Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Model-Based Water Injection Combustion Control System for On-Board Application

2019-09-09
2019-24-0015
Water Injection (WI) has become a key technology for increasing combustion efficiency in modern GDI turbocharged engines. In fact, the addition of water mitigates significantly the occurrence of knock, reduces exhaust gas temperatures, and opens the possibility to reach optimum heat release phasing even at high load. This work presents the latest development of a model-based WI controller, and its experimental validation on a GDI TC engine. The controller is based on a novel approach that involves an analytic combustion model to define the spark advance (SA) required to reach a combustion phase target, considering injected water mass effects. The calibration and experimental validation of the proposed controller is shown in detail in the paper.
Technical Paper

Review of Combustion Indexes Remote Sensing Applied to Different Combustion Types

2019-04-02
2019-01-1132
This paper summarizes the main studies carried out by the authors for the development of indexes for remote combustion sensing applicable to different combustion types, i.e. conventional gasoline and diesel combustions, diesel PCCI and dual fuel gasoline-diesel RCCI. It is well-known that the continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at complying with upcoming increasingly stringent regulations throughout the world, both for pollutants and CO2 emissions. Performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. Over the past years, the authors of this paper have developed several techniques to estimate the most important combustion indexes for combustion control, without using additional cylinder pressure sensors but only using the engine speed sensor (always available on board) and accelerometers (usually available on-board for gasoline engines).
Technical Paper

Remote Sensing Methodology for the Closed-Loop Control of RCCI Dual Fuel Combustion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0253
The continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at complying with upcoming increasingly stringent regulations throughout the world. Performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. These aspects are even more crucial for innovative Low Temperature Combustions (such as RCCI), mainly due to the high instability and the high sensitivity to slight variations of the injection parameters that characterize this kind of combustion. Optimal combustion control can be achieved through a proper closed-loop control of the injection parameters. The most important feedback quantities used for combustion control are engine load (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure or Torque delivered by the engine) and center of combustion (CA50), i.e. the angular position in which 50% of fuel burned within the engine cycle is reached.
Technical Paper

Boost Pressure Control in Transient Engine Load with Turbocharger Speed Sensing

2017-09-04
2017-24-0049
The new driving cycles require a greater focus on a wider engine operative area and especially in transient conditions where a proper air path control is a challenging task for emission and drivability. In order to achieve this goal, turbocharger speed measurement can give several benefits during boost pressure transient and for over-speed prevention, allowing the adoption of a smaller turbocharger, that can further reduce turbo-lag, also enabling engine down-speeding. So far, the use of turbocharger speed sensor was considered expensive and rarely affordable in passenger car applications, while it is used on high performance engines with the aim of maximizing engine power and torque, mainly in steady state, eroding the safe-margin for turbocharger reliability. Thanks to the availability of a new cost effective turbocharger speed technology, based on acoustic sensing, turbocharger speed measurement has become affordably also for passengers car application.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Port Water Injection Strategies to Control Knock in a GDI Engine through Multi-Cycle CFD Simulations

2017-09-04
2017-24-0034
Water injection in highly boosted gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines has become an attractive area over the last few years as a way of increasing efficiency, enhancing performance and reducing emissions. The technology and its effects are not new, but current gasoline engine trends for passenger vehicles have several motivations for adopting this technology today. Water injection enables higher compression ratios, optimal spark timing and elimination of fuel enrichment at high load, and possibly replacement of EGR. Physically, water reduces charge temperature by evaporation, dilutes combustion, and varies the specific heat ratio of the working fluid, with complex effects. Several of these mutually intertwined aspects are investigated in this paper through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, focusing on a turbo-charged GDI engine with port water injection (PWI). Different strategies for water injection timing, pressure and spray targeting are investigated.
Journal Article

Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Control for Engines with Unevenly Spaced Firing Order

2017-03-28
2017-01-0610
The most recent European regulations for two- and three-wheelers (Euro 5) are imposing an enhanced combustion control in motorcycle engines to respect tighter emission limits, and Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) closed-loop control has become a key function of the engine management system also for this type of applications. In a multi-cylinder engine, typically only one oxygen sensor is installed on each bank, so that the mean AFR of two or more cylinders rather than the single cylinder one is actually controlled. The installation of one sensor per cylinder is normally avoided due to cost, layout and reliability issues. In the last years, several studies were presented to demonstrate the feasibility of an individual AFR controller based on a single sensor. These solutions are based on the mathematical modelling of the engine air path dynamics, or on the frequency analysis of the lambda probe signal.
Technical Paper

Knock Control Based on Engine Acoustic Emissions: Calibration and Implementation in an Engine Control Unit

2017-03-28
2017-01-0785
In modern turbocharged downsized GDI engines the achievement of maximum thermal efficiency is precluded by the occurrence of knock. In-cylinder pressure sensors give the best performance in terms of abnormal combustion detection, but they are affected by long term reliability issues and still constitute a considerable part of the entire engine management system cost. To overcome these problems, knock control strategies based on engine block vibrations or ionization current signals have been developed and are widely used in production control units. Furthermore, previous works have shown that engine sound emissions can be real-time processed to provide the engine management system with control-related information such as turbocharger rotational speed and knock intensity, demonstrating the possibility of using a multi-function device to replace several sensors.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery in Automotive Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0207
In the last years, the research effort of the automotive industry has been mainly focused on the reduction of CO2 and pollutants emissions. In this scenario, concepts such as the engines downsizing, stop/start systems as well as more costly full hybrid solutions and, more recently, Waste Heat Recovery technologies have been proposed. These latter include Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and Electric Turbo-Compound (ETC) that have been practically implemented on few heavy-duty applications but have not been proved yet as effective and affordable solutions for passenger cars. The paper deals with modeling of ORC power plant for simulation analyses aimed at evaluating the opportunities and challenges of its application for the waste heat recovery in a compact car, powered by a turbocharged SI engine.
Journal Article

Acoustic Emission Processing for Turbocharged GDI Engine Control Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1622
In the field of passenger car engines, recent research advances have proven the effectiveness of downsized, turbocharged and direct injection concepts, applied to gasoline combustion systems, to reduce the overall fuel consumption while respecting particularly stringent exhaust emissions limits. Knock and turbocharger control are two of the most critical factors that influence the achievement of maximum efficiency and satisfactory drivability, for this new generation of engines. The sound emitted from an engine encloses many information related to its operating condition. In particular, the turbocharger whistle and the knock clink are unmistakable sounds. This paper presents the development of real-time control functions, based on direct measurement of the engine acoustic emission, captured by an innovative and low cost acoustic sensor, implemented on a platform suitable for on-board application.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Simulation Methodology of Thermal Management Systems for the CO2 Reduction after Engine Cold Start

2015-04-14
2015-01-0343
The emissions limits of CO2 for vehicles are becoming more stringent with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) is adopted to measure emissions for all new internal combustion engines in the European Union, and it is performed on cold vehicle, starting at a temperature of 22°C ± 2°C. Consequently, the cold-start efficiency of internal combustion engine is becoming of predominant interest. Since at cold start the lubricant oil viscosity is higher than at the target operating temperature, the consequently higher energy losses due to increased frictions can substantially affect the emission cycle results in terms of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. A suitable thermal management system, such as an exhaust-to-oil heat exchanger, could help to raise the oil temperature more quickly.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Engine Thermal State by in-Cylinder Pressure Measurement in Automotive Diesel Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-1623
International regulations continuously restrict the standards for the exhaust emissions from automotive engines. In order to comply with these requirements, innovative control and diagnosis systems are needed. In this scenario the application of methodologies based on the in-cylinder pressure measurement finds widespread applications. Indeed, almost all engine thermodynamic variables useful for either control or diagnosis can be derived from the in-cylinder pressure. Apart for improving the control accuracy, the availability of the in-cylinder pressure signal might also allow reducing the number of existing sensors on-board, thus lowering the equipment costs and the engine wiring complexity. The paper focuses on the detection of the engine thermal state, which is fundamental to achieve suitable control of engine combustion and after-treatment devices.
Journal Article

Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Supply System Modelling for Control and Diagnosis Applications

2015-01-14
2015-26-0090
The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system installed on the exhaust line is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for light and medium duty trucks, large passenger cars and off-highway vehicles, to fulfill future emission legislation. Some vehicles of these last categories, equipped with SCR, have been already put on the market, not only in the US, where the emission legislation on Diesel vehicles is more restrictive, but also in Europe, demonstrating to be already compliant with the upcoming Euro 6. Moreover, new and more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed all over the world, with a consequent rapidly increasing interest for this technology. As a matter of fact, a physical model of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) supply system is very useful, not only during the product development phase, but also for the implementation of the on-board real-time controller.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Powertrain Model to Evaluate the Benefits of Electric Turbo Compound (ETC) in Reducing CO2 Emissions from Small Diesel Passenger Cars

2014-04-01
2014-01-1650
In the last years the automotive industry has been involved in the development and implementation of CO2 reducing concepts such as the engines downsizing, stop/start systems as well as more costly full hybrid solutions and, more recently, waste heat recovery technologies. These latter include ThermoElectric Generator (TEG), Rankine cycle and Electric Turbo Compound (ETC) that have been practically implemented on few heavy-duty application but have not been proved yet as effective and affordable solutions for the automotive industry. The paper deals with the analysis of opportunities and challenges of the Electric Turbo Compound for automotive light-duty engines. In the ETC concept the turbine-compressor shaft is connected to an electric machine, which can work either as generator or motor. In the former case the power can satisfy the vehicle electrical demand to drive the auxiliaries or stored in the batteries.
Journal Article

Modeling Analysis of Waste Heat Recovery via Thermo Electric Generators for Fuel Economy Improvement and CO2 Reduction in Small Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-0663
This paper deals with modeling and analysis of the integration of ThermoElectric generators (TEG) into a conventional vehicle, specifically aimed at recovering waste heat from exhaust gases. The model is based on existing and commercial thermoelectric materials, specifically Bi2Te3, having ZTs not exceeding 1 and efficiency below 5%, but a trade-off between cost and performance that would be acceptable for automotive applications. TEGs operate on the principle of thermoelectric energy conversion via Seebeck effect, utilizing thermal gradients to generate electric current, with exhaust gases at the hot side and coolant at the cold side. In the simulated configuration the TEG converters are interfaced with the battery/alternator supporting the operation of the vehicle, reducing the energy consumption due to electrical accessories and HVAC.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management Strategies for SCR After Treatment Systems

2013-09-08
2013-24-0153
While the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is actually a quasi-standard equipment in the European Diesel passenger cars market, an interesting solution to fulfill NOx emission limits for the next EU 6 legislation is the application of a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system on the exhaust line, to drastically reduce NOx emissions. In this context, one of the main issues is the performance of the SCR system during cold start and warm up phases of the engine. The exhaust temperature is too low to allow thermal activation of the reactor and, consequently, to promote high conversion efficiency and significant NOx concentration reduction. This is increasingly evident the smaller the engine displacement, because of its lower exhaust system temperature (reduced gross power while producing the same net power, i.e., higher efficiency).
Journal Article

Innovative Techniques for On-Board Exhaust Gas Dynamic Properties Measurement

2013-04-08
2013-01-0305
The purpose of this paper is to present some innovative techniques developed for an unconventional utilization of currently standard exhaust sensors, such as HEGO, UEGO, and NOx probes. In order to comply with always more stringent legislation about pollutant emissions, intake-exhaust systems are becoming even more complex and sophisticated, especially for CI engines, often including one or two UEGO sensors and a NOx sensor, and potentially equipped with both short-route and long-route EGR. Within this context, the effort to carry out novel methods for measuring the main exhaust gas dynamic properties exploiting sensors installed for different purposes, could be useful both for control applications, such as EGR rates estimation, or cost reduction, minimizing the on-board devices number. In this work, a gray-box model for measuring the gas mass flow rate, based on standard NOx sensor operating parameters of its heating circuit, is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Development of an Urea Supply System for the SCR Catalyst

2013-01-09
2013-26-0047
The increase in the fuel price and more stringent regulations on greenhouse gases (CO2) make the engine compression ignition technology even more attractive in the context of internal combustion engines. This is because the modern turbocharged direct injection engines, with the common rail fuel system, are characterized by high combustion efficiency and power density, that make them particularly suitable both for applications on and off road. On the other hand, the compression ignition engines are subject to a heavy technological developments to meet the more stringent regulations on emissions of exhaust pollutants, especially PM and NOx. The adopted technologies have two main approaches, on the combustion and on the exhaust gas aftertreatment. The measures applied for combustion can reduce emissions, but with the risk of penalizing the other engine performances, such as noise, power output and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Tuning of the Engine Control Variables of an Automotive Turbocharged Diesel Engine via Model Based Optimization

2011-09-11
2011-24-0146
The paper deals with the steady-state optimal tuning of control variables for an automotive turbocharged Diesel engine. The optimization analysis is based on an engine simulation model, composed of a control oriented model of turbocharger integrated with a predictive multi-zone combustion model, which allows accounting for the impact of control variables on engine performance, NOx and soot emissions and turbine outlet temperature. This latter strongly affects conversion efficiency of after treatment devices therefore its estimation is of great interest for both control and simulation of tailpipe emissions. The proposed modeling structure is aimed to support the engine control design for common-rail turbocharged Diesel engines with multiple injections, where the large number of control parameters requires a large experimental tuning effort.
Technical Paper

A thermodynamic Mean Value Model of the intake and exhaust system of a turbocharged engine for HiL/SiL applications.

2009-09-13
2009-24-0121
Regarding automotive applications, Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) have become very complex plants to comply with present and future requirements in reduction of fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and performance improvement. As a consequence, the development of engine control and diagnostic system is a key aspect in the powertrain design. Mathematical models are useful tools in this direction, with applications that range from the definition of optimised management systems, to Hardware- and Software-in-the-Loop testing (HiL and SiL) and to modelbased control strategies. To this extent an original library has been developed by the authors for the simulation of last generation automotive engines. Library blocks were used to assembly a sub-model of the typical intake and exhaust system of a turbocharged engine (with VGT, intercooler, EGR circuit with cooler and throttle).
Technical Paper

A Mean Value Model of the Exhaust System with SCR for an Automotive Diesel Engine

2009-09-13
2009-24-0131
Nowadays requirements towards a reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) keep on pushing manufacturers to improve engines performance through the enhancement of existing subsystems (e.g.: electronic fuel injection, air systems) and the introduction of specific devices (e.g.: exhaust gas recirculation systems, SCR, …). Modern systems require a combined design and application of different after-treatment devices. Mathematical models are useful tools to investigate the complexity of different system layouts, to design and to validate (HIL/SIL testing) control strategies for the after-treatment management. This study presents a mean value model of an exhaust system with SCR; it has been coupled with a common rail diesel engine combustion black box model (Neural Network based). So, dedicated models for exhaust pipes, oxidation catalyst, diesel particulate filter and selective catalytic converter are developed.
X