Effect of Renewable Fuel Blends on PN and SPN Emissions in a GDI Engine
To characterize the effects of renewable fuels on particulate emissions from GDI engines, engine experiments were conducted using EN228-compliant gasoline fuel blends containing no oxygenates, 10% ethanol (EtOH), or 22% ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). The experiments were conducted in a single cylinder GDI engine using a 6-hole fuel injector operated at 200 bar injection pressure. Both PN in raw exhaust and solid PN (SPN) were measured at two load points and various start of injection (SOI) timings. Raw PN and SPN results were classified into various size ranges, corresponding to current and future legislations. At early SOI timings, where particulate formation is dominated by diffusion flames on the piston due to liquid film, the oxygenated blends yielded dramatically higher PN and SPN emissions than reference gasoline because of fuel effects.