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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles Using Engine in the Loop

Their easy availability, lower well-to-wheel emissions, and relative ease of use with existing engine technologies have made ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends a viable alternative to gasoline for use in spark-ignition (SI) engines. The lower energy density of ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends, however, results in higher volumetric fuel consumption compared with gasoline. Also, the higher latent heat of vaporization can result in cold-start issues with higher-level ethanol blends. On the other hand, a higher octane number, which indicates resistance to knock and potentially enables more optimal combustion phasing, results in better engine efficiency, especially at higher loads. This paper compares the fuel consumption and emissions of two ethanol blends (E50 and E85) with those for gasoline when used in conventional (non-hybrid) and power-split-type plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).
Journal Article

PHEV Energy Management Strategies at Cold Temperatures with Battery Temperature Rise and Engine Efficiency Improvement Considerations

Limited battery power and poor engine efficiency at cold temperature results in low plug in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) fuel economy and high emissions. Quick rise of battery temperature is not only important to mitigate lithium plating and thus preserve battery life, but also to increase the battery power limits so as to fully achieve fuel economy savings expected from a PHEV. Likewise, it is also important to raise the engine temperature so as to improve engine efficiency (therefore vehicle fuel economy) and to reduce emissions. One method of increasing the temperature of either component is to maximize their usage at cold temperatures thus increasing cumulative heat generating losses. Since both components supply energy to meet road load demand, maximizing the usage of one component would necessarily mean low usage and slow temperature rise of the other component. Thus, a natural trade-off exists between battery and engine warm-up.

Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

Air pollution, global warming, and the steady decrease in petroleum resources continue to stimulate interest in the development of safe, clean, and highly efficient transportation. Building on the foundation of the bestselling first edition, this second edition updates and expands its detailed coverage of the vehicle technologies that offer the most promising solutions to these issues affecting the automotive industry. Proven as a useful in-depth resource and comprehensive reference for modern automotive systems engineers, students, and researchers, this book speaks from the perspective of the overall drive train system and not just its individual components. New to the second edition: o A case study appendix that breaks down the Toyota Prius hybrid system o Corrections and updates of the material in the first edition o Three new chapters on drive train design methodology and control principles o A completely rewritten chapter on Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking
Technical Paper

Investigation of Proper Motor Drive Characteristics for Military Vehicle Propulsion

Due to their harsh operating environments, military vehicle drive trains have special requirements. These special requirements are usually represented by hill climbing ability, obstacle negotiation, battlefield cross country travel, hard acceleration, high speed, etc. These special requirements need the vehicle drive train to have a wider torque and speed range characteristics than commercial vehicles. We have proved that larger constant power ratio in electric motor can significantly enhance the vehicle acceleration performance. In other words, for the same acceleration performance, large constant power ratio can minimize the power rating of the traction motor drive, thus minimizing the power rating of the power source (batteries for instance). Actually, extension of the constant power range can also significantly enhance the gradeability, which is crucial for military vehicles.
Technical Paper

Study of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive Train Dynamics Using Gyrator-Based Equivalent Circuit Modeling

The main idea in the concept of advanced vehicles is to combine two or more power plants in order to improve the overall efficiency of the vehicle. The modeling of advanced vehicle is challenging, mainly because of the presence of several power plants in the system. After a presentation of the generalized equivalent circuit theory, including the electrical analogy and the theory of generalized gyrators and transformers, the modeling technique is compared to existing methods. Then, vehicle subsystems are modeled from the mechanical drive train to the different power plants and energy storages, according to the methodology. Some typical hybrid architectures are processed through the modeling technique and a final equivalent circuit is presented and discussed for each of them. Finally, the study of electromechanical interactions and mechanical transients is presented.
Technical Paper

A Mild Hybrid Drive Train for 42 V Automotive Power System-Design, Control and Simulation

In this paper, a mild hybrid drive train has been proposed. A small electric motor with low rated voltage (42 V) is used to (1) propel the vehicle at low speed, (2) replace the fluid-coupled torque converter and (3) realize regenerative braking. With proper design and control, the fuel economy in urban driving can be significantly improved without much change from conventional drive train to the mild hybrid drive train.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of Field-Weakening Operation of Electric Motors on Drive Train Oscillations

Studying the dynamics of electric motor drives is not easy. Indeed, there is no unified approach to model both the mechanical and the electrical elements of the motor drive in order to bring an intuitive understanding of the dynamic behavior. Moreover, for traction purposes, the machines are often used at field-weakening operation, which can be a source of unwanted oscillations. In this paper, the gyrator-based equivalent circuit modeling is presented. The method allows the understanding of some aspects of the dynamic behavior of DC motor drives such as the interaction between electric inductances and the rotor inertia and their oscillating behavior.
Technical Paper

42V Automotive Power Systems

With the increase of hotel and ancillary loads and replacement of engine driven mechanical and hydraulic loads with electrical loads, automotive systems are becoming more electric. This is the concept of More Electric Cars (MEC) that necessitates a higher system voltage, such as the proposed 42V, for conventional cars. In this paper, the development of the 42V electric power system for vehicle applications is reviewed. The system architecture and motor drive problems associated with the 42V electric power system are analyzed. Solutions to these problems are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Electronic Braking System of EV And HEV---Integration of Regenerative Braking, Automatic Braking Force Control and ABS

The desirable braking system of a land vehicle is that it can stop the vehicle or reduce the vehicle speed as quickly as possible, maintain the vehicle direction stable and recover kinetic energy of the vehicle as much as possible. In this paper, an electronically controlled braking system for EV and HEV has been proposed, which integrates regenerative braking, automatic control of the braking forces of front and rear wheels and wheels antilock function together. When failure occurs in the electric system, the braking system can function as a conventional man-actuated braking system. Control strategies for controlling the braking forces on front and rear wheels, regenerative braking and mechanical braking forces have been developed. The braking energy that can be potentially recovered in typical driving cycle has been calculated. The antilock performance of the braking system has been simulated.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Hybrid Drive Trains for Railway Vehicles

The concept of hybrid drive trains was first developed for automobiles. These drive trains allow achieving a minimum fuel consumption by properly matching the driving requirements and the engine characteristics. In this paper the authors analyze the possibility of extending this concept to railway vehicles. Basic hybrid railway vehicles are designed and discussed.
Technical Paper

Design Issues of the Switched Reluctance Motor Drive for Propulsion and Regenerative Braking in EV and HEV

There is a growing interest in electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EV and HEV) due to their high efficiency and low emission. In EV and HEV, the characteristic of the traction motor is essential for the performance and efficiency of the EV and HEV. In this paper, the advantages of the extended constant power range characteristic of the traction motor for both propulsion and regenerative braking are analyzed. Simulation results are presented to verify the conclusions. Due to its several inherent advantages, especially its capability of having an extended constant power range, Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is proposed as the candidate of the traction motor in EV and HEV. The design methodology of SRM for achieving an extended constant power range and the control strategy of SRM for regenerative braking in EV and HEV are presented.
Technical Paper

Systematic Design of Fuel Cell Powered Hybrid Vehicle Drive Train

A general design methodology of the fuel cell powered hybrid vehicle drive train has been developed. With the methodology and a computer simulation program, all of the systematic parameters can be designed, such as, the rated power of the electric motor drive, fuel cell system, peaking power source as well as the energy capacity. An overall control strategy has also been developed. The main function of the control strategy is to properly control the power produced by the fuel cell system and the peaking power source, so as to meet the power demand, maintain the energy level of the peaking power source in its optimal region and operate the fuel cell system within its high efficiency region. In this paper, a design example has also been introduced in each section.
Technical Paper

On the Suitability of Low-Voltage (42 V) Electrical Power System for Traction Applications in the Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

There is a clear trend towards Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) due to the environmental concerns. On the other hand, with increasing hotel and ancillary loads and replacement of more engine driven mechanical and hydraulic loads with electrical loads, automotive systems are becoming more electric. This is the concept of More Electric Cars (MEC) which necessitates going to a higher voltage such as 42V for conventional cars. Can the evaluation of the 42V MEC smoothly lead to the Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) and More Electric Hybrid Vehicles (MEHV)? In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of 42V & 14+42V electrical power systems for MEHV. Technical issues of such a solution are explored in detail.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effectiveness of Regenerative Braking for EV and HEV

The possibility of recovering vehicle kinetic energy is one inherent advantage of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. When a vehicle drives in heavy traffic, for example in New York City, more than half of the total energy is dissipated in the brakes. Therefore, recovering braking energy is an effective approach for improving the driving range of EV and the energy efficiency of HEV. In this paper, three different braking patterns are investigated for evaluating the availability of braking energy recovery. The results indicate that even without active braking control, a significant amount of braking energy can be recovered, and the brake system does not need much changing from the brake systems of conventional passenger cars.
Technical Paper

On the Concept of Negative Impedance Instability in the More Electric Aircraft Power Systems with Constant Power Loads

The purpose of this paper is to present an assessment of the negative impedance instability concept of the constant power loads in the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) power systems. We address the fundamental problems faced in the stability studies of these multi-converter power electronic systems. An approach to the design of sliding-mode controllers for PWM DC/DC converters with constant power loads is presented. Because of the negative impedance destabilizing characteristics of constant power loads, conventional linear control methods have stability limitations around the operating points. However, the proposed controllers improve large-signal stability and dynamic responses. The proposed controllers are simulated and their responses under different operations are discussed. Finally, we verify the stability of the controllers using the second theorem of Lyapunov.
Technical Paper

Electrical System Architectures for Future Aircraft

This paper addresses the fundamental issues faced in the aircraft electrical system architectures. Furthermore, a brief description of the conventional and advanced aircraft power system architectures, their disadvantages, opportunities for improvement, future electric loads, role of power electronics, and present trends in aircraft power system research will be given. Finally, this paper concludes with a brief outline of the projected advancements in the future.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Electric Vehicle Utilization on Global CO2 Emission Levels

The last quarter century has seen CO2 emissions increase at a steadily increasing rate. In the U.S.A. alone from 1970 to 1992 the CO2 emissions have increased from 5.5 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide to 6.6 bmt. The transportation industry contributes currently (1991 figures) 24.7% of the total emissions from the United States. Transportation utilization has grown faster, however, but more efficient vehicles allow for more travel without increasing the CO2 proportionally. The advancements made in the 1980s have reduced emissions by 21 million tons of CO2 per year on average. Electric Vehicles have been a proposed method of reducing the CO2 emissions due to transportation. Electric vehicles produce no emissions while driving, making them ideal candidates for heavily polluted and concentrated areas such as urban locations. However, it is debatable if electric vehicles are feasible on the global scale of CO2 reduction.
Technical Paper

A Charge Sustaining Parallel HEV Application of the Transmotor

An electromechanical gear is presented along with design examples utilizing the electromechanical gear in hybrid electric vehicle drive trains. The designs feature the electromechanical gear (the Transmotor) in place of traditional mechanical transmissions and/or gearing mechanisms. The transmotor is an electric motor suspended by its shafts, in which both the stator and the rotor are allowed to rotate freely. The motor thus can provide positive or negative rotational energy to its shafts by either consuming or generating electrical energy. A design example is included in which the transmotor is installed on the output shaft of an internal combustion engine. In this arrangement the transmotor can either increase or decrease shaft speed by applying or generating electrical power, allowing the ICE to operate with a constant speed.
Technical Paper

The Energy Flow Management and Battery Energy Capacity Determination for the Drive Train of Electrically Peaking Hybrid Vehicle

In this paper, the configuration of a parallel hybrid vehicle, called electrically peaking hybrid (ELPH) vehicle is introduced. Several operation modes of the engine and electric motor and different control strategies are analyzed. The results show that, with proper selection of the drivetrain parameters, the vehicle can satisfy the urban and highway driving with a small internal combustion engine, a small battery pack and a single gear transmission. Moreover, the vehicle does not need to charge the battery pack from the electricity network for keeping its battery SOC at a reasonable level.
Technical Paper

Parametric Design of the Drive Train of an Electrically Peaking Hybrid (ELPH) Vehicle

The operation of an electrically peaking hybrid vehicle (ELPH) can be divided into two basic modes. • Constant or cruising speed mode in which a small internal combustion engine (ICE) is used to power the vehicle. • Peak power mode in which the combination of an electric motor and ICE is used to supply peak power for acceleration and limited-duration steep hill climbing of the vehicle. A method, by which the engine size and the speed reduction ratio from the engine to drivewheels can be developed based on the cruising mode, is presented in this paper. The electric motor power rating and the motor gear ratio to the drive wheels can then be determined, based on the acceleration and gradeability. The results show that a simple single-gear transmission would be a good selection for overall performance.