumption and harmful exhaust emissions, while keeping a sufficient power output. An accurate and reliable control-oriented compressor model can be very helpful during the development phase, as well as for engine calibration, control design, diagnostic purposes or observer design. A complete compressor model consisting of mass flow and efficiency models is developed and motivated. The proposed model is not only able to represent accurately the normal region measured in a compressor map but also it is capable to extrapolate to low compressor speeds. Moreover, the efficiency extrapolation is studied by analyzing the known problem with heat transfer from the hot turbine side, which introduces errors in the measurements done in standard gas stands.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Performance Differences and Control Synthesis for Servo-Controlled and Vacuum-Actuated Wastegates

2017-03-28
2017-01-0592
1 Turbocharging plays an important role in the downsizing of engines. Model-based approaches for boost control are going to increasing the necessity for controlling the wastegate flow more accurately. In today’s cars, the wastegate is usually only controlled with a duty cycle and without position feedback. Due to nonlinearities and varying disturbances a duty cycle does not correspond to a certain position. Currently the most frequently used feedback controller strategy is to use the boost pressure as the controller reference. This means that there is a large time constant from actuation command to effect in boost pressure, which can impair dynamic performance. In this paper, the performance of an electrically controlled vacuum-actuated waste-gate, subsequently referred to as vacuum wastegate, is compared to an electrical servo-controlled wastegate, also referred to as electric wastegate.
Technical Paper

Development and Usage of a Continuously Differentiable Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Model Equipped with VGT and EGR

2017-03-28
2017-01-0611
Today’s need for fuel efficient vehicles, together with increasing engine component complexity, makes optimal control a valuable tool in the process of finding the most fuel efficient control strategies. To efficiently calculate the solution to optimal control problems a gradient based optimization technique is desirable, making continuously differentiable models preferable. Many existing control-oriented Diesel engine models do not fully posses this property, often due to signal saturations or discrete conditions. This paper offers a continuously differentiable, mean value engine model, of a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with VGT and EGR, suitable for optimal control purposes. The model is developed from an existing, validated, engine model, but adapted to be continuously differentiable and therefore tailored for usage in an optimal control environment. The changes due to the conversion are quantified and presented.
Journal Article

Calculation of Optimal Heat Release Rates under Constrained Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0812
The work extends a methodology, for searching for optimal heat release profiles, by adding complex constraints on states. To find the optimum heat release profile a methodology, that uses available theory and methods, was developed that enables the use of state of the art optimal control software to find the optimum combustion trace for a model. The methodology is here extended to include constraints and the method is then applied to study how sensitive the solution is to different effects such as heat transfer, crevice flow, maximum rate of pressure rise, maximum pressure, knock and NO generation. The Gatowski single zone model is extended to a pseudo two zone model, to get an unburned zone that is used to describe the knocking and a burned zone for NO generation. A modification of the extended Zeldovich mechanism that makes it continuously differentiable, is used for NO generation.
Technical Paper

Compressor Flow Extrapolation and Library Design for the Modelica Vehicle Propulsion Library - VehProLib

2016-04-05
2016-01-1037
Modelbased systems engineering is becoming an important tool when meeting the challenges of developing the complex future vehicles that fulfill the customers and legislators ever increasing demands for reduced pollutants and fuel consumption. To be able to work systematically and efficiently it is desirable to have a library of components that can be adjusted and adapted to each new situation. Turbocharged engines are complex and the compressor model serves as an in-depth example of how a library can be designed, incorporating the basic physics and allowing fine tuning as more information becomes available. A major part of the paper is the summary and compilation of a set of rules of thumb for compressor map extrapolation. The considerations discussed are extrapolation to surge, extrapolation to restriction region, and extrapolation out to choking.
Technical Paper

Optimal Control of a Diesel-Electric Powertrain During an Up-Shift

2016-04-05
2016-01-1237
To investigate the optimal controls of a diesel-electric powertrain during a torque controlled gearshift, a powertrain model is developed. A validated diesel-electric model is used as the power source and the transmission dynamics are described by different sets of differential equations during torque phase, synchronization phase and inertia phase of the gearshift. Using the developed model, multi-phase optimal control problems are formulated and solved. The trade-off between gearshift duration and driveline oscillations are calculated and efficient gearshift transients for a diesel-electric and pure diesel powertrain are then compared and analyzed.
Journal Article

Computing Optimal Heat Release Rates in Combustion Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0882
The combustion process has a high impact on the engine efficiency, and in the search for efficient engines it is of interest to study the combustion. Optimization and optimal control theory is used to compute the most efficient combustion profiles for single zone model with heat transfer and crevice effects. A model is first developed and tuned to experimental data, the model is a modification of the well known Gatowski et al.-model [1]. This model is selected since it gives a very good description of the in-cylinder pressure, and thus the produced work, and achieves this with a low computational complexity. This enables an efficient search method that can maximize the work to be developed. First, smooth combustion profiles are studied where the combustion is modeled using the Vibe function, and parametric optimization is used to search for the optimal profile.
Journal Article

Turbocharger Dynamics Influence on Optimal Control of Diesel Engine Powered Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0290
The importance of including turbocharger dynamics in diesel engine models are studied, especially when optimization techniques are to be used to derive the optimal controls. This is done for two applications of diesel engines where in the first application, a diesel engine in wheel loader powertrain interacts with other subsystems to perform a loading operation and engine speed is dictated by the wheel speed, while in the second application, the engine operates in a diesel-electric powertrain as a separate system and the engine speed remains a free variable. In both applications, mean value engine models of different complexities are used while the rest of system components are modeled with the aim of control study. Optimal control problems are formulated, solved, and results are analyzed for various engine loading scenarios in the two applications with and without turbocharger dynamics.
Journal Article

Scalable Component-Based Modeling for Optimizing Engines with Supercharging, E-Boost and Turbocompound Concepts

2012-04-16
2012-01-0713
Downsizing and turbocharging is a proven technology for fuel consumption reduction in vehicles. To further improve the performance, electrified components in the turbocharger arrangements have been proposed, and investigations have shown acceleration improvements, emission reductions, and further fuel conversion efficiency benefits. Simulation tools play an important role in the design process as the interplay between component selection, control strategy, system properties and constraints is very complex. Evaluations are performed with respect to BSFC map, fuel consumption in a drive cycle, acceleration performance, as well as many other aspects. A component-based engine and vehicle model is developed and evaluated to facilitate the process of assessing and optimizing the performance of e.g. engine, charging system, and electrical machine components. Considerations of the execution time and model fidelity have resulted in a choice of models in the mean value engine model family.
Technical Paper

Future Engine Control Enabling Environment Friendly Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0697
The aim of this paper is to compile the state of the art of engine control and develop scenarios for improvements in a number of applications of engine control where the pace of technology change is at its most marked. The first application is control of downsized engines with enhancement of combustion using direct injection, variable valve actuation and turbo charging. The second application is electrification of the powertrain with its impact on engine control. Various architectures are explored such as micro, mild, full hybrid and range extenders. The third application is exhaust gas after-treatment, with a focus on the trade-off between engine and after-treatment control. The fourth application is implementation of powertrain control systems, hardware, software, methods, and tools. The paper summarizes several examples where the performance depends on the availability of control systems for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

A Model for Fuel Optimal Control of a Spark-Ignited Variable Compression Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0399
Variable compression engines are a mean to meet the demand on lower fuel consumptions. A high compression ratio results in high engine efficiency, but also increases the knock tendency. On conventional engines with fixed compression ratio, knock is avoided by retarding the ignition angle. The variable compression engine offers an extra dimension in knock control, since both ignition angle and compression ratio can be adjusted. A vital question is thus what combination of compression ratio and ignition angle should be used to achieve maximum engine efficiency. Fuel optimal control of a variable compression engine is studied and it is shown that a crucial component is the model for the engine torque. A model for the produced work that captures the important effects of ignition and compression ratio is proposed and investigated. The main task for the model is to be a mean for determining the fuel optimal control signals, for each requested engine torque and speed.
Technical Paper

Methods for Cylinder Pressure Based Compression Ratio Estimation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0185
Three methods for compression ratio estimation based on cylinder pressure traces are developed and evaluated for both motored and fired cycles. Two methods rely upon models of polytropic compression and expansion for the cylinder pressure. It is shown that they give a good estimate of the compression ratio, although the estimates are biased. A method based on a variable projection algorithm with a logarithmic norm of the cylinder pressure, which uses interpolation of polytropic models of the expansion and compression asymptotes, is recommended when computational time is an important issue. For motored cycles it yields the smallest bias and confidence intervals for these two methods. For firing cycles a user-specified weighting factor is needed during the combustion phase, which pays off in a smaller estimation bias but also a higher variance. The third method includes heat transfer, crevice effects, and a commonly used heat release model for firing cycles.
Technical Paper

A Specific Heat Ratio Model for Single-Zone Heat Release Models

2004-03-08
2004-01-1464
The objective is to investigate models of the specific heat ratio for the single-zone heat release model, and find a model accurate enough to introduce a modeling error less than or in the order of the cylinder pressure measurement noise, while keeping the computational complexity at a minimum. Based on assumptions of frozen mixture for the unburned mixture and chemical equilibrium for the burned mixture, the specific heat ratio is calculated using a full equilibrium program for an unburned and a burned air-fuel mixture, and compared to already existing and newly proposed approximative models of γ. A two-zone mean temperature model, Matekunas pressure ratio management and the Vibe function are used to parameterize the mass fraction burned. The mass fraction burned is used to interpolate the specific heats for the unburned and burned mixture, and then form the specific heat ratio, which renders a small enough modeling error in γ.
Technical Paper

CHEPP - A Chemical Equilibrium Program Package for Matlab

2004-03-08
2004-01-1460
A program package, that calculates chemical equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of reactants and products of a combustion reaction between fuel and air, has been developed and validated. The package consists of the following four parts: 1) A program for calculating chemical equilibrium. 2) A database that contains thermochemical information about the molecules, which comes from the GRI-Mech tables. 3) A GUI that allows the user to easily select fuels, fuel/air ratio for the reaction, and combustion products. 4) A set of functions designed to access the thermochemical database and the chemical equilibrium programs. Results are validated against both the NASA equilibrium program (Gordon and McBride, 1994) and the program developed by Olikara and Borman (1975). It is shown that the new method gives results identical to those well recognized Fortran programs.
Technical Paper

Determining TDC Position Using Symmetry and Other Methods

2004-03-08
2004-01-1458
It is important to determine the phasing of a measured cylinder pressure trace and crank angle with high accuracy. The reason is that erroneous determination of the position of TDC is a major error source when calculating properties such as heat release etc. A common way to determine the TDC position is to study motored cycles. Heat transfer makes the task more complicated, since it shifts the position of the maximum pressure away from TDC. In this paper a new method for determining the TDC position is proposed that does not require any additional sensors other than a cylinder pressure sensor and an incremental encoder. The idea is to find a point that the cylinder pressure from a motored cycle is symmetric around, since the volume is close to symmetric on either side of TDC. The new method and four published methods are tested and evaluated. Cylinder pressure data used for comparison are from simulations of a SAAB Variable Compression engine.
Technical Paper

Mean Value Models for Exhaust System Temperatures

2002-03-04
2002-01-0374
Exhaust temperatures are important for turbine and catalyst performance. A set of exhaust temperature models suitable for turbo matching as well as design and analysis of engine control systems are developed and investigated. The models are lumped parameter heat transfer models, that fall within the category of mean value engine models. The model is developed for describing exit temperatures from the exhaust manifold and temperature drops in pipe sections in the exhaust system. The components used to model the exhaust temperature are: engine out temperature, temperature drop in a straight pipe, and a set of heat transfer modes. The model is validated using data from three different engines. It is shown that, for a spark ignited engine operating at MBT and stoichiometric conditions, it is sufficient to model the engine out temperature as a linear function of mass flow. Recommendations for tuning the model are also given.
Technical Paper

Compression Estimation from Simulated and Measured Cylinder Pressure

2002-03-04
2002-01-0843
Three methods for estimating the compression from measured cylinder pressure traces are described and evaluated for both motored and fired cycles against simulated and measured cylinder pressure. The first two rely upon a model of polytropic compression, and it is shown that they give a good estimate of the compression ratio for simulated cycles for low compression ratios. For high compression ratios, these simple models lack the information about heat transfer. The third method includes a standard heat transfer and crevice effect model, together with a heat release model and is able to estimate the compression ratio more accurately.
Technical Paper

Ignition Control by Ionization Current Interpretation

1996-02-01
960045
Spark advance setting in spark-ignited engines is used to place the in-cylinder pressure curve relative to the top dead center. It is demonstrated that ionization current interpretation is feasible to use for spark advance control to optimize engine performance. A feedback scheme, not a calibration scheme, based on ionization current is proposed. It is thus related to pressure sensor feedback schemes, that have reported good results, but have not yet proven cost effective due to the cost of the pressure sensor. The method proposed here is very cost effective since it uses exactly the same hardware and instrumentation (already used in production cars) that is used to utilize the spark plug as a sensor to detect misfire and as a sensor for knock control. The only addition for ignition control is further signal interpretation in the electronic engine control unit. A key idea in our method is to use parameterized functions to describe the ionization current.
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