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Technical Paper

Kinetic Measurements of HNCO Hydrolysis over SCR Catalyst

2018-09-10
2018-01-1764
To meet the strict emission regulations for diesel engines, an advanced processing device such as a Urea-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system is used to reduce NOx emissions. The Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test, which is implemented in the European Union, will expand the range of conditions under which the engine has to operate [1], which will lead to the construction of a Urea-SCR system capable of reducing NOx emissions at lower and higher temperature conditions, and at higher space velocity conditions than existing systems. Simulations are useful in improving the performance of the urea-SCR system. However, it is necessary to construct a reliable NOx reduction model to use for system design, which covers the expanded engine operation conditions. In the urea-SCR system, the mechanism of ammonia (NH3) formation from injected aqueous urea solution is not clear. Thus, it is important to clarify this mechanism to improve the NOx reduction model.
Journal Article

Kinetic Modeling Study of NOx Conversion Based on Physicochemical Characteristics of Hydrothermally Aged SCR/DPF Catalyst

2017-10-08
2017-01-2386
Diesel engines have better fuel economy over comparable gasoline engines and are useful for the reduction of CO2 emissions. However, to meet stringent emission standards, the technology for reducing NOx and particulate matter (PM) in diesel engine exhaust needs to be improved. A conventional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and urea-SCR catalyst. Recently, more stringent regulations have led to the development of SCR systems with a larger volume and increased the cost of such systems. In order to solve these problems, an SCR catalyst-coated DPF (SCR/DPF) is proposed. An SCR/DPF system has lower volume and cost compared to the conventional SCR system. The SCR/DPF catalyst has two functions: combustion of PM and reduction of NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Sound Speed in DME in a Wide Range of Pressure and Temperature Including the Critical Point

2016-10-17
2016-01-2258
Dimethyl ether (DME) is a promising alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. DME features good auto ignition characteristics and soot-free combustion. In order to develop an injection system suitable for DME, it is necessary to understand its fuel properties. Sound speed is an important fuel property that affects the injection characteristics. However, the measurement data under high-pressures corresponding to those in fuel injection systems are lacking. The critical temperature of DME is lower than that of diesel fuel, and is close to the injection condition. It is important to understand the behavior of the sound speed around the critical point, since the sound speed at critical point is extremely low. In this study, sound speed in DME in a wide pressure and temperature range of 1 MPa to 80 MPa, 298.15 K to 413.15 K, including the vicinity of the critical point, was measured. The sound speed in DME decreases as either the pressure falls or the temperature rises.
Journal Article

Ignition Characteristics of 2,5-Dimethylfuran Compared with Gasoline and Ethanol

2015-09-01
2015-01-1806
2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) and 2-methylfuran (MF) have attracted attention as new biofuels. To utilize furans as alternative fuels, fundamental studies on the combustion characteristics are required. In this study, the ignition delay times of DMF were measured using a rapid compression machine and compared with those of gasoline and ethanol. To investigate the effect of the addition of DMF to gasoline, the ignition delay times of DMF-gasoline surrogate fuel blends were also measured. The ignition delay times of DMF were longer than those of gasoline and shorter than those of ethanol. The simulation results using the DMF kinetic model were in reasonable agreement with those of the experiments.
Journal Article

High-Speed Observation and Modeling of Dimethyl Ether Spray Combustion at Engine-Like Conditions

2015-09-01
2015-01-1927
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is one of the major candidates for the alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. However, DME spray combustion characteristics are not well understood. There is no spray model validated against spray experiments at high-temperature and high-pressure relevant to combustion chambers of engines. DME has a lower viscosity and lower volumetric modulus of elasticity. It is difficult to increase injection pressure. The injection pressure remains low at 60 MPa even in the latest DME engine. To improve engine performance and reduce emissions from DME engines, establishing the DME spray model applicable to numerical engine simulation is required. In this study, high-speed observation of DME sprays at injection pressures up to 120 MPa with a latest common rail DME injection system was conducted in a constant volume combustion vessel, under ambient temperature and pressure of 6 MPa-920 K.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Injection and Combustion with Dimethyl Ether

2015-04-14
2015-01-0932
DiMethyl Ether (DME) has been known to be an outstanding fuel for combustion in diesel cycle engines for nearly twenty years. DME has a vapour pressure of approximately 0.5MPa at ambient temperature (293K), thus it requires pressurized fuel systems to keep it in liquid state which are similar to those for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (mixtures of propane and butane). The high vapour pressure of DME permits the possibility to optimize the fuel injection characteristic of direct injection diesel engines in order to achieve a fast evaporation and mixing with the charged gas in the combustion chamber, even at moderate fuel injection pressures. To understand the interrelation between the fuel flow inside the nozzle spray holes tests were carried out using 2D optically accessed nozzles coupled with modelling approaches for the fuel flow, cavitation, evaporation and the gas dynamics of 2-phase (liquid and gas) flows.
Technical Paper

Influence of Spectral Line Broadening on Measurements of NH3 Concentration in Automobile Exhaust Using Near-IR Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

2014-10-13
2014-01-2833
Recently, highly sensitive near-IR laser absorption spectrometers have been employed to measure ammonia (NH3) emissions. These instruments allow in-situ measurements of highly time-resolved NH3 emission levels in automobile exhaust. However, the effect of the automobile exhaust CO2 in NH3 measurements has not been studied in detail. Because the CO2 concentration in automobile exhaust is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the NH3 concentration, there is a possibility that spectral overlap by CO2 lines and/or the spectral broadening of NH3 by CO2 could affect the measured NH3 levels. This study had two major objectives. First, the effect of CO2 on the measured NH3 concentration was assessed using our developed near-IR laser absorption spectrometer. The second objective was to provide on-board NH3 measurements in the hybrid gasoline automobile exhaust using the developed spectrometer. As a result, the CO2 in automobile exhaust was found to affect the measured NH3 concentration.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Formation in DME Combustion

2011-11-08
2011-32-0632
Dimethyl ether (DME) is an oxygenated fuel with the molecular formula CH₃OCH₃, economically produced from various energy sources, such as natural gas, coal and biomass. It has gained prominence as a substitute for diesel fuel in Japan and in other Asian countries, from the viewpoint of both energy diversification and environmental protection. The greatest advantage of DME is that it emits practically no particulate matter when used in compression ignition (CI) engine. However, one of the drawbacks of DME CI engine is the increase carbon monoxide (CO) emission in high-load and high exhaust gas circulation (EGR) regime. In this study, we have investigated the CO formation characteristics of DME CI combustion based on chemical kinetics.
Journal Article

Comparison of fuel economy and exhaust emission tests of 4WD vehicles using single-axis chassis dynamometer and dual-axis chassis dynamometer

2011-08-30
2011-01-2058
The demands of application of dual-axis chassis dynamometers (4WD-CHDY) have increased recently due to the improvement of performance of 4WD-CHDY and an increase in the number of 4WD vehicles which are difficult to convert to 2WD. However, there are few evaluations of any differences between fuel economy and exhaust emission levels in the case of 2WD-CHDY with conversion from 4WD to 2WD (2WD-mode) and 4WD-CHDY without conversion to 2WD (4WD-mode). Fuel economy and exhaust emission tests of 4WD vehicle equipped with a typical 4WD mechanism were performed to investigate any differences between the case of the 2WD-mode and the 4WD-mode. In these tests, we measured ‘work at wheel’ (wheel-work) using wheel torque meters. A comparison of the 2WD-mode and the 4WD-mode reveals a difference of fuel economy (2WD-mode is 1.5% better than that of 4WD-mode) and wheel-work (2WD-mode is 3.9% less than that of 4WD-mode). However, there are almost no differences of exhaust emission levels.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of High Pressure DME Spray

2010-04-12
2010-01-0880
DME has lower energy content per unit volume than that of light oil (typical petroleum based diesel fuel). Roughly 1.8 times the quantity of DME is required to obtain equivalent content of light oil. DME also exhibits higher compressibility and much lower viscosity than light oil, so high pressure injection is not easy. Currently, DME engines have utilized a larger injection volume by enlarging the nozzle diameter with a relatively low injection pressure up to 60MPa. In order to obtain higher performance in future DME engines, high pressure fuel injection is considered essential, however the high pressure DME spray characteristics have not yet been understood. In this research, DME spray characteristics of high injection pressure up to 140MPa were examined using a constant volume vessel under engine-like temperature/pressure conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Properties and Engine Performance of Dimethyl Ether-Blended Biodiesel Fuels

2007-07-23
2007-01-2016
One way to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere is to use biodiesel fuel (BDF) [1]. BDF has the advantage of low smoke combustion, since its molecules contain oxygen. Meanwhile, BDF has the drawbacks of high viscosity and a high pour point that make it difficult to use at low temperatures. Dimethyl ether (DME) can be made from biomass, as well as from natural gas or coal; therefore, it is regarded as one of the biomass fuels. DME has low viscosity and a low boiling point, and smoke-free combustion can be obtained, since it has no carbon-carbon bond [2]. On the other hand, it has the disadvantage of low lubricity due to its low viscosity. When these fuels are blended together, the weaknesses of the fuels can be overcome. The objective of this research is to show that blending these two fuels is an effective way of bringing biomass-derived fuels into practical use.
Technical Paper

Ignition Mechanisms of HCCI Combustion Process Fueled With Methane/DME Composite Fuel

2005-04-11
2005-01-0182
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of methane was performed using dimethyl ether (DME) as an ignition improver. The ignition mechanisms of the methane/DME/air HCCI process were investigated on the basis of the chemical kinetics. The engine test was also conducted to verify the calculation results, and to determine the operation range. Analysis of the results showed that DME was an excellent ignition improver for methane, having two functions of temperature rise and OH radical supply. It was also shown that the operation range was extended to an overall equivalence ratio of 0.54 without knocking, by controlling DME quantity.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Analysis of Combustion in the DME Diesel Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0089
For better understanding of the combustion characteristics in a direct injection dimethyl ether (DME) engine, the chemiluminescences of a burner flame and in-cylinder flame were analyzed using the spectroscopic method. The emission intensities of chemiluminescences were measured by a photomultiplier after passing through a monochrome-spectrometer. For the burner flame, line spectra were found nearby the wave length of 310 nm, 430 nm and 515 nm, arising from OH, CH and C2 radicals, respectively. For the in-cylinder flame, a strong continuous spectrum was found from 340 nm wave length to 550 nm. Line spectra were also detected nearby 310 nm, 395 nm and 430 nm, arising from OH, HCHO, and C2 radicals, respectively, partially overlapping with the continuous spectrum. Of these line spectra, 310 nm of OH radical did not overlapped with the continuous spectrum.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Analysis from In-Cylinder Combustion of a DME-Fueled DI Diesel Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3192
To date, the DME combustion mechanism has been investigated by in-cylinder gas sampling, numerical calculations and observation of combustion radicals. It has been possible to quantify the emission intensities of in-cylinder combustion using a monochromator, and to observe the emitting species as images by using band-pass filters. However, the complete band images were not observed since the broadband (thermal) intensity may be stronger than band spectra intensities. Emission intensities of DME combustion radicals from a pre-mixed burner flame have been measured using a spectroscope and photomultiplier. Results were compared to other fuels, such as n-butane and methane, then, in this study, to better understand the combustion characteristics of DME, emission intensities near CH bands of an actual DI diesel engine fueled with DME were measured, and band spectra emitted from the engine were defined. Near TDC, emission intensities did not vary with wavelength.
Technical Paper

Computational and Experimental Study on the Influence of Formaldehyde on HCCI Combustion Fueled with Dimethyl Ether

2003-05-19
2003-01-1826
Computational analysis on the mechanism and control method for DME fueled HCCI type combustion was carried out on the basis of the chemical kinetics. The calculation results were verified experimentally using a single cylinder test engine. Analysis of the results showed that DME oxidation is governed by production/consumption behavior of OH, because DME oxidation is initiated by dehydrogenation with OH radicals. It was also shown that the overall oxidation reaction could be controlled by adding substances which react competitively with OH in the dehydrogenation reactions of DME. Of the substances we tested, formaldehyde was most effective. It was confirmed by engine testing that by adding a small amount of formaldehyde to the DME/air mixture, the heat evolved in the low temperature reactions was reduced and the reaction appearance timing was retarded.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Analysis of Combustion Flame Fueled with Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2003-05-19
2003-01-1797
To better understand the combustion characteristics of DME, emission intensities of DME combustion radicals from a pre-mixed burner flame were measured by a spectroscope and photomultiplier, Results were compared to other fuels, such as methane and butane. Large peaks in the band spectra from pre-mixed and diffusion DME flames were found near 310 nm, 430 nm, and 515 nm, arising from OH, CH and C2, respectively. The DME emission intensities decreased with increasing the equivalence ratio in this study. Notably, the relative decrease in the C2 band spectra peak was greater than that of the OH band. Comparing the pre-mixed DME and butane flames, the butane band spectra peaks were similar in shape, but much stronger than those for DME. However, it was remarkable that CH and C2 band spectra peaks decreased only slightly with increase in equivalence ratio compared to the DME case.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of LPG Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0764
In this study, spray images of LPG Blended Fuels (LBF) for DI diesel engines were observed using a constant volume chamber at high ambient temperature and pressure, and the spray characteristics of the fuel were investigated. The LBF spray started to vaporize at the injector tip and the outer downstream regions of the spray, like diesel fuel, because of the high temperature at these areas. There were more vaporized areas compared to diesel fuel. Sufficient fuel injection volume and volatility of LBF resulted in good fuel-air mixture, then, THC emissions decreased compared to diesel fuel at high load engine test conditions. Butane spray image could not be observed at the injector tip. It seems that the high temperature of the injector tip caused the butane spray to vaporize rapidly. Spray tip penetration with LBF and butane were equal or greater than with diesel fuel. The high volatility of LBF and butane had no noticeable effect on spray penetration.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fueled with Two Types of Gas To Liquid (GTL)

2002-10-21
2002-01-2691
In this study, the main properties of two types of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels were investigated. Then, performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine fueled with GTLs were investigated by comparison with diesel fuel. GTL1 was composed of 100% paraffin by volume, and GTL2 was composed of 99.8% paraffin and 0.2% aromatics by volume. Most GTL fuel properties were comparable to those of diesel fuel, while both fuels have a higher cetane number and lower sulphur. A diesel engine could be operated with GTL fueling without any special engine modifications. Our tests showed that with the high cetane number of GTLs, the ignition delay was shorter, and combustion started earlier than with diesel fuel. With GTL1 operation, THC and soot emissions were lower than with diesel fuel operation, and even lower with GTL2 fueling.
Technical Paper

Atomization Characteristics for Various Ambient Pressure of Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2002-05-06
2002-01-1711
Recently, dimethyl ether (DME) has been attracting much attention as a clean alternative fuel, since the thermal efficiency of DME powered diesel engine is comparable to diesel fuel operation and soot free combustion can be achieved. In this experiment, the effect of ambient pressure on DME spray was investigated with observation of droplet size such as Sauter mean diameter (SMD) by the shadowgraph and image processing method. The higher ambient pressure obstructs the growth of DME spray, therefore faster breakup was occurred, and liquid column was thicker with increasing the ambient pressure. Then engine performances and exhaust emissions characteristics of DME diesel engine were investigated with various compression ratios. The minimum compression ratio for the easy start and stable operation was obtained at compression ratio of about 12.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Combustion Process of a DI CI Engine Fueled with Dimethyl Ether

2001-09-24
2001-01-3504
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is one of the major candidates for the next generation fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. It has good self-ignitability and would not produce particulate, even at rich conditions. DME has proved to be able to apply to ordinary diesel engines with minimal modifications, but its combustion characteristics are not completely understood. In this study, the behavior of a DME spray and combustion process of a direct injection CI engine fueled with DME was investigated by combustion observation and in-cylinder gas sampling. To distinguish evaporated and non-evaporated zones of a spray, direct and schlieren imaging were carried out. The sampled gas from a DME spray was analyzed by gas chromatography, and the major intermediate product histories during ignition period were analyzed.
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