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Technical Paper

Combined Technologies for Efficiency Improvement on a 1.0 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0233
Cooperated with a local Chinese brand, Geely, the goal of this research is to improve the thermal efficiency on an extremely downsized 3-cylinder 1.0 L turbocharged GDI engine. Effects of compression ratio, low pressure cooled EGR, valve timing and viscosity of oil on fuel economy were studied. The results show that increasing compression ratio (from 9.6 to 12) can improve fuel economy at relative low load (below 12 bar BMEP), but has negative effect at high load due to increased knock intensity. EGR can significantly reduce the pumping loss at low load, optimize combustion phase and reduce exhaust gas temperature. Therefore, the fuel consumption is decreased at all test points. The average brake thermal efficiency (BTE) benefit percentage is 3.47% with 9.6 compression ratio and 5.33 % with 12 compression ratio. However, at higher load (over 18bar BMEP), EGR needs to be reduced to reach the target load, which would affect its beneficial to efficiency.
Technical Paper

Numerical study of Intake Manifold Water Injection on Performance and Emissions in a Heavy-duty Nature Gas Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0562
The performance of heavy-duty nature gas engines has been limited by combustion temperature and NOx emissions for a long time. Recently, water injection technology has been widely considered as a technical solution in reducing fuel consumption and emissions simultaneously in both diesel and gasoline engines. This paper focuses on the impacts of intake manifold water injection on characteristics of combustion and emissions in a heavy-duty nature gas engine through numerical methods. A detailed numerical model was established and validated with experimental data of pressure traces in CFD software coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The simulation was mainly carried out under low speed and full load condition, and knock level was also measured and calculated by Logarithmic Knock Intensity (LKI). The results show that intake manifold water injection is an efficient way to reduce high NOX emissions in nature gas engines without deteriorating other emissions characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Combustion Characteristics of a Methane Jet Flame in a Pressurized Hot Vitiated Co-flow

2019-01-15
2019-01-0082
This work presents the study of the methane jet flame in a pressurized vitiated co-flow burner (PVCB). The lift-off length and the stabilization of the methane jet flame under different environment pressures, co-flow temperatures, co-flow rates and jet velocities have been studied, and a chemical numerical simulation based on Gri-mech 3.0 was analyzed as well. The results could provide theoretical supports for the research of natural gas engine combustion stabilization control to increase its thermal efficiency. The experimental results show that the lift-off length decreases obviously (104.22mm to76.14mm) with the increase of the environment pressure (1to1.5bar, 1073K) and temperature (119.34mm to 43.74mm from 1058K to 1118K, 1bar), meanwhile, it also increases with the increment of the co-flow rate and jet velocity.
Technical Paper

Auto-ignition Characteristics of Lubricant Droplets under Hot Co-Flow Atmosphere

2018-09-10
2018-01-1807
It has been revealed by researches that lubricant properties have a great effect on the low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) frequency in downsizing turbocharged direct-injection engines which are developed for better fuel economy. Droplets of lubricant or lubricant-gasoline mixture are considered to be the potential pre-ignition sources. Those droplets fly into the combustion chamber and ignite the gasoline-air mixture. To study lubricant droplets fundamentally, a novel set of droplet auto-ignition system is designed based on a Dibble Burner for this experiment. Influences of metallic additive contents, viscosities, lubricant diluted with gasoline and waste lubricant on the ignition delay of droplets are investigated by testing 12 groups of lubricants or lubricant-gasoline mixture. The equivalent diameter of each droplet generated by micro-syringes is around 2.1 mm. The co-flow temperature varies from 1123 K to 1223 K, and the experiments are carried out at atmospheric pressure.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Intake Manifold Water Injection in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine for Performance and Emissions Enhancement

2018-09-10
2018-01-1653
The present work discusses the effects of intake manifold water injection in a six-cylinder heavy duty natural gas (NG) engine through one-dimensional simulation. The numerical study was carried out based on GT-Power under different engine working conditions. The established simulation model was firstly calibrated in detail through the whole engine speed sweep under full load conditions before the model of intake manifold water injector was involved, and the calibration was based on experimental data. The intake manifold water injection mass was controlled through adjustment of intake water/gas (water/natural gas) ratio, a water/gas ratio swept from 0 to 4 was selected to investigate the effects of intake manifold water injection on engine performance and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, the enhancement potential of intake manifold water injection in heavy duty NG engine under lean and stoichiometric condition was also investigated by the alteration of air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Effect of Direct Water Injection Timing on Common Rail Diesel Engine Combustion Process and Efficiency Enhancement

2017-10-08
2017-01-2281
The present work aims at optimizing diesel engine combustion efficiency with optimized water injection strategy. The engine had been modified based on a two-cylinder mechanical pump diesel engine into common rail diesel engine with capability of direct water injection. The direct water injection system was designed and manufactured independently. An air-fluid booster was utilized to establish the water injection pressure up to 40MPa. Customized diesel injector was selected to be used as water injector in this study. Water injection strategy was optimized in detail with injection timing around TDC which ranges from 12°CA BTDC to -5°CA BTDC under 10 bar IMEP. The engine efficiency can be improved under selected water injection strategy due to the increment of work fluid in the combustion chamber. Moreover, the nitric oxides emissions show decrement around 10%.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lubricant Additives on Auto-Ignition under a Hot Co-Flow Atmosphere

2017-10-08
2017-01-2231
Pre-ignition may lead to an extreme knock (super-knock or mega-knock) which will impose a severe negative influence on the engine performance and service life, thus limiting the development of downsizing gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. More and more studies reveal that the auto-ignition of lubricants is the potential source for pre-ignition. However, pre-ignition is complicated to study on the engine test bench. In this paper, a convenient test method is applied to investigate the influence of lubricants metal-additives on pre-ignition. 8 groups of lubricants are injected into a hot co-flow atmosphere which generated by a burner. A single-hole nozzle injector with a diameter of 0.2 mm at 20 MPa injection pressure is utilized for lubricants' injection and spray atomization. The ignition delays of lubricants with different additives of calcium, ZDDP (Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphates) and magnesium content under the hot co-flow atmosphere are recorded with a high-speed camera.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR Temperature on PFI Gasoline Engine Combustion and Emissions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2235
In order to investigate the impacts of recirculated exhaust gas temperature on gasoline engine combustion and emissions, an experimental study has been conducted on a turbocharged PFI gasoline engine. The engine was equipped with a high pressure cooled EGR system, in which different EGR temperatures were realized by using different EGR coolants. The engine ran at 2000 r/min and 3000 r/min, and the BMEP varied from 0.2MPa to 1.0MPa with the step of 0.2MPa. At each case, there were three conditions: 0% EGR, 10% LT-EGR, 10% HT-EGR. The results indicated that LT-EGR had a longer combustion duration compared with HT-EGR. When BMEP was 1.0 MPa, CA50 of HT-EGR advanced about 5oCA. However, CA50 of LT-EGR could still keep steady and in appropriate range, which guaranteed good combustion efficiency. Besides, LT-EGR had lower exhaust gas temperature, which could help to suppress knock. And its lower exhaust gas temperature could reduce heat loss. These contributed to fuel consumption reduction.
Technical Paper

Knock and Pre-Ignition Detection Using Ion Current Signal on a Boosted Gasoline Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0792
In order to meet the ever more stringent demands on the CO2 emission reduction, downsized modern gasoline engine with highly boosted turbo charger meets new challenges such as super knock and pre-ignition, which will influence the engine combustion efficiency, smooth operation and even cause mechanical failure. A spark plug type ion current detection sensor was used in a 1.8L turbo charged gasoline engine. The ion-current wave signal differed greatly under different engine operating conditions such as without knock, with knock of different knock intensities. The frequency spectrum of ion-current was also studied, by the method of discrete Fourier transform (DFT). In knocking cycles, there were fluctuations of frequency 8-13 kHz both in the combustion pressure signal and in the ion current signal, proving the existence of knock information.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Fuel Economy Improvement by High and Low Pressure EGR System on a Downsized Boosted Gasoline Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0682
In this paper comparisons were made between the fuel economy improvement between a High Pressure loop (HP) water-cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system and a Low Pressure loop (LP) water-cooled EGR system. Experiments were implemented on a 1.3-Litre turbocharged PFI gasoline engine in two pars. One was EGR rate as single operating point to compare the different effect of HP- and LP-EGR. The other was mini map from 1500rpm to 3000rpm and BMEP from 2bar to 14bar because of the relative narrow available range of HP-EGR system. In consideration of practical application of EGR system, the coolant used in this experiment was kept almost the same temperature as in real vehicles (88±3°C) instead of underground water temperature, besides a model was built to calculate constant volume ratio (CVR). The results indicated that the effect of HP-EGR was weaker than that of LP-EGR under the same EGR rate, which could be seen from change of combustion parameters.
Technical Paper

Improvement on Energy Efficiency of the Spark Ignition System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0678
Future clean combustion engines tend to increase the cylinder charge to achieve better fuel economy and lower exhaust emissions. The increase of the cylinder charge is often associated with either excessive air admission or exhaust gas recirculation, which leads to unfavorable ignition conditions at the ignition point. Advanced ignition methods and systems have progressed rapidly in recent years in order to suffice the current and future engine development, and a simple increase of energy of the inductive ignition system does not often provide the desired results from a cost-benefit point of view. Proper design of the ignition system circuit is required to achieve certain spark performances.
Journal Article

Study of the Combustion Characteristics of a HCCI Engine Coupled with Oxy-Fuel Combustion Mode

2017-03-28
2017-01-0649
The present work proposed to implement oxy-fuel combustion mode into a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine to reduce complexity in engine emissions after-treatment and lower carbon dioxide emission. The combination of oxy-fuel combustion mode with homogeneous charge compression ignition engine can be further optimized by the utilization of direct high temperature and pressure water injection to improve cycle performance. A retrofitted conventional diesel engine coupled with port fuel injection and direct water injection is utilized in this study. A self-designed oxygen and carbon dioxide mixture intake system with flexible oxygen fraction adjustment ability is implemented in the test bench to simulate the adoption of exhaust gas recirculation. Water injection system is directly installed in the combustion chamber with a modified high speed solenoid diesel injector.
Technical Paper

Study on Fuel Economy Improvement by Low Pressure Water-Cooled EGR System on a Downsized Boosted Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0678
This research was concerned with the use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) improving the fuel economy over a wide operating range in a downsized boosted gasoline engine. The experiments were performed in a 1.3-Litre turbocharged PFI gasoline engine, equipped with a Low Pressure (LP) water-cooled EGR system. The operating conditions varied from 1500rpm to 4000rpm and BMEP from 2bar to 17bar. Meanwhile, the engine’s typical operating points in NEDC cycle were tested separately. The compression ratio was also changed from 9.5 to 10.5 to pursue a higher thermal efficiency. A pre-compressor throttle was used in the experiment working together with the EGR loop to keep enough EGR rate over a large area of the engine speed and load map. The results indicated that, combined with a higher compression ratio, the LP-EGR could help to reduce the BSFC by 9∼12% at high-load region and 3∼5% at low-load region.
Technical Paper

In-Cycle Knocking Detection and Feedback Control Based on In-Cylinder Pressure and Ion Current Signal in a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0816
Due to much higher pressure and pressure rising rate, knocking is always of potential hazards causing damages in the engine and high NOX emissions. Therefore, the researchers have focused on knocking diagnosis and control for many years. However, there is still lack of fast response sensor detecting in-cycle knocking. Until now, the feedback control based on knocking sensor normally adjusts the injection and ignition parameters of the following cycles after knocking appears. Thus in-cycle knocking feedback control which requires a predictive combustion signal is still hard to see. Ion current signal is feasible for real-time in-cylinder combustion detection, and can be employed for misfiring and knocking detection. Based on incylinder pressure and ion current signals, the in-cycle knocking feedback control is investigated in this research. The 2nd-order differential of in-cylinder pressure, which means the response time of pressure rising rate dPR, is employed for knocking prediction.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation and Optimization of the Underhood Fluid Field and Cooling Performance for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicle under Different Driving Conditions

2015-09-29
2015-01-2902
As the commercial vehicle increases staggeringly in China, environmental pollution and excessively fuel consumption can't be neglected anymore. Vehicle thermal management has been adopted by many vehicle manufactures as an ideal alternative to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emission by its cost-efficient and effective merit. In addition, the components in heavy duty commercial vehicle engine hood may suffer overheat harm. Hence investigating the thermal characteristics in engine hood can be an effective way to identify and dismiss the potential overheat harm. In terms of this, the paper has adopted CFD simulation method to obtain the comprehensive thermal flow field characteristics of engine hood in a heavy commercial vehicle. Then by analyzing the thermal flow field in engine hood, concerning optimization strategies were put forward to improve the thermal environment.
Technical Paper

Effect of Water Injection Temperature on Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions for Internal Combustion Rankine Cycle Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2600
The present work discusses a novel oxyfuel combustion method named internal combustion rankine cycle (ICRC) used in reciprocating engines. Water is heated up through heat exchanger by exhaust gas and engine cooling system, and then injected into the cylinder near top dead center to control the combustion temperature and in-cylinder pressure rise rate, meanwhile to enhance the thermo efficiency and work of the combustion cycle. That is because injected water increases the mass of the working fluid inside the cylinder, and can make use of the combustion heat more effectively. Waste heat carried away by engine coolant and exhaust gas can be recovered and utilized in this way. This study investigates the effect of water injection temperature on the combustion and emission characteristics of an ICRC engine based on self-designed test bench. The results indicate that both indicated work and thermal efficiency increase significantly due to water injection process.
Technical Paper

Effect of Two-Stage Valve Lift for Fuel Economy and Performance on a PFI Gasoline Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2874
Reducing the pumping loss, and thus, the fuel consumption of gasoline engine at part load, a two-stage intake valve lift system was implanted into a PFI engine. A corresponding engine model was set up with GT-power as well, which can simulate the effect of two-stage intake valve lift and different EGR rates on fuel economy performance and on combustion condition of a gasoline engine. Based on simulation results, the valve lift control strategy and EGR control strategy was studied in this paper. Results showed that at low engine speed, when SMALL LIFT was used, the tumble flow and the combustion process in cylinder was improved and burn time duration became shorter, resulting in higher indicated efficiency and lower fuel consumption than by LARGE LIFT. With the introduction of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lower fuel consumption was acquired.
Technical Paper

Closed-loop Control of Low Temperature Combustion Employing Ion Current Detecting Technology

2014-04-01
2014-01-1362
Based on high EGR rate, the low temperature combustion (LTC) has been studied widely, of which the application range is more extensive than the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). As the high EGR rate would influence the condition of intake charge, it would also affect the combustion process and the HC emissions, thus the combustion stability of LTC would be lower than tradition diesel combustion. In this study, an ion current detecting technology was employed to explore the ion current at different EGR rates. Meanwhile, the combustion parameters were also investigated, which included the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate. The CA50 and CAI50 were adopted as the phases of combustion and ion current, which respectively represented the crank angle of mid-point for the integrated heat release and integrated ion current. Then the correlation between CA50 and CAI50 was analysed.
Technical Paper

Study of the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Quasi ICRC Engine Under Different Engine Loads

2014-04-01
2014-01-1202
A novel reciprocating engine version of oxy-fuel combustion cycle combined with water direct injection (known as internal combustion rankine cycle) is presented in this paper. Water is injected near top dead center to control the reaction rate of the oxy-fuel mixture, as well as the peak in-cylinder temperature. The evaporation of the water mist will increase the mass of working gas inside the cylinder, and enhances the thermo efficiency and MEP. Moreover, the injected water is heated up through heat exchangers by both engine coolant and exhaust gas, and the waste heat is effectively recovered this way. This study investigates the combustion and emission characteristics of ICRC under different engine loads based on a single-cylinder, air-cooled SI engine fueled with propane. An extra diesel injector is employed to inject water with high injection temperature (160°C).
Technical Paper

Fatigue Design and Analysis of the Vehicle Exhaust System's Hanger

2013-10-14
2013-01-2609
The weight of an exhaust system on a modern vehicle is increasing because of all kinds of reasons, like engine power's increasing, more catalysts for emission control and more NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) performance requirements. After the engine starting, the exhaust system was not only bearing a cyclical load from the engine, which mainly causing the vibration of the exhaust system, but also the loads from the road, which was transferred through the wheels, the suspension system and the body. Because the exhaust system always worked in these bad conditions, its structural strength, durability and life-time were analyzed in the paper, by numerical simulation and physical correlation. By discretizing the exhaust system's CAD model, a finite element model was built. After restrict the finite element model as it in a real load condition, complete the structure stress analysis and Fatigue analysis of exhaust system's hanger with FEA analysis tools.
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