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Technical Paper

A discussion on fault prognosis/prediction and health monitoring techniques to improve the reliability of aerospace and automotive systems

2018-09-03
2018-36-0316
Currently, aerospace and automotive industries are developing complexand/or highly integrated systems, whose services require greater confidence to meet a set of specifications that are increasingly demanding, such as successfully operating a communications satellite, a commercial airplane, an automatic automobile, and so on. To meet these requirements and expectations, there is a growing need for fault treatment, up to predict faults and monitor the health of the components, equipment, subsystems or systems used. In the last decades, the approaches of 1) Fault Prevention, 2) Fault Detection/Tolerance and 3) Fault Detection/Correction have been widely studied and explored.
Technical Paper

A discussion on the interaction between Project Management and Systems Engineering to improve the Dependability of Space and Automotive Projects

2017-11-07
2017-36-0373
Complex and/or highly integrated systems require the evaluation of Dependability (Reliability, Maintainability, Availability, etc.) throughout their life cycle. The designs of these systems have three main sets of activities: managerial, technical and quality. The recent literature suggests that: 1) the growth of the committed project cost is much greater than the cost spent in the initial stages; and also, the cost to eliminate the defects is smaller in the initial stages of project; and 2) the functions, responsibilities, and authorities of Project Management and Systems Engineering are strongly coupled. Thus, based on the recent literature and the INPE´s (National Institute for Space Research) experience, this paper will show a discussion on the interaction between Project Management and Systems Engineering to improve the Dependability of space and automotive projects.
Technical Paper

A Discussion on Time Synchronization and their Effects in Distributed Cyber-Physical Control Systems

2016-10-25
2016-36-0293
Cyber-physical systems are joint instances of growing complexity and high integration of elements in the information and physical domains reaching high levels of difficulty to engineer an operate them. This happens with satellites, aircraft, automobiles, smart grids and others. Current technologies as computation, communication and control integrate those domains to communicate, synchronize and operate together. However, the integration of different domains brings new challenges and adds new issues, mainly in real time distributed control systems, beginning with time synchronization. In this paper, we present a discussion on time synchronization and their effects in distributed cyber-physical control systems. To do that, we review the literature, discuss some time synchronization techniques used in cyber-physical systems, and illustrate them via model and simulation of a system representative of the aerospace area.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Data Transmission Used in UAVs for Remote Sensing Surveillance and Environmental Management Systems

2015-09-22
2015-36-0543
The increasing development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies has allowed greater use of UAVs as remote sensing platforms to enhance satellite and manned aerial vehicle remote sensing surveillance and environmental management systems. Particularly, the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research - INPE has an Environmental Data Collection System (SCD) since 1993. Recently, the MCTI (Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation) opened the National Center for Monitoring and Early Warning of Natural Disasters (CEMADEN). Both may need additional resources for their expansions in the near future as offered by UAV technologies. These needs illustrate the potential of UAV technologies as complement to existing or future systems. This paper presents an overview of data transmission used in UAVs for remote sensing surveillance and environmental management systems.
Technical Paper

A Discussion of the Performance Evaluation of Time Synchronization Algorithms for Networked Control Systems by Means of Model and Simulation

2014-09-30
2014-36-0382
With the growing complexity and integration of systems as satellites, automobiles, aircrafts, turbines, power controls and traffic controls, as prescribed by SAE-ARP-4754A Standard, the time de-synchronization can cause serious or even catastrophic failures. Time synchronization is a very important aspect to achieve high performance, reliability and determinism in networked control systems. Such systems operate in a real time distributed environment which frequently requires a consistent time view among different devices, levels and granularities. So, to guarantee high performance, reliability and determinism it is required a performance evaluation of time synchronization of the overall system. This time synchronization performance evaluation can be done in different ways, as experiments and/or model and simulation.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of a Satellite Propulsive Subsystem by Physical and Signal Flows

2013-10-07
2013-36-0105
Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of dynamic systems based on computers is a multidisciplinary field that involves several knowledge areas and tools, and is broadly used in all development areas of space industry such as rocket and satellite design and construction. Once space systems are divided into several subsystems for ease of engineering, their models are divided the same way for the same reason. Such models may be done using different computational tools that are based on either physical flows, informational flows, or hybrid flows, depending on the subsystem nature. This is specially true for a satellite propulsion subsystem, and its physical (volume, mass, energy, enthalpy, entropy, linear momentum, etc.) flows. This paper presents the modeling and simulation of a satellite propulsion subsystem by physical and signal flows. To accomplish this task, two different computational tools were used: AMESim and MatLab.
Technical Paper

Refinements of the Kalman Estimates for the Position and Velocity of a Vehicle Obtained with GPS Using Inertial Navigation System's Measurements: A Comparative Analysis

2013-10-07
2013-36-0650
Currently, the use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems-GNSS has been widely disseminated for the most different applications, from the aeronautical navigation to the car traffic, being the Global Positioning System-GPS the most used system for such objectives. New applications have presented challenges in terms of the main requirements associated to such systems, namely: precision, reliability, availability, continuity and integrity. It is because proposed solutions, such as satellite or ground-based augmentation systems, depend on signals provided by the GNSS satellite constellation. It constitutes a limitation for using such systems for position and velocity estimations. On other hand, Inertial Navigation Systems-INS, being independent of external signals, have a big potential to be applied on these circumstances; furthermore, they present characteristics that may be considered complementary to the GNSS.
Technical Paper

An Overview of an Assurance Process of Immunity of Embedded Electronic Systems to Single Event Upsets Caused by Ionizing Particles

2013-10-07
2013-36-0535
The aerospace and automotive electronic systems are getting more complex and/or highly integrated, as defined by ARP 4754A, making extensive use of microelectronics and digital memories which, in turn, operates in higher frequencies and lower voltages. In addition, the aircraft are flying in higher altitudes, and polar routes are getting more frequent. These factors raise the probability of occurrence of hazardous effects like the Single Event Upsets in their embedded electronic systems. These must be designed in a way to tolerate and assure the immunity to the Single Event Upsets, based upon criteria such as reliability, availability and criticality. This paper proposes an overview of an assurance process of immunity of embedded electronic systems to Single Event Upsets caused by ionizing particles by means of a review of literature and an analysis of standards as ECSS-E-ST-10-1, NASA Single Event Effects Criticality Analysis and IEC TS 62396-1.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Clock Synchronization Algorithms and their Uses in Aerospace and Automotive Systems

2013-10-07
2013-36-0541
Current systems such as satellites, aircrafts, automobiles, turbines, power controls and traffic controls are becoming increasingly complex and/or highly integrated as prescribed by the SAE-ARP-4754a Standard. Such systems operate in a real time distributed environment which frequently requires a common knowledge of time among different devices, levels and granularities. So, temporal correctness is mostly needed, besides logical correctness. It can be achieved by hardware clocks and devices, software clocks and algorithms, or both, to avoid or tolerate, within appropriate margins, the time faults or failures that may occur in aerospace and automotive systems. This paper presents an overview of clock synchronization algorithms and their uses in aerospace and automotive systems. It is based on a review of the literature, discussion and comparison of some clock synchronization algorithms with different policies.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Models, Methods and Tools for Verification, Validation and Accreditation of Real Time Critical Software

2013-10-07
2013-36-0530
Real-time critical systems are those whose failures may cause loss of transactions/data, missions/batches, vehicles/properties, or even people/human life. Accordingly, some regulations prescribe their maximum acceptable probability of failures to range from about 10−4 to 10−10 failures per hour. Examples of such systems are the ones involving nuclear plants, aircrafts, satellites, automobiles, or traffic controls. They are becoming increasingly complex and/or highly integrated as prescribed by the SAE-ARP-4754A Standard. Those systems include, most of the time, real time critical software that must be specified, designed, implemented, validated, verified and accredited (VVA). To do that, models, specially the V-Model, are frequently adopted, together with methods and tools which perform software VVA to ensure compliance (of correctness, reliability, robustness, etc.) of software to several specific standards such as DO178-B/DO-178C (aviation) or IEC 26262 (automotive) among others.
Technical Paper

Reconfiguration of Control Systems as Means for Reaching Fault Tolerance: An Assessing Study on Methods Available

2013-10-07
2013-36-0639
The realization of modern systems subjected to automatic control, such as aircraft, automobiles, satellites, rocket launchers, cargo and military ships, and so forth; increasingly assume, within its very set of requirements, the task of providing better dependability, i.e.: safety, reliability, and availability altogether. Towards this demand, fault-tolerant control greatly meets such growing demand of dependability, by its ability of recognizing the occurrence of potentially hazardous/hazardous faults within the overall (closed-loop) system, and by taking remedial action whenever necessary/mandatory. The process of fault tolerance can be segregated into two fundamental steps: (1) that of fault diagnosis, comprising fault detection-isolation-identification, and, (2) control adjustment/reconfiguration. This paper focuses on the second step, of control adjustment/reconfiguration.
Technical Paper

A Discussion on the Causes and Effects of Thermal Avalanche in Artificial Satellite Battery Charging and Discharging Systems

2012-10-02
2012-36-0558
The supply of electrical power is one of the most important functions required by the diverse payloads of satellites. A fault in the corresponding subsystem might lead to mission or even vehicle loss. Among the causes of such faults, we highlight the phenomenon of thermal avalanche in batteries. It can be explained as an energetic unbalance where the rate of heat generated in the interior of the system exceeds its capacity to dissipate it. This occurred to the OAO1 of NASA just after its launch on April 8, 1966; and with the CBERS2 of CAST and INPE already in orbit in 2007 and 2009. This work presents a discussion on the causes and effects of thermal avalanches in artificial satellite battery charging and discharging systems.
Technical Paper

Refinements of the GPS Kalman Estimates for the Position and Velocity of a Vehicle during High Acceleration Transients Using IMU Measurements

2012-10-02
2012-36-0513
Currently, the use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems-GNSS has been widely disseminated for the most different applications, from the aeronautical navigation to the car traffic system, being the Global Positioning System-GPS the most used system for such objectives. New applications of such systems have presented more demanding requirements in terms of precision for the position and velocity provided by these systems. Some solutions, as the precision augmentation systems based on satellite or ground improve the precision of the position and velocity estimates. However, the sampling rate of these systems is not substantially improved. Therefore, it constitutes a major limitation of such systems for the position and velocity estimates during high acceleration transients. On other hand, Inertial Navigation Systems- INSs present superior performance under these circumstances.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on Techniques for Accurate Phase or Time Synchronization in Reconfigurable Control Systems

2012-10-02
2012-36-0398
Current systems such as: satellites, aircrafts, automobiles, turbines, power controls and traffic controls are becoming increasingly complex and/or highly integrated as prescribed by the SAE-ARP-4754 Standard. Such systems and their control systems use many modes of operation and many forms of redundancy to achieve high levels of performance and high levels of reliability under changing environments and phases of their lifecycle. The environment disturbances, environment variability, plant non-linear dynamics, plant wear, plant faults, or the non-symmetric plant operation may cause de-synchronization in phase or time among: 1) simultaneous units in the same normal mode of operation; 2) successive units in successive normal modes of operation; 3) main and spare units from normal to faulty modes of operation. So, techniques to reduce those causes or their effects are becoming important aspects to consider in the design of such systems.
Technical Paper

A Scheduler with a Dynamic Priority and its Influence on a Control System

2012-10-02
2012-36-0367
In critical real-time computer systems, whether aircraft, automotive and industrial products it is very common the use of a fixed priority scheduler. The fixed priority scheduler has shown a good performance in control applications even in different applications where it was adopted. But nowadays, to go forward with the technology, be it in hardware and software, schedulers with dynamic priority can be a better alternative in certain situations. The present work aims to show that a variable priority scheduler can improve the performance of a control system obtained with a fixed priority scheduler, even when it was bad conditioned. This study is based on a four motor position control system. For this, the study will make use of a specialized simulation tool. In the future, we intend to extend this study to schedulers that use random and sporadic tasks.
Technical Paper

Application of Methods to Smooth the Transition Between Control Submodes in the Nominal Mode of the Multimission Platform

2012-10-02
2012-36-0378
The Multimission Platform (MMP) is a generic service module currently in Project at INPE. In the 2001 version, its control system can be switched between nine main Operation Modes and other submodes, according to information from satellite sensors and ground commands. The Nominal Mode stabilizes the MMP in three axes and takes it to a nominal attitude, using three reaction wheels. Each wheel has coarse and fine acquisition submodes. The use of multiple modes of control for specific situations frequently is simpler than projecting a single controller for all cases. However, besides being harder to warrant its general stability, the mere switching between these submodes generates bumps, which can reduce the performance and even damage the actuator or plant. In this work, we present an application of diverse methods to smooth the transition between control submodes of the Nominal Mode of the MMP.
Technical Paper

A Discussion on the Use of Model Based Reliability for Improving the Results of the Reliability Analysis and FMEA/FMECA of a Satellite Program

2011-10-04
2011-36-0403
Systems such as satellites, aircrafts, automobiles and air traffic controls are becoming increasingly complex and highly integrated, as prescribed by the SAE ARP 4754 Standard. They integrate many technologies and they work in very demanding environments, sometimes with little or no maintenance, due to the severe conditions of operation. To survive such harsh operating conditions, they require very high levels of reliability, to be reached by a diversity of approaches, processes, components, etc. By their turn, the processes of analysis and decision making shall be improved progressively, as experience accumulates and suggests modifications. Most of this can be translated in models. According to this philosophy, in this work, we discuss the use of Model Based Reliability for improving the results of the Reliability Analysis and FMEA/FMECA of a satellite program, as those conducted at the National Institute for Space Research-INPE, since 1979.
Technical Paper

The Use of PLL Techniques for Accurate Time or Phase Synchronization in Aerospace and Automotive Systems

2011-10-04
2011-36-0179
Current systems such as satellites, aircrafts, automobiles, turbines, wind power generators and traffic controls are becoming increasingly complex and/or highly integrated as prescribed by the SAE-ARP-4754 Standard. Such systems frequently require accurate generation, distribution and time or phase synchronization of signals with different frequencies that may be based on one reference signal and frequency. But the environment fluctuations or the non-linear dynamics of these operations cause uncertainties (skew and jitter) in the phase or time of the reference signal and its derived signals. So, techniques to reduce those causes or their effects are becoming important aspects to consider in the design of such systems. The PLL techniques are useful for establishing coherent phase or time references, jitter reduction, skew suppression, frequency synthesis, and clock recovery in numerous systems such as communication, wireless systems, digital circuits, rotors, and others.
Technical Paper

Bump Reduction for the Reconfigurable Control Architecture of the MultiMission Platform

2011-10-04
2011-36-0187
Many control systems switch between control modes according to necessity. That is often simpler than designing a full control to all situations. However, this creates new problems, as determining the composed system stability and the transient during switching. The latter, while temporary, may introduce overshooting that degrade performance and damage the plant. This is particularly true for the MultiMission Platform (MMP), a generic service module currently under design at INPE. Its control system can be switched among nine main Modes of Operation and other submodes, according to ground command or information coming from the control system, mainly alarms. It can acquire one and three axis stabilization in generic attitudes, with actuators including magnetotorquers, thrusters and reaction wheels.
Technical Paper

A Requirements Based Approach to Future Aeronautical Navigation Systems Based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems

2011-10-04
2011-36-0216
The increasing use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems-GNSS in future Aeronautical Navigation Systems-ANS is a current trend in the aeronautical operation and regulation communities. This trend implies the adoption of elements and interactions of a degree of complexity that is still being discussed around the world. Faced with that, we believe that a requirements based approach is an effective tool to deal with such highly complex and integrated systems. In this work we discuss a requirements based approach to future Aeronautical Navigation Systems based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems. To do that, we first briefly present the concept of Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management - CNS/ATM, and the current and potential benefits of the adoption of its paradigms.
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