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Technical Paper

Effect of pressure cycling on gas exchange in a transparent fuel injector

2019-12-19
2019-01-2280
Gas ingested into the sac of a fuel injector after the injector needle valve closes is known to have crucial impacts on initial spray formation and plume growth in a following injection cycle. Yet little research has been attempted to understand the fate sac gases during pressure expansion and compression typical of an engine. This study investigated cavitation and bubble processes in the sac including the effect of chamber pressure decrease and increase consistent with an engine cycle. A single axial-hole transparent nozzle based on the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray D nozzle geometry was mounted in a vessel filled with nitrogen, and the nitrogen gas pressure was cycled after the end of injection. Interior nozzle phenomena were visualized by high-speed longdistance microscopy with a nanosecond pulsed LED back-illumination. Experimental results showed that the volume of gas in the sac after the needle closes depends upon the vessel gas pressure.
Journal Article

In-Flame Soot Sampling and Particle Analysis in a Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0912
In-flame soot sampling based on the thermophoresis of particles and subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging has been conducted in a diesel engine to study size, shape and structure of soot particles within the reacting diesel jet. A direct TEM sampling is pursued, as opposed to exhaust sampling, to gain fundamental insight about the structure of soot during key formation and oxidation stages. The size and shape of soot particles aggregate structure with stretched chains of spherical-like primary particles is currently an unknown for engine soot modelling approaches. However, the in-flame sampling of soot particles in the engine poses significant challenges in order to extract meaningful data. In this paper, the engine modification to address the challenges of high-pressure sealing and avoiding interference with moving valves and piston are discussed in detail.
Journal Article

Diesel Spray Ignition Detection and Spatial/Temporal Correction

2012-04-16
2012-01-1239
Methods for detection of the spatial position and timing of diesel ignition with improved accuracy are demonstrated in an optically accessible constant-volume chamber at engine-like pressure and temperature conditions. High-speed pressure measurement using multiple transducers, followed by triangulation correction for the speed of the pressure wave, permits identification of the autoignition spatial location and timing. Simultaneously, high-speed Schlieren and broadband chemiluminescence imaging provides validation of the pressure-based triangulation technique. The combined optical imaging and corrected pressure measurement techniques offer improved understanding of diesel ignition phenomenon. Schlieren imaging shows the onset of low-temperature (first-stage) heat release prior to high-temperature (second-stage) ignition. High-temperature ignition is marked by more rapid pressure rise and broadband chemiluminescence.
Technical Paper

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles sampled directly from a Biodiesel Spray Flame

2011-08-30
2011-01-2046
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a biodiesel spray flame, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in a spray flame fuelled with soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at different axial locations in the spray flame, 40, 50 and 70 mm from injector nozzle, which correspond to soot formation, peak, and oxidation zones, respectively. The biodiesel spray flame was generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and temperature condition (6.7 MPa, 1000K). Density, diameter of primary particles and radius of gyration of soot aggregates reached a peak at 50 mm from the injector nozzle and was lower or smaller in the formation or oxidation zones of the spray.
Journal Article

Visualization of Diesel Spray Penetration, Cool-Flame, Ignition, High-Temperature Combustion, and Soot Formation Using High-Speed Imaging

2009-04-20
2009-01-0658
Shadowgraph/schlieren imaging techniques have often been used for flow visualization of reacting and non-reacting systems. In this paper we show that high-speed shadowgraph visualization in a high-pressure chamber can also be used to identify cool-flame and high-temperature combustion regions of diesel sprays, thereby providing insight into the time sequence of diesel ignition and combustion. When coupled to simultaneous high-speed Mie-scatter imaging, chemiluminescence imaging, pressure measurement, and spatially-integrated jet luminosity measurements by photodiode, the shadowgraph visualization provides further information about spray penetration after vaporization, spatial location of ignition and high-temperature combustion, and inactive combustion regions where problematic unburned hydrocarbons exist. Examples of the joint application of high-speed diagnostics include transient non-reacting and reacting injections, as well as multiple injections.
Journal Article

Transient Liquid Penetration of Early-Injection Diesel Sprays

2009-04-20
2009-01-0839
Diesel low-temperature combustion strategies often rely on early injection timing to allow sufficient fuel-ambient mixing to avoid NOx and soot-forming combustion. However, these early injection timings permit the spray to penetrate into a low ambient temperature and density environment where vaporization is poor and liquid impingement upon the cylinder liner and piston bowl are more likely to occur. The objective of this study is to measure the transient liquid and vapor penetration at early-injection conditions. High-speed Mie-scatter and shadowgraph imaging are employed in an optically accessible chamber with a free path of 100 mm prior to wall impingement and using a single-spray injector. The ambient temperature and density within the chamber are well-controlled (uniform) and selected to simulate in-cylinder conditions when injection occurs at -40 crank-angle degrees (CAD) or fewer before top-dead center (TDC).
Journal Article

Influence of Diesel Injection Parameters on End-of-Injection Liquid Length Recession

2009-04-20
2009-01-1356
Diesel injection parameters effect on liquid-phase diesel spray penetration after the end-of-injection (EOI) is investigated in a constant-volume chamber over a range of ambient and injector conditions typical of a diesel engine. Our past work showed that the maximum liquid penetration length of a diesel spray may recede towards the injector after EOI at some conditions. Analysis employing a transient jet entrainment model showed that increased fuel-ambient mixing occurs during the fuel-injection-rate ramp-down as increased ambient-entrainment rates progress downstream (i.e. the entrainment wave), permitting complete fuel vaporization at distances closer to the injector than the quasi-steady liquid length. To clarify the liquid-length recession process, in this study we report Mie-scatter imaging results near EOI over a range of injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel type, and rate-of-injection shape. We then use a transient jet entrainment model for detailed analysis.
Technical Paper

Relationship Between Ignition Processes and the Lift-Off Length of Diesel Fuel Jets

2005-10-24
2005-01-3843
The reaction zone of a diesel fuel jet stabilizes at a location downstream of the fuel injector once the initial autoignition phase is over. This distance is referred to as flame lift-off length. Recent investigations have examined the effects of a wide range of parameters (injection pressure, orifice diameter, and ambient gas temperature, density and oxygen concentration) on lift-off length under quiescent diesel conditions. Many of the experimental trends in lift-off length were in agreement with scaling laws developed for turbulent, premixed flame propagation in gas-jet lifted flames at atmospheric conditions. However, several effects did not correlate with the gas-jet scaling laws, suggesting that other mechanisms could be important to lift-off stabilization at diesel conditions. This paper shows experimental evidence that ignition processes affect diesel lift-off stabilization.
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