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Technical Paper

Water Supply of the Crew of a Space Station Through Water Recovery and Water Delivery: SRV-K and SPK-U System Operation on ISS

2005-07-11
2005-01-2806
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-10 (since November 2 2000, through November 30, 2004). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station’s water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is emphasized. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
Technical Paper

Trace Contaminant Dynamics Simulation Model for TCRS Design Concept

2005-07-11
2005-01-2861
This paper deals with the development of the Trace Contaminant Dynamics Simulation Model (TCDSM) intended for the design concept of Trace Contaminants Removal System (TCRS) in development of a Space Vehicle Manned Pressurized Module (PM). The formalized description of the TCDSM includes the nonlinear equations of mass balance for the specific contaminants and the formalized descriptions of the contaminants sources and sinks. The crew and the PM non-metallic structural materials are main sources of contaminants. The air environments of the docking resupply (RSV) and crew-carrying space vehicles (CCSV) are the additional sources and sinks of the contaminants. The formalized description of the TCRS as the main sink of the contaminants takes into account the specific contaminants removal features based on the distribution factors defining its adsorptive capacity.
Technical Paper

Off-normal Situations Related to the Operation of the Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System aboard the International Space Station

2005-07-11
2005-01-2803
The Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System (OGS) is a main source of oxygen for crew breathing on the International Space Station (ISS) and the result of updating the Electron-V OGS that has been in successful operation for 17 years on Mir Space Station. The successful accomplishment of a manned flight program primarily has resulted in the stable operation of the system. The paper deals with analysis of off-normal situations related to the operation of the Electron-VM on board ISS. The system switching-off analysis based on the telemetry information processing and the results of the additional tests conducted under flight and ground conditions is performed. A principal cause of system switching-offs is a reduction in the pressure built by the circulating pumps due to ingress of gas bubbles into the suction pipeline. The results of the Electron-VM OGS switching-off analysis and the practical recommendations regarding its prevention are reviewed.
Technical Paper

SRV-K Status aboard the International Space Station and Water Recovery Future Prospects

2004-07-19
2004-01-2489
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda integrated water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS) as of March 31, 2004. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. It is shown that water recovery from humidity condensate has been especially important when water delivery by Space Shuttles was terminated. The SRV-K contribution in potable water supply for crew needs was up to 76%. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown. Water recovery future prospects are discussed.
Technical Paper

Operation Results Onboard the International Space Station and Development Tendency of Atmosphere Revitalization and Monitoring System

2004-07-19
2004-01-2494
The Regenerative Atmosphere Revitalization and Monitoring system (ARMS), been part of Integrated Life Support System (ILSS), is intended for maintenance in the manned modules of a necessary chemical composition of an artificial gas atmosphere (AGA) on base of the crew metabolism product transform to environment initial components. Generally, the ARMS structure includes the individual systems and units intended for: → oxygen generation; → carbon dioxide removal and it concentration; → trace contaminants removal; → carbon dioxide reduction with the goal to produce an additional quantity of water necessary to increase the degree of the oxygen loop clousure. The ARMS structure of the International Space Station (ISS) Russian Segment (RS) includes the Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System (OGS), Vozdukh Carbon Dioxide Removal System (CDRS) and SBMP Trace Contaminants Removal Means (TCRM) installed in the Service Module.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Urine Collection Abord the International Space Station

2003-07-07
2003-01-2622
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply and urine collection systems of the International Space Station (ISS) as of December 31, 2002. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
Technical Paper

The Concept of an Ecotechnical System and Its Application to the Synthesis of the Structure of Integrated Life Support System

2002-07-15
2002-01-2390
This paper describes the concept of Ecotechnical System (ETS) based on the analysis of mass, power and data flow exchange within a biocenosis and between a biocenosis and technical systems that support life and activity of any biological entity in isolated environment of space vehicle. A biocenosis is considered to be a gathering of live organisms (generally people, animals, plants and micro-organisms) in an artificial habitat of the isolated environment. An Ecotechnical System is defined and it is shown that the given concept brings together different life support systems based on physical-chemical and biological means of regeneration of crew metabolic products. The existing limitations to the ETS development are reviewed in the paper in respect to limited volumes of space vehicles based on the vehicle characteristics and particular space program tasks. Three step analysis approach proposed for ETS effectiveness evaluation.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Oxygen Generation by Electrolysis Aboard the International Space Station

2002-07-15
2002-01-2358
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water and oxygen supply systems of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at the first 14 months of manned station functioning are provided. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The system of oxygen generation “Electron-VM” and its functioning results are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Urine Collection in the Service Module of the International Space Station

2001-07-09
2001-01-2355
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at an initial phase of manned station functioning are provided. The data on humidity condensate and recovered water composition are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The effective cooperation of international partners on part of water supply for the crew is shown.
Technical Paper

Operation Simulation Modeling of Atmosphere Revitalization Systems for International Space Station Russian Segment

2000-07-10
2000-01-2367
This paper reviews Air Revitalization System (ARS) for Russian Segment of International Space Station software simulation development and implementation by the example the Service Module (SM) ARS. This simulation is designed for the ARS ground test functional analysis and in-flight support Individual ARS complex systems formal description is based on each system description as a unit, using information received from experiments and detailed simulations. Failure can be introduced for contingency simulation.
Technical Paper

Simulation Model of Crew for Operation Research of Integrative Life Support Systems

2000-07-10
2000-01-2368
This paper reviews a Crew Simulation Model (CSM) for Space Vehicle Integrative Life Support System (ILSS) operation study. It is designed to simulate crew metabolic reaction mass and energy flows in accelerated time mode with each crew member specifics consideration. This CSM formally is based on human body general simulation, which includes main functional systems like: the cardiac-vascular, external respiration, thermal regulation and water/mineral balance. Work and rest time schedules are also considered as well as each crew member presence in a particular module. The CSM considers trace contaminants in metabolic products due to nutrition and environment temperature. This simulations' formal review is shown in the paper as well as formal implementation with computed experiment results. Some of the possible applications are also approached.
Technical Paper

Experience in Development and Long-term Operation of Mir's System for Oxygen Generation by Electrolysis

2000-07-10
2000-01-2356
The paper describes the design specifics of the system for oxygen generation by electrolysis Elektron and major results obtained in long-term operation of the system aboard space station Mir. Operational data analysis makes possible to draw a conclusion that the system is capable to attain life parameters for at least 2 years with maintaining serviceability for no less than 8 years without attendance and unit replacement. Based on flight operation the possibility of reducing power consumption by 10 per cent is proven. System design updates are realized in the water electrolysis system intended for the Russian segment of the international space station.
Technical Paper

A Regenerative Water Supply System for the ISS Russian Segment

1999-07-12
1999-01-1951
This paper reviews the design and properties of the Water Supply System (WSS). It also discusses the water balance and its delivery amounts, as well as it presents diagrams and properties of water recovery system from humidity condensate WRS-CM and regeneration from urine WRS-UM which are the part of WSS. Some results of activities conducted for provision of water intake in a system of WRS-CM from different modules of station are shown and the problems of WSS interaction of Russian segment (RS) and American segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of a Vacuum Distillation Subsystem for Water Reclamation from Urine

1999-07-12
1999-01-1993
This paper reviews the development and testing of the distillation subsystem of water regeneration system from urine (WRS-UM) based on a method of vacuum distillation with a rotary multistage vacuum distiller and a thermal pump. Test results show that with relatively small power consumption the subsystem using rotary three-stage vacuum distiller provides high rates of heat and mass transfer processes, useful productivity and distillate quality. The conducted tests have confirmed that it will be efficient to use the presented system as a part of WRS-UM system in Russian segment of the International Space Station.
Technical Paper

A Strategy of System Synthesis for Developing Integrated Regenerative Life Support Systems

1998-07-13
981719
This paper considers one of the possible approaches to the synthesis of technologies for developing future Integrated Regenerative Life Support Systems (IRLSS) for space vehicle crews. The solution of technology synthesis task involves the following phases: (a) the efficiency model structuring for technical decision making process; (b) presentation of a discrete set of alternative technologies and their formal description; (c) the decision making task introduction. Modified efficiency model under consideration is based on use of local efficiency criteria set, reflecting designed system and its subsystems properties, space vehicle properties for which this system is intended. For the local criteria after verification of the independence terms quantitative and qualitative efficiency factors are applied. The qualitative efficiency factors were evaluated on the scale of order. The consideration of uncertainty in criteria values is based on a fuzzy set theory.
Technical Paper

Rationale and Selection of a Distillation Subsystem for Water Reclamation from Urine

1998-07-13
981714
A selection of a distillation subsystem with a rotary multistage vacuum distiller (RMVD) and a heat pump (HP) for the system for water reclamation from urine for the international space station is substantiated. The results of computational/experimental analysis of specific energy for distillation with RMVD and HP of different type used are presented. The test results of an experimental system mockup are given. It is shown that the subsystem of a given type is stable in operation, features high condensate processing rate and low specific energy demand.
Technical Paper

A Man-Made Gas Atmosphere Simulation Model of International Space Station's Russian Segment

1998-07-13
981717
This paper deals with a man-made Gas Atmosphere (MMGA) Simulation Model developed and software presented for the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The simulation Model (SM) is intended for analysis of the MMGA parameter nonstationary values in isothermal and non-isothermal conditions under a variable number of crew taking into account the intensities of the crew activity. The person's structure of the SM, basic assumptions, taken for modeling and formalized descriptions of SM separate modules. Formalized descriptions by the Segment's Pressurized Modules are based on using the nonlinear equations of mass/energy balance for the controlling volume, taking into account all main sources and sinks of the environment separate components, which are a crew, Integrated Regenerative Life Support System (IRLSS) separate subsystems, ISS on-board systems.
Technical Paper

Updated Systems for Water Recovery from Humidity Condensate and Urine for the International Space Station

1997-07-14
972559
At the initial phase of the construction of the international space station (ISS) water supply will be provided by the systems located in the Russian segment. The paper reviews the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine to be incorporated in the Russian segment of the ISS. The similar systems have been successfully operated on the Mir space station. The updates aim at enhancing system cost-effectiveness and reliability. The system for water recovery from humidity condensate (WRS-C) features an added assembly for the removal of organic contaminants to be catalytically oxidized in an air/liquid flow at ambient temperature and pressure. The system for water reclamation from urine (WRS-U) incorporates a new distillation subsystem based on vacuum distillation with a multistage rotary distiller and a vapor compression or thermoelectric heat pump. The updating of the WRS-C system will enable an increase in the multifiltration bed's life at least two fold.
Technical Paper

Physical/Chemical Regenerative LSS for Planetary Habitations

1996-07-01
961549
A concept of LSS building for planetary stations is suggested on the basis of experience in the development, research and testing of physical/chemical regenerative LSS for long-duration ground-based bio-technical complexes of habitat support and for orbiting space stations. A gradual transition from integrated physical/chemical regenerative LSS to hybrid integrated physical/chemical and bio-technical LSS and finally to integrated bio-technical regenerative LSS, is suggested. It is shown that at all phases of integrated LSS development, the systems based on physical/chemical processes will be critical for correlating the interfaces between the biological components that process the products obtained in the bio-components, and enabling the vitality of integrated LSS under emergency situations. The interface of integrated LSS with base power supply system is outlined.
Technical Paper

Water Supply Based on Water Reclamation from Humidity Condensate and Urine on a Space Station

1996-07-01
961408
The paper reviews an integrated system for space station water supply based on a combination of water recovery systems and a water resupply system. The water balance data and system performance data in long-duration operation on the Mir space station are presented. A water supply concept for the Russian's segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is substantiated.
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