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Technical Paper

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of Resonance in a High Performance Engine Intake System: Part 2

2007-04-16
2007-01-1399
The unsteady gas dynamic phenomena in a racecar airbox have been examined, and resonant tuning effects have been considered. A coupled 1D/3D analysis, using the engine simulation package Virtual 4-Stroke and the CFD package FLUENT, was used to model the engine and airbox. The models were experimentally validated. An airbox was designed with a natural frequency in the region of 75 Hz. A coupled 1D/3D analysis of the airbox and a Yamaha R6 4-cylinder engine predicted resonance at the single-cylinder induction frequency; 75 Hz at an engine speed of 9000 rpm. The amplitude of the pressure fluctuation was found to be influenced by the separation between the intake pipes in the airbox. For an n-cylinder even-firing engine, if the intakes are coincident in the airbox, then the fundamental and all harmonics of the forcing function, apart from the (n-1)th, (2n-1)th, etc. will cancel. That is, only the multi-cylinder induction frequency and its multiples will not cancel.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of Resonance in a High Performance Engine Intake System: Part I

2006-12-05
2006-01-3653
The unsteady gas dynamic phenomena in engine intake systems of the type found in racecars have been examined. In particular, the resonant tuning effects, including cylinder-to-cylinder power variations, which can occur as a result of the interaction between an engine and its airbox have been considered. Frequency analysis of the output from a Virtual 4-Stroke 1D engine simulation was used to characterise the forcing function applied by an engine to an airbox. A separate computational frequency sweeping technique, which employed the CFD package FLUENT, was used to determine the natural frequencies of virtual airboxes in isolation from an engine. Using this technique, an airbox with a natural frequency at 75 Hz was designed for a Yamaha R6 4-cylinder motorcycle engine. The existence of an airbox natural frequency at 75 Hz was subsequently confirmed by an experimental frequency sweeping technique carried out on the engine test bed.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation and Validation of the Scavenging Process in a 125cc 2-Stroke Racing Engine

2006-11-13
2006-32-0061
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is frequently used to predict complex flow phenomena and assist in engine design and optimization. The scavenge process within a 2-stroke engine is key to engine performance especially in high performance racing applications. In this paper, FLUENT CFD code is used to simulate the scavenging process within a 125cc single cylinder racing engine. A variety of different port designs are simulated and scavenge characteristics compared and contrasted. The predicted CFD results are compared with measured scavenge data obtained from the QUB single-cycle scavenge rig. These results show good agreement and provide valuable insight into the effect of port design features on the scavenging process.
Technical Paper

Experimental Apparatus for the PIV Validation of Gas-Dynamic and CFD Engine Models

2006-11-13
2006-32-0019
The single shot apparatus creates a pressure wave (compression or rarefaction) by releasing a pressure or vacuum from a blowdown cylinder. The wave is contrived to be representative of cylinder blowdown or the suction wave that emanates from an engine intake valve during induction. Generated waves may be fired into a quiescent pipe or system of pipes that represent the ducts found on an engine. The most significant features that distinguish the new apparatus from any previous are that it uses a poppet valve to release the wave and that the apparatus is largely automatic, enabling the generation of a new wave every 15 seconds or so. The particular version of the apparatus described here has been conceived to allow a low speed background flow to be maintained in the pipe system between waves. The purpose of this is to allow microscopic particles to be kept in suspension in the air to facilitate flow studies using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) or Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA).
Technical Paper

Simulation of a 1.9 Litre Direct Injection Turbocharged Diesel Engine at Part Load

2003-03-03
2003-01-1065
Engine cycle simulation is an essential tool in the development of modern internal combustion engines. As engines evolve to meet tougher environmental and consumer demands, so must the analysis tools that the engineer employs. This paper reviews the application of such a tool, VIRTUAL 4-STROKE [1], in the modelling of a benchmark 1.9 Litre TDI engine. In an earlier paper presented to the Society [2] the authors presented results of a validation study on the same engine under full load operation. This paper expands on that work with validation of the simulation model against measured data over a full range of part load operation.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Formula 1 Engine and Airbox Performance using Coupled Virtual 4-Stroke and CFD Simulations

2002-12-02
2002-01-3318
This paper describes a technique whereby race car airbox performance can be assessed directly in terms of predicted engine performance by coupling a one-dimensional engine model on a timestep-by-timestep basis to a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of an airbox. A high-performance three-litre V10 engine was modelled using Virtual 4-Stroke unsteady gas dynamics engine simulation software, while two airbox configurations, representative of those used in FIA Formula 1 (F1), were modelled using general purpose CFD software. Results are presented that compare predicted engine performance for the two airbox geometries considered in the coupled simulations. Individual cylinder performance values are also presented and these show significant variations across the ten cylinders for each airbox simulated.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of the Performance of a 1.9 Litre Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0070
Recent environmental legislation to reduce emissions and improve efficiency means that there is a real need for improved thermodynamic performance models for the simulation of direct-injection, turbocharged diesel engines, which are becoming increasingly popular in the automotive sector. An accurate engine performance simulation software package (VIRTUAL 4-STROKE) is employed to model a benchmark automotive 1.9-litre Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) diesel engine. The accuracy of this model is scrutinised against actual test results from the engine. This validation includes comparisons of engine performance characteristics and also instantaneous gas dynamic and thermodynamic behaviour in the engine cylinders, turbocharger and ducting. It is seen that there is excellent agreement in all of these areas.
Technical Paper

One-Dimensional Mass and Energy Transport Using a Modified Mesh Method

1998-09-14
982049
One-dimensional (1-D) modelling codes are now commonplace in engine simulation programs. Thermodynamic analysis associated with the unsteady gas flow through engine ducting is an important element within the modelling process. This paper reports on a new approach in analysing mass and energy transport through a pipe system using the mesh method. A new system has been developed for monitoring wave energy and gas properties, using a two-dimensional grid to represent the time-mesh boundary domain. This approach has allowed for refinement of the current mesh method by allowing more accurate monitoring of gas properties. The modified method was tested using measured results from a Single-Shot Rig. A CFD analysis was also conducted and compared with the new method. The new method performed very well on the range of pipe geometries tested.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Simulated and Measured Noise Emission Using a Combined 1D/3D Computational Technique

1997-02-24
970801
A combined one-dimensional, multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamic modelling technique has been developed for analysis of unsteady gas dynamic flow through automotive mufflers. The technique facilitates assessment of complex designs in terms of back-pressure and noise attenuation. The methodology has been validated on a number of common exhaust muffler arrangements over a wide range of test conditions. Comparison between measured and simulated data has been conducted on a Single-Pulse (SP) rig for detailed unsteady gas dynamic analysis and a Rotary-Valve (RV) rig in conjunction with an anechoic chamber for noise attenuation analysis. Results obtained on both experimental arrangements exhibit excellent gas dynamic and acoustic correlation. The technique should allow optimisation of a wide variety of potential muffler designs prior to prototype manufacture.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Simulated and Measured Noise Emissions and Unsteady Gas Dynamic Flow from Engine Ducting

1996-08-01
961806
One-dimensional (1-D) unsteady gas dynamic models of a number of common muffler (or silencer) elements have been incorporated into a1-D simulation code to predict the impact of the muffler on the gas dynamics within the overall system and the radiated Sound Pressure Level (SPL) noise spectrum in free-space. Correlation with measured data has been achieved using a Single-Pulse rig for detailed unsteady gas dynamic analysis and a Rotary-Valve rig in conjunction with an anechoic chamber for noise spectra analysis. The results obtained show good agreement both gas dynamically and acoustically. The incorporation of these models into a full 1-D engine simulation code should facilitate the rapid assessment of various muffler designs prior to prototype manufacture and testing.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a 1D Modelling Code for a Pipe Containing Gas of Varying Properties

1995-02-01
950275
This paper reports on the experimental evaluation of certain aspects of the mathematical modelling by the GPB method of pressure wave propagation through finite systems, of unsteady gas flow in engine ducting. The aspects under examination are the propagation of pressure waves through a pipe which contains gases of dissimilar properties. In this case the gases are carbon dioxide and air. The experimentation is conducted using the QUB SP (single pulse) pressure wave generator consisting of a cylinder, connected via a sliding valve to a long duct. The pressure waves it creates closely mimic those to be found in i.e. engines. The initial cylinder pressure may be set to simulate either an induction or an exhaust process, but the experiments reported here are of compression waves only. The duct attached to the pressure wave generator is a straight pipe. The cylinder and part of the pipe are filled with carbon dioxide and air.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of 1-D Modelling Codes for a Pipe System Containing Area Discontinuities

1995-02-01
950276
This paper reports on the first phase of an experimental evaluation of four different methods for the mathematical modelling of unsteady gas flow in a pipe system containing an area discontinuity. The four methods under investigation are the non-homentropic method of characteristics, the two-step Lax-Wendroff method with flux corrected transport, the Harten-Lax-Leer upstream difference method and the GPB finite system method. The experimentation is conducted using the QUB SP (single-pulse) pressure wave generator consisting of a cylinder, connected via a sliding valve to a long duct. The pressure waves it creates closely mimic those to be found in i.c. engines. The initial cylinder pressure may be set to simulate either an induction or an exhaust process. Various ducts are attached to the pressure wave generator to simulate both sudden and gradual area changes. Each duct is sufficiently long as to permit pressure wave observation without superposition effects.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of 1-D Computer Codes for the Simulation of Unsteady Gas Flow Through Engines - A First Phase

1994-09-01
941685
This paper reports on the first phase of an experimental evaluation of five different methods for the mathematical modelling of unsteady gas flow in engine ducting. The five methods under investigation are the homentropic method of characteristics, the non-homentropic method of characteristics, the two-step Lax-Wendroff method with flux corrected transport, the Harten-Lax-Leer upstream difference method and the Blair method of pressure wave propagation through finite spaces. A single cycle pressure wave generator consisting of a cylinder, connected via a sliding valve to a long duct, has been designed and built. The pressure waves it creates closely mimic those to be found in i.e. engines. The cylinder and the ducts of the device can be filled with any gas and at elevated temperatures. A perfect seal exists between the cylinder and the valve thus enabling mass- flow correlation. The initial cylinder pressure may be set to simulate an induction or an exhaust process.
Technical Paper

CFD Prediction of a Two-Stroke, In-Cylinder Steady Flow Field An Experimental Validation

1994-03-01
940399
LDV is used to measure steady flow in a two port loop scavenged model two-stroke engine cylinder. The model cylinder, machined from acrylic for maximum optical access, is geometrically identical to that used in a previous dynamic study of transfer port efflux vectors. The measured flow field is compared with a CFD prediction which employs experimentally measured velocity, mass flow rate, and turbulence intensity as the inlet boundary condition at the transfer port. The finite volume prediction, using the PHOENICS general purpose code recreates the global flow pattern well, but shows some local discrepancies in flow direction and magnitude. Levels of turbulent kinetic energy were poorly recreated using a k-ϵ model of turbulence, especially around impingement of the incoming jets where local errors of up to 60% were seen.
Technical Paper

Four-Cylinder, Naturally Aspirated, Two-Stroke Automotive Engines - A Performance Potential Evaluation

1990-09-01
901668
A thermodynamic model developed at The Queen's University of Belfast is used to demonstrate the importance of exhaust system design for four cylinder two-stroke engines. The investigation considers two exhaust layouts for in-line engines and also a V or opposed piston layout. The influence of the major exhaust parameters on wide open throttle power and bmep is investigated.
Technical Paper

Three-Cylinder, Naturally Aspirated, Two-Stroke Automotive Engines - A Performance Potential Evaluation

1990-09-01
901667
The importance of exhaust system design for three cylinder two-stroke engines is demonstrated using a thermodynamic model developed at The Queen's University of Belfast. The influence of the major exhaust parameters on wide open throttle power and bmep is investigated. In addition, the potential benefits of reed valve induction over piston port induction at low engine speeds are demonstrated for one particular engine configuration.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Performance Characteristics of Twin-Cylinder Two- Stroke Cycle Engines for Outboard Motor Applications

1988-09-01
881266
Previous papers from The Queen's University of Belfast have shown the application of digital computers in simulating the unsteady gas flow and thermodynamic processes in single cylinder engines having various types of exhaust systems. This paper outlines the results of an investigation of twin cylinder engines of the outboard motor type where compact and complex exhaust systems are used to optimise the performance characteristics within a specified package size. Measured and predicted pressure-time histories for the exhaust and open cycle cylinder are presented for a 350cm3, twin cylinder test engine, which has been extensively modified to emulate the porting configuration and performance characteristics of two production outboard motor engines. Also compared are the measured and predicted output performance data for the engines, where all of the predicted data is produced by a new twin cylinder simulation program incorporating a simple constant pressure junction model.
Technical Paper

An Improved Model for Predicting Reed Valve Behaviour in Two-Stroke Cycle Engines

1987-09-01
871654
Previous publications from The Queen's University of Belfast have shown the formulation of a mathematical model to simulate the dynamic behaviour of a reed valve as used between the crankcase and inlet tract of a simple two-stroke cycle engine. This paper describes the enhancements and improvements made to this original reed valve model and its verification by correlation with measurements from a firing engine. Measured and predicted data for reed tip lift and delivery ratio are presented for a 350cm3, twin cylinder test engine over a wide range of engine speeds up to 9500 rev/min. The results of this experimental and theoretical study, using varied reed width profiles and radically different reed petal materials including carbon fibre, glass fibre reinforced plastics and steel, are also presented. The development of a new and unique reed valve visualisation technique is described and discussed both theoretically and practically.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Performance Characteristics of Two-Cycle Engines Fitted with Reed Induction Valves

1979-02-01
790842
Earlier papers by the principal author in conjunction with others have described the prediction of noise and performance characteristics of two-cycle spark-ignition crankcase compression engines. These calculations are performed on a digital computer and are shown to simulate accurately the unsteady gas flow and thermodynamic processes in such power units. The engines described previously had induction control by the piston or with a disc valve. In this paper the work is extended to engines fitted with reed valves controlling intake air flow and examples illustrating the effectiveness of such calculations are presented. In particular, a single-cylinder industrial engine is employed to show clearly the effects of changing such parameters as reed petal thickness, stop-plate radii and numbers of reed petals on the performance characteristics.
Technical Paper

The Unsteady Gas Flow Behaviour in a Charge Cooled Rotary Piston Engine

1977-02-01
770763
Mathematical models of the open cycle gas exchange process and the closed cycle combustion process are developed for a Wankel engine. The theoretical model of the complete engine operating cycle is programmed for a digital computer and the results are shown for a small single rotor charge cooled Wankel engine. The predicted pressure diagrams in the working chamber and in the inlet, transfer and exhaust ducts are compared with measured values as is the predicted volumetric efficiency relationship with engine speed. The predicted charging efficiency relationship with engine speed is also compared with the measured brake mean effective pressure characteristic to demonstrate the usefulness of the theoretical model.
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