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Journal Article

Analysis of Single Lap Adhesive Joints between Magnesium and Other Structural Automotive Materials

This paper will present the results of 3-D finite element analyses of single lap adhesive joints between magnesium and three other automotive materials, namely steel, aluminum and SRIM composites. The modulus of magnesium is lower than that of either steel or aluminum, but is higher than that of SRIM. Thus, this study aims at determining the effect of the difference in substrate modulus on the deformation, stress and strain distributions and maximum stresses in adhesive joints of magnesium with the other three materials. In addition, the effect of adhesive modulus is also explored.
Technical Paper

Fatigue of Spot Friction Welded Joints of Mg-Mg, Al-Al and Al-Mg Alloys

Spot friction welding shows advantages over resistance spot welding for joining light alloys for automotive applications. In this research, fatigue behaviors of spot friction welded joints in lap shear specimens of AM-60 magnesium alloy and AA 5754 aluminum alloy were investigated. Static and fatigue tests were conducted with Mg-Mg, Al-Al and Al-Mg specimens. Fatigue S-N curves were obtained for all these specimens using load-controlled fatigue tests. Finite element analysis was conducted to investigate the stress distribution and the location of maximum stresses in spot friction welded joints in Mg-Mg specimens.
Technical Paper

Effect of Surface Pretreatments on Adhesive Bonding and Corrosion Resistance of AM60B, AZ31-H24, and AM30 Magnesium

This study reports the performance of three different automotive magnesium substrate materials (AM60B diecastings, AZ31-H24 sheet, and AM30 extrusions), each bonded to a common aluminum reference material with two different toughened adhesives. The magnesium substrates were pretreated with six different commercial pretreatments both with and without a final fused-powder polymeric topcoat. These samples were then evaluated by comparing initial lap-shear strength to the lap-shear strength after cyclic-corrosion testing. Additionally, use of a scribe through the polymer primer permitted assessment of: 1) distance of corrosion undercutting from the scribe (filiform), and 2) percent corrosion over the area of the coupon. The results showed that the performance of each magnesium pretreatment varied on cast AM60B, sheet AZ31-H24, and extruded AM30 substrates.
Technical Paper

Spot Friction Welding of Mg-Mg, Al-Al and Mg-Al Alloys

Spot friction welding is considered a cost-effective method for joining lightweight automotive alloys, such as magnesium and aluminum alloys. An experimental study was conducted to investigate the strength of spot friction welded joints of magnesium to magnesium, aluminum to aluminum, magnesium to aluminum and aluminum to magnesium. The joint structures and failure modes were also studied.
Technical Paper

Effects of Surface Treatment (Lubricant) on Spot Friction Welded Joints Made of 6111-T4 Aluminum Sheets

The effects of lubricant on lap shear strength of Spot Friction Welded (SFW) joints made of 6111-T4 alloys were studied. Taguchi L8 design of experiment methodology was used to determine the lubricant effects. The results showed that the lap shear strength increased by 9.9% when the lubricant was present at the top surface compared to that of the baseline (no lubricant) whereas the lap shear strength reduced by 10.2% and 10.9% when the lubricant was present in the middle and at the bottom surfaces compared to that of the baseline (no lubricant), respectively. The microstructure analysis showed a zigzag interface at the joint between the upper and the lower sheet metal for the baseline specimen, the specimens with the lubricant at the top and at the bottom. However, a straight line interface is exhibited at the joint between the upper and the lower sheet for the specimen with the lubricant in the middle. The weld nugget sizes of the lap shear tested specimens were measured.
Technical Paper

Joining Aluminum to Nylon Using Frictional Heat

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the potential of spot joining aluminum with nylon using frictional heat. The process utilizes the heat generated by friction between a rotating tool surface and the aluminum sheet surface to melt nylon locally in the joining area and create a mechanical interlock between the aluminum and nylon sheets. Lap shear joint specimens were prepared using this process to investigate the effect of several parameters such as tool geometry, tool RPM, tool hold time, tool plunge depth and tool feed rate. Tensile tests were conducted to evaluate the joint strength and to investigate the failure mechanisms of the joint. Furthermore, the effects of cleaning the aluminum surface and baking of the nylon on the joint strength were also studied in this paper. Finally, friction heat generated joints were compared with adhesively bonded joints between aluminum and nylon.
Technical Paper

Aqueous Corrosion of Experimental Creep-Resistant Magnesium Alloys

This paper presents a comparison of aqueous corrosion rates in 5% NaCl solution for eight experimental creep-resistant magnesium alloys considered for automotive powertrain applications, as well as three reference alloys (pure magnesium, AM50B and AZ91D). The corrosion rates were measured using the techniques of titration, weight loss, hydrogen evolution, and DC polarization. The corrosion rates measured by these techniques are compared with each other as well as with those obtained with salt-spray testing using ASTM B117. The advantages and disadvantages of the various corrosion measurement techniques are discussed.
Technical Paper

Fatigue of Friction-Stir Welded Joints in Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks

This paper presents the results of fatigue tests conducted on tailor-welded aluminum blanks consisting of 1.66 mm thick and 1.06 mm thick AA 5754-O sheets. The method of joining the sheets was friction-stir welding. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of tensile pre-strains on the fatigue performance of the welded joint. The welded specimens as well as unwelded 1.06-mm thick specimens were subjected to tensile pre-strains of 60 and 80% of their respective uniform strains before the fatigue tests. Fatigue S-N data of all these specimens were compared with similar data for unstrained specimens. Microscopic examinations were conducted to understand the failure modes.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Denting Study of Aluminum Alloys

This paper describes the results of dynamic denting experiments conducted on AA5754 and AA6061 alloys. Dynamic denting tests were performed using a drop weight impact machine. The drop height was varied from 38 mm to 914 mm to generate impact velocities ranging from 53.4 m/min to 254 m/min. The dent depth created at different drop heights was related to the input impact energy and peak load observed in the tests. The effects of sheet thickness and yield strength were explored.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Bending Springback of Aluminum Alloy 5754

This paper describes an experimental work on the bending springback of aluminum alloy 5754. Experiments were performed using a 90° V-shaped matching die-punch combination, with and without clamping. Clamping was used to create tension during bending. The experimental parameters taken into account are the die radius, sheet clamping torque, sheet thickness and the level of cold work in the sheet.
Technical Paper

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites for Structural Automotive Applications

This paper presents cost-benefit analysis of glass and carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites for structural automotive applications based on press forming operation. Press forming is very similar to stamping operation for steel. The structural automotive applications involve beam type components. The part selected for a case study analysis is a crossbeam support for instrument panels.
Technical Paper

Static and Fatigue Strength Evaluation of Clinched Joints in an Aluminum Alloy

This paper presents the static and fatigue strength evaluation of clinched joints in 6111-T4 aluminum alloy sheets. Clinched joints are mechanical joints produced a cold forming technique using a small die-punch combination. A design of experiments approach is used to determine the optimum die-punch combination that produces the least variation in the static pull-out load in single lap shear tests. Fatigue S-N curves are determined for several different clinched joints in load-controlled fatigue tests with the load ratio equal to 0.1. The effect of heat exposure, typically experienced in paint ovens, on the static strength as well as fatigue S-N behavior are also examined.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Consideration in the Design of Automotive Composites

Light weight composite materials are being considered in many structural automotive applications such as leaf spring, transmission support member, and wheels. The primary design criteria in all these applications is resistance against fatigue failure. This paper reviews some of the unique features of automotive composites in fatigue loading and discusses their differences with metals, particularly in relation to fatigue crack propagation. Practical consequences of such inherent differences are also discussed.