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Journal Article

Feasibility of Multiple Piston Motion Control Approaches in a Free Piston Engine Generator

The control and design optimization of a Free Piston Engine Generator (FPEG) has been found to be difficult as each independent variable changes the piston dynamics with respect to time. These dynamics, in turn, alter the generator and engine response to other governing variables. As a result, the FPEG system requires an energy balance control algorithm such that the cumulative energy delivered by the engine is equal to the cumulative energy taken by the generator for stable operation. The main objective of this control algorithm is to match the power generated by the engine to the power demanded by the generator. In a conventional crankshaft engine, this energy balance control is similar to the use of a governor and a flywheel to control the rotational speed. In general, if the generator consumes more energy in a cycle than the engine provides, the system moves towards a stall.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Windage and Vibrational Losses in Flexure Springs of a One kW Two-Stroke Free Piston Linear Engine Alternator

Methods to quantify the energy losses within linear motion devices that included flexural springs as the main suspension component were investigated. The methods were applied to a two-stroke free-piston linear engine alternator (LEA) as a case study that incorporated flexure springs to add stiffness to the mass-spring system. Use of flexure springs is an enabling mechanism for improving the efficiency and lifespan in linear applications e.g. linear engines and generators, cryocoolers, and linear Stirling engines. The energy loss due to vibrations and windage effects of flexure springs in a free piston LEA was investigated to quantify possible energy losses. A transient finite element solver was used to determine the effects of higher modes of vibration frequencies of the flexure arms at an operational frequency of 65 Hz. Also, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver was used to determine the effects of drag force on the moving surfaces of flexures at high frequencies.
Journal Article

Sensitivity Analysis and Control Methodology for Linear Engine Alternator

Linear engine alternator (LEA) design optimization traditionally has been difficult because each independent variable alters the motion with respect to time, and therefore alters the engine and alternator response to other governing variables. An analogy is drawn to a conventional engine with a very light flywheel, where the rotational speed effectively is not constant. However, when springs are used in conjunction with an LEA, the motion becomes more consistent and more sinusoidal with increasing spring stiffness. This avoids some attractive features, such as variable compression ratio HCCI operation, but aids in reducing cycle-to-cycle variation for conventional combustion modes. To understand the cycle-to-cycle variations, we have developed a comprehensive model of an LEA with a 1kW target power in MATLAB®/Simulink, and an LEA corresponding to that model has been operated in the laboratory.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Energy Pathways and Gas Exchange of a Small Port Injection SI Two-Stroke Natural Gas Engine Operating on Different Exhaust Configurations

This paper examines the energy pathways of a 29cc air-cooled two-stroke engine operating on natural gas with different exhaust geometries. The engine was operated at wide-open-throttle at a constant speed of 5400 RPM with ignition adjusted to yield maximum brake torque while the fueling was adjusted to examine both rich and lean combustion. The exhaust configurations examined included an off-the-shelf (OTS) model and two other custom models designed on Helmholtz resonance theory. The custom designs included both single and multi-cone features. Out of the three exhaust systems tested, the model with maximum trapping efficiency showed a higher overall efficiency due to lower fuel short-circuiting and heat transfer. The heat transfer rate was shown to be 10% lower on the new designs relative to OTS model.
Technical Paper

Continuously Varying Exhaust Outlet Diameter to Improve Efficiency and Emissions of a Small SI Natural Gas Two-Stroke Engine by Internal EGR

With continuously increasing concern for the emissions from two-stroke engines including regulated hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, non-road engines are implementing proven technologies from the on-road market. For example, four stroke diesel generators now include additional internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) via an intake/exhaust valve passage. EGR can offer benefits of reduced HC, NOx, and may even improve combustion stability and fuel efficiency. In addition, there is particular interest in use of natural gas as fuel for home power generation. This paper examines exhaust throttling applied to the Helmholtz resonator of a two-stroke, port injected, natural gas engine. The 34 cc engine was air cooled and operated at wide-open throttle (WOT) conditions at an engine speed of 5400 RPM with fueling adjusted to achieve maximum brake torque. Exhaust throttling served as a method to decrease the effective diameter of the outlet of the convergent cone.
Journal Article

Fundamental Analysis of Spring-Varied, Free Piston, Otto Engine Device

Conventional crank-based engines are limited by mechanical, thermal, and combustion inefficiencies. The free piston of a linear engine generator reduces frictional losses by avoiding the rotational motion and crankshaft linkages. Instead, electrical power is generated by the oscillation of a translator through a linear stator. Because the free piston is not geometrically constrained, dead center positions are not specifically known. This results in a struggle against adverse events like misfire, stall, over-fueling, or rapid load changes. It is the belief that incorporating springs will have the dual benefit of increasing frequency and providing a restoring force to aid in greater cycle to cycle stability. For dual free piston linear engines the addition of springs has not been fully explored, despite growing interest and literature.
Journal Article

Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment with Scrubber Process: NOx Destruction

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, produced by engines that burn fuels with atmospheric air, are known to cause negative health and environmental effects. Increasingly stringent emissions regulations for marine engines have caused newer engines to be developed with inherent NOx reduction technologies. Older marine engines typically have a useful life of over 20 years and produce a disproportionate amount of NOx emissions when compared with their newer counterparts. Wet scrubbing as an aftertreatment method for emissions reduction was applied to ocean-going marine vessels for the reduction of sulfur oxides (SOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The gaseous absorption process was explored in the laboratory as an option for reducing NOx emissions from older diesel engines of harbor craft operating in ports of Houston and Galveston. A scrubber system was designed, constructed, and evaluated to provide the basis for a real-world design.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of an Over-the-Road Truck

Heavy-duty trucks are an important sector to evaluate when seeking fuel consumption savings and emissions reductions. With fuel costs on the rise and emissions regulations becoming stringent, vehicle manufacturers find themselves spending large amounts of capital improving their products in order to be compliant with regulations. The Powertrain System Analysis Toolkits (PSAT), developed by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is a simulation tool that helps mitigate costs associated with research and automotive system design. While PSAT has been widely used to predict the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of conventional and hybrid light-duty vehicles, it also may be employed to test heavy-duty vehicles. The intent of this study was to develop an accurate model that predicts emissions and fuel economy for heavy-duty vehicles for use within PSAT.
Technical Paper

Nano Particulate Matter Evolution in a CFR1065 Dilution Tunnel

Dual primary full-flow dilution tunnels represent an integral part of a heavy-duty transportable emissions measurement laboratory designed and constructed to comply with US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 40 Part 1065 requirements. Few data exist to characterize the evolution of particulate matter (PM) in full scale dilution tunnels, particularly at very low PM mass levels. Size distributions of ultra-fine particles in diesel exhaust from a naturally aspirated, 2.4 liter, 40 kW ISUZU C240 diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were studied in one set of standard primary and secondary dilution tunnels with varied dilution ratios. Particle size distribution data, during steady-state engine operation, were collected using a Cambustion DMS500 Fast Particulate Spectrometer. Measurements were made at four positions that spanned the tunnel cross section after the mixing orifice plate for the primary dilution tunnel and at the outlet of the secondary dilution tunnel.
Journal Article

Crankcase Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines

In 2007, US EPA implemented the rule that the crankcase emissions be added to the tailpipe emissions to determine the total emissions from a diesel engine if the crankcase were not closed, but few data exist to quantify crankcase emissions from earlier model diesel engines. This paper presents the results of a study on the measurement of the size distribution and number concentration of particulate matter (PM) emitted from the crankcase vents from four different diesel engines under different engine speeds and loads. The engines used in the study were a 1992 Detroit Diesel Series 60, a 1996 Caterpillar 3406E, a 1997 Cummins B5.9 and a 1995 Mack E7-400. The Detroit Diesel engine was tested on an engine dynamometer and crankcase and tailpipe particulates were observed at varying engine speeds and loads. The other three engines were mounted in vehicles, and crankcase PM was observed at several engine speeds with no external load.
Technical Paper

Emissions from a Legacy Diesel Engine Exercised through the ACES Engine Test Schedule

Most transient heavy duty diesel emissions data in the USA have been acquired using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), a heavy-duty diesel engine transient test schedule described in the US Code of Federal Regulations. The FTP includes both urban and freeway operation and does not provide data separated by driving mode (such as rural, urban, freeway). Recently, a four-mode engine test schedule was created for use in the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), and was demonstrated on a 2004 engine equipped with cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). In the present work, the authors examined emissions using these ACES modes (Creep, Cruise, Transient and High-speed Cruise) and the FTP from a Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) Series 60 1992 12.7 liter pre-EGR engine. The engine emissions were measured using full exhaust dilution, continuous measurement of gaseous species, and filter-based Particulate Matter (PM) measurement.
Journal Article

Summary of In-use NOx Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

As part of the 1998 Consent Decrees concerning alternative ignition strategies between the six settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States government, the engine manufacturers agreed to perform in-use emissions measurements of their engines. As part of the Consent Decrees, pre- (Phase III, pre-2000 engines) and post- (Phase IV, 2001 to 2003 engines) Consent Decree engines used in over-the-road vehicles were tested to examine the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). A summary of the emissions of NOx and CO2 and fuel consumption from the Phase III and Phase IV engines are presented for 30 second “Not-to-Exceed” (NTE) window brake-specific values. There were approximately 700 Phase III tests and 850 Phase IV tests evaluated in this study, incorporating over 170 different heavy duty diesel engines spanning 1994 to 2003 model years. Test vehicles were operated over city, suburban, and highway routes.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation

The key to overcoming Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations is based on suitable control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The proposed alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel, with different autoignition characteristics, is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this paper that the secondary fuel is produced using Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR) with steam/fuel reforming. The steam/fuel mixture is heated by sensible heat from the engine exhaust gases in the recuperative reformer, where the original hydrocarbon reacts with water to form a hydrogen rich gas mixture. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for n-heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Error Analysis Investigation into Dilution Factor Equations

As emission regulations become increasingly strict, the need for more accurate sampling systems becomes essential. When calculating emissions from a dilution system, a correction is made to remove the effects of contaminants in the dilution air. The dilution air correction was explored to determine why this correction is needed, when this correction is important, and what methods are available for calculating the dilution factor (DF). An experimental and error analysis investigation into the standard and recently proposed methods for calculating the DF was conducted. Five steady state modes were run on a 1992 Detroit Diesel engine series 60 and the DF from eleven different equations were investigated. The effects of an inaccurate dilution air correction on calculated fuel flow from a carbon balance and the mass emissions was analyzed. The dilution air correction was shown to be important only for hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and CO2.
Technical Paper

Effects of Average Driving Cycle Speed on Lean-Burn Natural Gas Bus Emissions and Fuel Economy

Although diesel engines still power most of the heavy-duty transit buses in the United States, many major cities are also operating fleets where a significant percentage of buses is powered by lean-burn natural gas engines. Emissions from these buses are often expressed in distance-specific units of grams per mile (g/mile) or grams per kilometer (g/km), but the driving cycle or route employed during emissions measurement has a strong influence on the reported results. A driving cycle that demands less energy per unit distance than others results in higher fuel economy and lower distance-specific oxides of nitrogen emissions. In addition to energy per unit distance, the degree to which the driving cycle is transient in nature can also affect emissions.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of 2007 Standard Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Particulate Matter Sampling System

Heavy-Duty Diesel (HDD) engines' particulate matter (PM) emissions are most often measured quantitatively by weighing filters that collect diluted exhaust samples pre- and post-test. PM sampling systems that dilute exhaust gas and collect PM samples have different effects on measured PM data. Those effects usually contribute to inter-laboratory variance. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s 2007 PM emission measurement regulations for the test of HDD engines should reduce variability, but must also cope with PM mass that is an order of magnitude lower than legacy engine testing. To support the design of a 2007 US standard HDD PM emission sampling system, a parametric study based on a systematic Simulink® model was performed. This model acted as an auxiliary design tool when setting up a new 2007 HDD PM emission sampling system in a heavy-duty test cell at West Virginia University (WVU). It was also designed to provide assistance in post-test data processing.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Abatement of Diesel Crankcase Emissions

In 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency will begin measuring not only exhaust emissions from diesel engines, but also emissions from the crankcase if it is not vented into the engine intake. The 2007 government standards for emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) will also become more restrictive. There is the additional concern that crankcase emissions from present day trucks and buses may impact the quality of air inside the vehicle. This paper presents data to characterize crankcase emissions and examines a crankcase emissions abatement system (CEAS), the New Condensator®, manufactured by World NCI. Rather than allowing crankcase emissions to leave via a vent tube, a CEAS re-circulates the emissions to the intake of the engine.
Technical Paper

Development of a Vehicle Road Load Model for ECU Broadcast Power Verification in On-Road Emissions Testing

The 1998 Consent Decrees between the United States Government and the settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers require in-use emissions testing from post 2000 model year engines. The emissions gathered from these engines must be reported on a brake-specific mass basis. To report brake-specific mass emissions, three primary parameters must be measured. These are the concentration of each emission constituent, the exhaust mass flow rate, and the engine power output. The measurement of the concentration level and exhaust mass flow rate can be (and are generally) measured directly with instrumentation installed in the exhaust transfer tube. However, engine power cannot be measured directly for in-use emissions testing due to the direct coupling of the engine output shaft to the vehicle's transmission. Engine power can be inferred from the electronic control unit (ECU) broadcast of engine speed and engine torque.
Technical Paper

Influences of Real-World Conditions on In-Use Emission from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

The 1998 Consent Decrees between the settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States Government require the engine manufacturer to perform in-use emissions testing to evaluate their engine designs and emissions when the vehicle is placed into service. This additional requirement will oblige the manufacturer to account for real-world conditions when designing engines and engine control algorithms and include driving conditions, ambient conditions, and fuel properties in addition to the engine certification test procedures. Engine operation and ambient conditions can be designed into the engine control algorithm. However, there will most likely be no on-board determination of fuel properties or composition in the near future. Therefore, the engine manufacturer will need to account for varying fuel properties when developing the engine control algorithm for when in-use testing is performed.
Technical Paper

Assessment of NOx Destruction in Diesel Engines by Injecting NO in the Intake Manifold

Emissions from diesel engines, particularly NOx and TPM emissions are harmful to the environment. Reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines is of increasing concern. In 1998, a novel approach called Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) was used to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines. The SNR concept relies on two major parts, one to collect the NOx emissions from the exhaust by an adsorber, and another to decompose NOx using the in-cylinder combustion process by injecting the collected NOx emissions into the intake manifold at an elevated concentration. This paper deals with the destruction rates during the combustion process. A 1992 DDC series 60, 350 hp, 12.7 liter engine was connected to a 500 hp DC dynamometer. A full-scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring continuous NOx, CO2, CO, HC, and PM in the exhaust were used.