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Technical Paper

A Study of Air/Fuel Integrated Thermal Management System

2015-09-15
2015-01-2419
This paper describes the concept of an air/fuel integrated thermal management system, which employs the VCS (Vapor Cycle System) for the refrigeration unit of the ECS (Environment Control System), while exchanging the heat between the VCS refrigerant and the fuel into the engine, and presents a feasibility study to apply the concept to the future all electric aircraft systems. The heat generated in an aircraft is transferred to the ECS heat exchanger by the recirculation of air and exhausted into the ram air. While some aircraft employ the fluid heat transfer loop, the transferred heat is exhausted into the ram air. The usage of ram air for the cooling will increase the ram drag and the fuel consumption, thus, less usage of ram air is preferable. Another source for heat rejection is the fuel. The heat exchange with the fuel does not worsen the fuel consumption, thus, the fuel is a preferable source.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Study of Low-Pressure Spool-Generating Architecture for More Electric Aircraft

2015-09-15
2015-01-2408
This paper will propose a novel power generating system concept including an auxiliary, backup and emergency power source. Existing aircraft employ an auxiliary power unit (APU) and a ram air turbine (RAT) for power generation besides aero-engine generators. An APU works prior to starting propulsion on the ground and as a backup power plant during flight. The RAT is activated due to the need to maintain the essential systems in the case of an emergency situation. Both systems are optimized on conventional aircraft in which hydraulic, pneumatic and electric systems are supplied for control and equipment. Although a conventional aircraft needs hydro pumps and air compressors, the coming of a new era of more-electric architecture for aircraft and propulsion will be the stimulus to improve aircraft systems [1]. In more-electric aircraft, the authors focus on the low-pressure spool generation system of aero-engines.
Technical Paper

Study of VCS Design for Energy Optimization of Non-Bleed Electric Aircraft

2014-09-16
2014-01-2225
To improve an energy optimization issue of ECS for MEA, we propose our concept in which ACS is replaced with VCS. A VCS is generally evaluated as auxiliary or limited cooling system of an aircraft. Cooling demand of commercial aircraft usually becomes large due to ventilation air at hot day conditions. In case of using conventional VCS for whole cooling demand, the ECS becomes too heavy as aircraft equipment. Though ACS's light weight is advantageous, the issue that VCS will be available for aircraft ECS is important for saving energy. ECS of commercial aircraft should work for three basic functions, i.e. pressurization, ventilation, and temperature control. The three functions of the ECS for bleed-less type of MEA can be distributed among equipment of the ECS. MDFAC works for pressurization and ventilation. Therefore, we should select appropriate system for only temperature control.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management System Concept with an Autonomous Air-Cooled System

2014-09-16
2014-01-2213
Electrical power management is a key technology in the AEA (All-Electric Aircraft) system, which manages the supply and demand of the electrical power in the entire aircraft system. However, the AEA system requires more than electrical power management alone. Adequate thermal management is also required, because the heat generated by aircraft systems and components increases with progressive system electrification, despite limited heat-sink capability in the aircraft. Since heat dissipation from power electronics such as electric motors, motor controllers and rectifiers, which are widely introduced into the AEA, becomes a key issue, an efficient cooling system architecture should be considered along with the AEA system concept. The more-electric architecture for the aircraft has been developed; mainly targeting reduced fuel burn and CO2 emissions from the aircraft, as well as leveraging ease of maintenance with electric/electronic components.
Technical Paper

System Concept Study of Electrical Management for Onboard Systems

2014-09-16
2014-01-2200
With the growth in onboard electrification referred to the movement of the More Electric Aircraft, or MEA, and constant improvement in ECO standards, aircraft electricity load has continued to soar. The airline and authors have discussed the nature of future aircraft systems in the next two decades, which envisages the further More Electric Aircraft or the All-Electric Aircraft, or AEA, concept helping provide some effective aviation improvements. The operators, pilots and maintenance crews anticipate improved operability, ease of maintenance and fuel saving, while meetings depends for high reliability and safety by electrification. As part of initial progress, the authors approach the methodology of energy management for aircraft systems.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Secondary Power System Integration into Conceptual Design and Its Application to More Electric System

2014-09-16
2014-01-2199
Aircraft designers determine the optimum aircraft configuration to meet performance requirements. Aircraft secondary power systems are very important for aircraft operation, however, traditionally these systems have not been considered in detail while the aircraft configuration and specifications are preliminary studied. Therefore, we constructed an aircraft conceptual design tool considering the many aircraft systems. Furthermore, we applied this design tool to a simple design problem taking into account two different kinds of secondary power system architectures (i.e. the conventional bleed air system and the more electric system), and discussed how the introduction of new aircraft systems affects results. Although the present method is theoretical and conceptual with limited applicability, the effect of the aircraft's secondary power system upon the concerning aircraft specifications was made clear both for the bleed air system and the more electric system.
Technical Paper

Power Management System for the Electric Taxiing System Incorporating the More Electric Architecture

2013-09-17
2013-01-2106
With airlines increasingly directing their attention to operating costs and environmental initiatives, the More Electric Architecture for Aircraft and Propulsion (MEAAP) is emerging as a viable solution for improved performance and eco-friendly aircraft operations. This paper focuses on electric taxiing that does not require the use of jet engines or the auxiliary power unit (APU) during taxiing, either from the departure gate to take-off or from landing to the arrival gate. Many researchers and engineers are considering introducing electric taxiing systems as part of efforts to improve airport conditions. To help cut aircraft emissions at airports, MEAAP seeks to introduce an electric taxiing system that would reduce the duration for which engines and APUs operate while on the ground. Given this goal, the aircraft electrical system deployed for use at airports must rely on a power source other than the jet engines or APU.
Technical Paper

More Electric Architecture for Engine and Aircraft Fuel System

2013-09-17
2013-01-2080
The authors are currently developing the MEE (More Electric Engine) electric motor-driven fuel pump system for aircraft engines. The electric fuel system will contribute to the reduction of engine power extraction to drive the fuel pump; thus, an improvement in engine efficiency will be expected. In addition, the engine system reliability will be improved by introducing advanced electric architecture, and the reduction of hydraulic components, fuel tubes and fittings is effective to enhance the maintainability of the engine. Although it is considered that the MEE electric fuel system will realize several benefits, there are technical challenges to introduce such new electric system into aircraft. One of the key technical challenges is to construct a redundant and simplified electric fuel system, because continuous operation of the fuel pump system is crucial for aircraft safety.
Technical Paper

Contribution of the MEE Toward an Integrated Propulsion System

2012-10-22
2012-01-2100
This paper describes how the MEE (More Electric Engine) system contributes toward an integrated propulsion control system, with a particular focus on commercial aircraft. Current aircraft systems control the engine rotational speed or pressure ratio to control propulsion, but in future aircraft systems, control of the engine thrust itself will be required. Because controlling engine thrust can be used as an effective method of changing the aircraft speed and/or attitude, various approaches to engine thrust control have been investigated and developed. In this investigation, key technical issues have emerged; one is which is the need for an enhanced engine thrust response for stable control of the aircraft. The other is accurate estimation of engine thrust in flight. Incremental data processing capability is also required due to the need for additional monitoring, evaluation and calculation of engine parameters to ensure safe engine operation.
Technical Paper

System Design for the More Electric Engine Incorporated in the Electrical Power Management for More Electric Aircraft

2012-10-22
2012-01-2169
This paper describes a study on electrical power management for the More Electric Aircraft (or MEA) and the More Electric Engine (or MEE). This study explored power management solutions based on an integrated engine/power control system and a permanent magnet motor. In recent years, electrical power management has emerged as a key aspect of aircraft system design. In cases in which the Electromechanical Actuator (or EMA) systems are used for flight control, the power bus systems must also be designed to dissipate the power regenerated from flight control systems. In their study, the authors focused on achieving an optimal balance between aircraft power management and operational requirements of the aero-engines. The study results suggest an effective and novel power control concept based on integrated engine control technologies that ensure stable power systems.
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