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Technical Paper

Experimental Drawbeads Design Research

2019-04-02
2019-01-1087
In order to constrain the restraining force and control the speed of metal flow, drawbeads are widely used in industry. They prevent wrinkling or necking in formed panels, reduce the binder force, and minimize the usage of sheet metal to make a part. Different drawbead configurations can satisfy various stamping production. Besides local design of drawbeads, other factors like pulling directions, binder angles and single or multiple beads play an important role too. Moreover, it was found that the same beads configuration can own a different rate of change of pulling force on different gaps by experience. In this paper, to study the effect of each factor, the Aluminum and Steel sheet metals were tested to obtain the pulling force as they passed through a draw bead. Three gap cases between a male and a female beads are set to figure out the trend of pulling force.
Technical Paper

Friction Coefficient Evaluation on Aluminum Alloy Sheet Metal Using Digital Image Correlation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1223
The coefficient of friction between surfaces is an important criterion for predicting metal behavior during sheet metal stamping processes. This research introduces an innovative technique to find the coefficient of friction on a lubricated aluminum sheet metal surface by simulating the industrial manufacturing stamping process while using 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC) to track the deformation. During testing, a 5000 series aluminum specimen is placed inside a Stretch-Bend-Draw Simulator (SBDS), which operates with a tensile machine to create a stretch and bend effect. The friction coefficient at the contact point between an alloy sheet metal and a punch tool is calculated using an empirical equation previously developed. In order to solve for the unknown friction coefficient, the load force and the drawback force are both required. The tensile machine software only provides the load force applied on the specimen by the load cell.
Technical Paper

Test of Inclined Double Beads on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1221
Draw beads are widely used in the binder of a draw die for regulating the restraining force and control the draw-in of a metal blank. Different sheet materials and local panel geometry request different local draw bead configurations. Even the majority of draw bead is single draw bead, the alternative double draw bead does have its advantages, such as less bending damage may be brought to the sheet material and more bead geometry features available to work on. In this paper, to measure the pulling force when a piece of sheet metal passing through a draw bead on an inclined binder, the AA5XXX and AA6XXX materials were tested and its strain were measured with a digital image correlation (DIC) system. Five different types of double bead configurations were tested. The beads are installed in a Stretch-Bend-Draw-System (SBDS) test device. The clearance between a male and a female bead is 10% thicker than the sheet material. A tensile machine was used to record the pulling force.
Technical Paper

Property and Fiber Orientation Determination for Carbon Fiber Composite

2018-04-03
2018-01-1216
Unexpected severe failures occur during the warm forming procedure of carbon fiber material due to the existence of extremely large deformation/strain. To evaluate this failure, a good understanding the accurate material property under certain loading is important to evaluate the forming feasibility of carbon fiber material. Also, a clear connection between the fiber orientation and the material property helps to increase the accuracy of the forming prediction. Therefore, an experimental test is needed to evaluate the material property as well as the fiber orientation. In this paper, a uniaxial tension test for the prepreg carbon fiber under the warm forming condition is performed. A halogen lamp is used to heat the specimen to reach the warm forming condition. A 3D Digital Image Correlation (3D-DIC) is utilized to measure the material property and the fiber orientation in this test, along with a DIP system.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Edge Quality on Edge Stretching Limit for Aluminum Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0416
This paper presents the measurement and analysis of the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy using digital image correlation. The edge stretching limit, also known as the “edge thinning limit,” is the maximum thinning strain at a point of edge failure resulting from tension; which may be predisposed by edge quality. Edge fracture is a vital failure mode in sheet metal forming, however it is very difficult to measure. A previous study enabled the measurement of edge thinning strain by using advanced digital image correlation but it did not consider how the edge quality could affect the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy. This paper continues to measure edge thinning strain by comparing polished to unpolished AA5754, thus determining the effect edge quality has on the edge stretching limit. To enable the measurement by optical method for a very long and thin sample, a notch is used to localize where edge failure occurs.
Technical Paper

Tensile Test for Polymer Plastics with Extreme Large Elongation Using Quad-Camera Digital Image Correlation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0418
Polymer plastics are widely used in automotive light weight design. Tensile tests are generally used to obtain material stress-strain curves. Due to the natural of the plastic materials, it could be elongated more than several hundred percent of its original length before breaking. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Analysis is a precise, full field, optical measurement method. It has been accepted as a practical in-field testing method by the industry. However, with the traditional single-camera or dual-camera DIC system, it is nearly impossible to measure the extreme large strain. This paper introduces a unique experimental procedure for large elongation measurement. By utilization of quad-camera DIC system and data stitch technique, the strain history for plastic material under hundreds percent of elongation can be measured. With a quad-camera DIC system, the correlation was conducted between two adjacent cameras.
Technical Paper

The Research on Edge Tearing with Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0593
Material formability is a very important aspect in the automotive stamping, which must be tested for the success of manufacturing. One of the most important sheet metal formability parameters for the stamping is the edge tear-ability. In this paper, a novel test method has been present to test the aluminum sheet edge tear-ability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) system. The newly developed test specimen and fixture design are also presented. In order to capture the edge deformation and strain, sample's edge surface has been sprayed with artificial speckle. A standard MTS tensile machine was used to record the tearing load and displacement. Through the data processing and evaluation of sequence image, testing results are found valid and reliable. The results show that the 3D DIC system with double CCD can effectively carry out sheet edge tear deformation. The edge tearing test method is found to be a simple, reliable, high precision, and able to provide useful results.
Technical Paper

Research on Shear Test of New Style Automotive Structural Adhesive

2014-04-01
2014-01-0828
In this paper, Digital Image Correlation Method (DICM) is employed to measure the shear mechanical property of the new style automotive structural adhesive specimens and traditional spot welded specimens under quasi static uniaxial shear tensile test. This experiment adopts a non-contact measuring method to measure the strain of specimens. A CCD and a computer image processing system are used to capture and record the real-time surface images of the specimens before and after deformation. Digital correlation software is used to process the imagines before and after deformation to obtain the specimen's strain of the moment. And then both the force-displacement curve and the stress-strain curve during the tensile process could be obtained. The test and analysis results show that the new style structural adhesive specimens have a great advantage with the spot welded specimens. It provides experimental evidence for further improvement of this structural adhesive.
Technical Paper

Forming Limit Measurement Using a Multi-Sensor Digital Image Correlation System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1423
A multi-sensor Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is employed to measure the deformation of metal specimens during tensile tests. The multi-sensor DIC system is capable of providing high quality contour and deformation data of a 3D object. Methodology and advantages of the multi-sensor DIC system is introduced. Tests have been done on steel and aluminum specimens to prove the performance of the system. With the help of the multi-sensor DIC system, we proposed our approaches to determine the forming limit based on shape change around the necking area instead of calculate the FLD based on the in-plane strains. With the employed system, all measurements are done post-deformation, no testing controlling mechanism, such as load force control or touching control, is required. The extracted data is analyzed and the result shows a possibility that we may be able to improve current technique for Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) measurement.
Journal Article

A Study of Anisotropy and Post-Necking Local Fracture Strain of Advanced High Strength Steel with the Utilization of Digital Image Correlation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0992
The automotive industry has a strong need for lightweight materials capable of withstanding large mechanical loads. Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS), which have high tensile strength and formability, show great promise for automotive applications, yet if they are to be more widely used, it's important to understand their deformation behavior; this is particularly important for the development of forming limit diagrams (FLD) used in stamping processes. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which anisotropy introduced by the rolling direction affects the local fracture strain. Three grades of dual-phase AHSS and one high-strength low-alloy (HSL A) 50ksi grade steel were tested under plane strain conditions. Half of the samples were loaded along their rolling direction and the other half transverse to it. In order to achieve plane strain conditions, non-standard dogbone samples were loaded on a wide-grip MTS tensile test machine.
Technical Paper

Whole Field Bonded Steel Tensile Test Using Digital Image Correlation System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0960
Adhesive bonding has many applications in the automotive industry. The single-lapped bonded joint is the most typically used among various bonding types. This paper presents experimental research for determining the strain field of the single-lapped joint under tensile loading. The materials for the joint are epoxy-based structural adhesive and low-carbon electrolytic zinc steel plate. In the study, a DIC (digital image correlation) system was adopted to measure the strain distribution of the bonded joint during a tensile test. The bonded steel coupons in the tensile test were prepared according to the ASTM standard. During the measurement, images of the coupon joint were taken before and after the deformation process. Then the DIC system measured the strain of bonded joint by comparing two consecutive images. The measured data from the DIC was compared to data taken simultaneously from a traditional extensometer.
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