Link Between Cavitation Development and Erosion Damage in Diesel Injector Nozzles
Cavitation formation and development inside Diesel injector nozzles suffering from erosion damage has been investigated using enlarged transparent nozzle replicas and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Cavitation erosion has been observed at different locations within the nozzle. These have included the top surface inside the nozzle hole next to its entry, the 3o'clock and 9c'clock hole side-inlets as well as at the needle seat area. Instantaneous and time-averaged high-speed CCD images of cavitation have verified that cavitation erosion sites are found in areas of cavitation bubble collapse. This has been further supported by CFD predictions obtained using the measured injection pressure and needle lift traces, both for the pilot and main injection events. The cavitating flow regimes associated with these erosion sites correspond to geometrically-induced hole cavitation, the string cavitation and the needle seat cavitation, respectively.