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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Hydrous Ethanol Fuel Lubricity by HFRR

2016-10-17
2016-01-2260
Improvement of thermal efficiency is an important problem for internal combustion engines. Fuel reforming with dehydrogenation reaction by exhaust heat is one of the measures to increase thermal efficiency using hydrogen mixed SI combustion. For this kind engine system, hydrous ethanol has a good potential. Furthermore, when the hydrous ethanol inject to combustion chamber directory, high compression combustion can be achieved by its large amount of latent heat. Therefore, fuel lubricity is an important check point for the hydrous ethanol reforming engine systems. In this study, effect of water concentrations within ethanol on the hydrous ethanol fuel lubricity has been evaluated using HFRR (High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig) test method. Wear scar diameter on 100 % of ethanol was around 700 μm which was a little better than gasoline lubricity. When the water concentration within ethanol was increased, the wear scar diameters were decreasing around 330 μm.
Technical Paper

Methodology of Lubricity Evaluation for DME Fuel based on HFRR

2011-11-08
2011-32-0651
The methodology of lubricity evaluation for DME fuel was established by special modified HFRR (High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig) such as Multi-Pressure/Temperature HFRR (MPT-HFRR). The obtained results were summarized as follows: The HFRR method is adaptable with DME fuel. There is no effect of the test pressure (up to 1.8 MPa) and the test temperature (up to 100°C) of MPT-HFRR on wear scar diameter. The results with MPT-HFRR can be applied at the sliding parts of the injection needle and the fuel supply pump's plungers which are secured lubricity by the boundary lubrication mode mainly and the mixed lubrication mode partially. Using the fatty-acid-based lubricity improver in amounts of approximately 100 ppm, the lubricity of DME, which has a lack of self-lubricity, is ensured as same as the diesel fuel equivalent level. There is a big deviation of measured wear scar diameter when the LI concentration is not enough.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Formation in DME Combustion

2011-11-08
2011-32-0632
Dimethyl ether (DME) is an oxygenated fuel with the molecular formula CH₃OCH₃, economically produced from various energy sources, such as natural gas, coal and biomass. It has gained prominence as a substitute for diesel fuel in Japan and in other Asian countries, from the viewpoint of both energy diversification and environmental protection. The greatest advantage of DME is that it emits practically no particulate matter when used in compression ignition (CI) engine. However, one of the drawbacks of DME CI engine is the increase carbon monoxide (CO) emission in high-load and high exhaust gas circulation (EGR) regime. In this study, we have investigated the CO formation characteristics of DME CI combustion based on chemical kinetics.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Fuel Impurities Effect on DME Powered Diesel Engine System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0468
DME as a fuel for compression ignition (diesel) engines has been actively studied for about ten years due to its characteristically low pollution and reputation as a “smokeless fuel”. During this time, the practical application is taking shape based on necessary tasks such as analysis of injection and combustion, engine performance, and development of experimental vehicles. At this moment, standardization of DME as a fuel was started under ISO in 2007. There are concerns regarding the impurities in DME regarding the mixing during production and distribution as well as their effect on additives for lubricity and odor. In this report, the effect of DME fuel impurities on performance of a DME powered diesel engine was investigated. The platform was a DME engine with common-rail fuel injection and was evaluated under partial load stable mode and Japanese transient mode (JE05) testing parameters.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel Auto-ignitability on Premixed Compression Ignition Characteristics

2008-04-14
2008-01-0062
It has been clarified that diesel fuel properties have a great effect on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a conventional diesel combustion regime. And as other diesel combustion regimes are applied in order to improve exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, it can be supposed that the fuel properties also have significant effects. The purpose of this study is to propose the optimum diesel fuel properties for a premixed compression ignition (PCI) combustion regime. In this paper, the effect of the auto-ignitability of diesel fuels on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption was evaluated using a heavy-duty single-cylinder test engine. In all experiments, fuels were injected using an electronically controlled, common-rail diesel fuel injector, and most experiments were conducted under high EGR conditions in order to reduce NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Medium Duty DME Truck Performance -Field Test Results and PM Characteristics-

2007-01-23
2007-01-0032
The performance of a medium duty DME truck was evaluated by field tests and engine bench tests. The DME vehicle was given a public license plate on October 2004, after which running tests were continued on public roads and a test course. The DME vehicle could run the whole distance, about 500 km, without refueling. The average diesel equivalent fuel consumption of the fully loaded DME truck was 5.75 km/l, running at 80 km/h on public highways. Remedying several malfunctions that occurred in the power-train subsystems enhanced the vehicle performance and operation. The DME vehicle accumulated 13,000 km as of August, 2006 with no observed durability trouble of the fuel injection pump. Disassembly and inspection of the fuel injectors after 7,700 km operation revealed a few differences in the nozzle tip and the needle compared to diesel fuel operation. However, the injectors were used again after cleanup.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Trace Levels of Harmful Substances Emitted from a DME DI Diesel Engine

2005-05-11
2005-01-2202
In this report, trace levels of harmful substances, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, SO2, benzene and so on, emitted from a DME fueled direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine were measured using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) emission analyzer. Results showed that the NO portion of NOx emissions with DME exceeded diesel fuel operation levels. DME fueling caused greater amounts of water than with diesel fuel operation. DME fueling was also associated with higher formaldehyde emissions than with diesel fuel operation. However, using an oxidation catalyst, formaldehyde could be decreased to a negligible level.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of a Medium Duty DME Truck

2005-05-11
2005-01-2194
Dimethyl ether (DME) has been attracting notable attention as a clean alternative fuel for diesel engines. The authors developed a medium duty DME truck, and investigated aspects of vehicle performance such as engine power, exhaust characteristics, fuel consumption, noise, in-vehicle systems, and so on. Results indicated that higher engine torque and power could be achieved with DME compared to diesel fuel operation of the base engine at any engine speed. Results also showed that emissions decreased dramatically, to 27% for NOx, 74% for HC, 95% for CO and 94% for PM (Particulate Matter) compared to maximum allowed Japanese 2003 emission regulations. The operating noise of the DME vehicle was slightly lower than the base vehicle with diesel fuel, because the combustion noise with DME was decreased compared to with diesel fuel operation. The DME vehicle was given a public license plate in October 2004, after which running test continued on public roads and on a test course.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics of DME Diesel Engine With Inline Injection Pump Developed for DME

2004-06-08
2004-01-1863
The engine performance and exhaust characteristics of the DME-powered diesel engine with an injection system developed for DME were investigated. The injection pump is an inline type that can inject double amount of DME fuel compared to the base injection pump because the calorific value of DME is about half lower than that of diesel fuel. The effect of injection timing on engine performances such as thermal efficiency, engine torque, and exhaust characteristics were investigated. Maximum torque and power with DME could be achieved the same or greater level compared to diesel fuel operation. Considering over all engine performances, the best dynamic injection timings without EGR were -3, -3, -6 and -9 deg. ATDC in 1120, 1680, 2240 and 2800 rpm engine speeds respectively in this experiment.
Technical Paper

Fuel Characteristics Evaluation of GTL for DI Diesel Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0088
In this study, advantages of GTL fueled DI diesel engine were observed, then, some cautionary areas, notably the aptitude for sealing materials, were investigated. Some advantages of using GTL as a diesel engine fuel include reduction of soot emission levels, power output and fuel consumption with GTL to conventional diesel fuel operation is equivalent, super-low sulfur content of GTL and its liquid state at normal temperature and pressure. However, there are some problems with putting GTL fuel on the market, such as lubricity, aptitude for sealing materials, high cetane index and high pour point. It is necessary to use additives to improve GTL's lubricity, and selecting the most appropriate type of lubricity improver is also important. The influence of GTL on the swelling properties of standard rubber materials seem basically the same, but it is necessary to notice on used rubbers.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Analysis of Combustion in the DME Diesel Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0089
For better understanding of the combustion characteristics in a direct injection dimethyl ether (DME) engine, the chemiluminescences of a burner flame and in-cylinder flame were analyzed using the spectroscopic method. The emission intensities of chemiluminescences were measured by a photomultiplier after passing through a monochrome-spectrometer. For the burner flame, line spectra were found nearby the wave length of 310 nm, 430 nm and 515 nm, arising from OH, CH and C2 radicals, respectively. For the in-cylinder flame, a strong continuous spectrum was found from 340 nm wave length to 550 nm. Line spectra were also detected nearby 310 nm, 395 nm and 430 nm, arising from OH, HCHO, and C2 radicals, respectively, partially overlapping with the continuous spectrum. Of these line spectra, 310 nm of OH radical did not overlapped with the continuous spectrum.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Conditions on Driving Performance of a DME Diesel Vehicle

2003-10-27
2003-01-3193
Since dimethyl ether (DME) is a synthetic fuel, it is possible to make it from natural gas, coal and biomass. It is a low-emission, oxygenated fuel, which does not generate soot in the exhaust. Therefore, it has recently been identified as a possible replacement for diesel fuel. In Japan, the new short-term emissions regulations will be enforced beginning in 2003, and the long-term emissions regulations are scheduled to be enforced in 2005. In order to meet these more stringent emissions regulations, existing diesel engines would not be as widely used in the near future as they currently are. This will thus bring about a more widespread use of DME engines due to their low emissions potential. Moreover, when the modification of existing diesel engines into DME engines is available at a moderate cost, the wider use of DME engines can be expected. This study targeted development and application of DME engine technology for diesel engine retrofit, in a used diesel vehicle.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Analysis from In-Cylinder Combustion of a DME-Fueled DI Diesel Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3192
To date, the DME combustion mechanism has been investigated by in-cylinder gas sampling, numerical calculations and observation of combustion radicals. It has been possible to quantify the emission intensities of in-cylinder combustion using a monochromator, and to observe the emitting species as images by using band-pass filters. However, the complete band images were not observed since the broadband (thermal) intensity may be stronger than band spectra intensities. Emission intensities of DME combustion radicals from a pre-mixed burner flame have been measured using a spectroscope and photomultiplier. Results were compared to other fuels, such as n-butane and methane, then, in this study, to better understand the combustion characteristics of DME, emission intensities near CH bands of an actual DI diesel engine fueled with DME were measured, and band spectra emitted from the engine were defined. Near TDC, emission intensities did not vary with wavelength.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Analysis of Combustion Flame Fueled with Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2003-05-19
2003-01-1797
To better understand the combustion characteristics of DME, emission intensities of DME combustion radicals from a pre-mixed burner flame were measured by a spectroscope and photomultiplier, Results were compared to other fuels, such as methane and butane. Large peaks in the band spectra from pre-mixed and diffusion DME flames were found near 310 nm, 430 nm, and 515 nm, arising from OH, CH and C2, respectively. The DME emission intensities decreased with increasing the equivalence ratio in this study. Notably, the relative decrease in the C2 band spectra peak was greater than that of the OH band. Comparing the pre-mixed DME and butane flames, the butane band spectra peaks were similar in shape, but much stronger than those for DME. However, it was remarkable that CH and C2 band spectra peaks decreased only slightly with increase in equivalence ratio compared to the DME case.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of a DI diesel engine Operated with LPG and Cetane Enhancing additives

2003-05-19
2003-01-1920
Experiments were conducted to operate a direct injection (DI) diesel engine by using Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as a main fuel. Aliphatic Hydrocarbon (AH), cetane enhancing additive and lubricating additive were also added to the LPG so that smooth operation was achieved with a wide range of engine loads. Since the lubricity of LPG is lower than the diesel fuel therefore lubricating additive was employed to enhance the lubricity of LPG blended fuel. Furthermore, prototype LPG diesel truck was developed in this work, and the mileage reached about 70,000 km without any major failure. Prototype truck has good starting, good drive-off, acceleration and braking characteristics.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Lubricity Improvement of Gas-to-liquid (GTL) Fuels with Additives for Low Sulphur Diesel Fuel

2003-05-19
2003-01-1948
In this study, lubricity improvers were added to three different GTL fuels, which were then quantified with a High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) and compared with ultra low sulphur diesel fuel (ULS). Furthermore, the lubricity of mixtures of a GTL blended with ULS was also investigated. Two kinds of compounds were tested as lubricity improvers: unsaturated fatty acids (UFA-type) and partial UFA esters of glycerin (Ester-type). All GTL fuels showed less sensitivity to a lubricity additive than ULS did, but the ULS mixture had better than expected lubricity. Thus it was concluded that blending of GTLs with ULS can be regarded as one practical measure to sufficiently improve lubricity. HFRR tests performed under the same viscosity suggested that fuel composition had an important effect on its sensitivity to an additive, as well as viscosity.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of LPG Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0764
In this study, spray images of LPG Blended Fuels (LBF) for DI diesel engines were observed using a constant volume chamber at high ambient temperature and pressure, and the spray characteristics of the fuel were investigated. The LBF spray started to vaporize at the injector tip and the outer downstream regions of the spray, like diesel fuel, because of the high temperature at these areas. There were more vaporized areas compared to diesel fuel. Sufficient fuel injection volume and volatility of LBF resulted in good fuel-air mixture, then, THC emissions decreased compared to diesel fuel at high load engine test conditions. Butane spray image could not be observed at the injector tip. It seems that the high temperature of the injector tip caused the butane spray to vaporize rapidly. Spray tip penetration with LBF and butane were equal or greater than with diesel fuel. The high volatility of LBF and butane had no noticeable effect on spray penetration.
Technical Paper

Development of Retrofit DME Diesel Engine Operating with Rotary Distributor Fuel Injection Pump

2003-03-03
2003-01-0758
In order to reduce environmental disruption due to exhaust PM and NOx emissions from diesel engines of dimethyl ether (DME) has been proposed the use for the next generation vehicles, because the discharge of the atmospheric pollutants is less. In this study, DME is used to fuel a retrofit type diesel engine, and operational tests were carried out using a rotary distributor fuel injection pump. In this experiment, comparison and examination of the effects of fuel injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter, and injection timing. When using DME as an alternative fuel, the fuel temperature affects engine operation. And diameter of the injector nozzle hole and larger injection quantity is regarded as factors affecting the improvement in engine performance. In addition, for understanding the DME spray in the cylinder, DME was sprayed in a constant volume chamber where atmospheric temperature and pressure increased simultaneously, and the result is compared and examined with diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fueled with Two Types of Gas To Liquid (GTL)

2002-10-21
2002-01-2691
In this study, the main properties of two types of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels were investigated. Then, performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine fueled with GTLs were investigated by comparison with diesel fuel. GTL1 was composed of 100% paraffin by volume, and GTL2 was composed of 99.8% paraffin and 0.2% aromatics by volume. Most GTL fuel properties were comparable to those of diesel fuel, while both fuels have a higher cetane number and lower sulphur. A diesel engine could be operated with GTL fueling without any special engine modifications. Our tests showed that with the high cetane number of GTLs, the ignition delay was shorter, and combustion started earlier than with diesel fuel. With GTL1 operation, THC and soot emissions were lower than with diesel fuel operation, and even lower with GTL2 fueling.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of an LPG DI SI Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2002-05-06
2002-01-1648
This work aimed to develop an LPG fueled direct injection SI engine, especially in order to improve the exhaust emission quality while maintaining high thermal efficiency comparable to a conventional engine. In-cylinder direct injection engines developed recently worldwide utilizes the stratified charge formation technique at low load, whereas at high load, a close-to-homogeneous charge is formed. Thus, compared to a conventional port injection engine, a significant improvement of fuel consumption and power can be achieved. To implement such a combustion strategy, the stratification of mixture charge is very important, and an understanding of its combustion process is also inevitably necessary. In this work, a numerical simulation was performed using a CFD code (KIVA-3), where the shape of a combustion chamber, swirl intensity, injection timing and duration, etc. were varied and their effects on the mixture formation and combustion process were investigated.
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