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Technical Paper

Mixture model approach for the study of the inner flow dynamics of an AdBlue dosing system and the characterization of the near-field spray

Selective Catalytic Reduction stands for an effective methodology for the reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines. For it, the injection of Urea Water Solution (UWS) plays a major role in the process, both in the injector far-field as well as in the near-field. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allow to have a description of the physics without the need of experimental installations. The main objective of this study is to predict characteristics of the flow of interest inside the injector as well as spray morphology in the near field of the spray. For it the nozzle geometry has been reconstructed from X-Ray tomography data, and an Eulerian-Eulerian approach has been applied to study the liquid phase of the UWS with a LES approach for turbulence modeling. The injector unit is subjected to typical low-pressure working conditions. The results extracted from it comprise parameters that characterize the hydraulic behavior as well as jet intact length.
Technical Paper

Spray Characterization of the Urea-Water Solution (UWS) Injected in a Hot Air Stream Analogous to SCR System Operating Conditions

The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system has great potential in reducing NOx emissions. The urea-water solution (UWS) is the preferred method on vehicles for obtaining the ammonia, the required reductant for SCR. The UWS spray is necessary to transform exhaust gas into nitrogen and water and plays an important role in the performance of this system. The UWS needs to be properly mixed with the exhaust gas coming from the engine before entering the SCR, therefore the solution must be injected in the exhaust pipe in a way that it completely vaporizes in order to reduce deposit formation and guaranteeing a proper functioning and durability of the NOx reduction system. Achieving complete vaporization of the UWS spray is not an easy task, mainly due to reduced package space. Another challenge for converting UWS to ammonia is the latent energy in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Soot Concentration in a Prototype Multi-Hole Diesel Injector by High-Speed Color Diffused Back Illumination Technique

A prototype multi-hole diesel injector operating with n-heptane fuel from a high-pressure common rail system is used in a high-pressure and high-temperature test rig capable of reaching 1100 Kelvin and 150 bar under different oxygen concentrations. A novel optical set-up capable of visualizing the soot cloud evolution in the fuel jet from 30 to 85 millimeters from the nozzle exit with the high-speed color diffused back illumination technique is used as a result of the insertion of a high-pressure window in the injector holder opposite to the frontal window of the vessel. The experiments performed in this work used one wavelength provide information about physical of the soot properties, experimental results variating the operational conditions show the reduction of soot formation with an increase in injection pressure, a reduction in ambient temperature, a reduction in oxygen concentration or a reduction in ambient density.
Journal Article

Computational and Experimental Investigation of Interfacial Area in Near-Field Diesel Spray Simulation

The dense spray region in the near-field of diesel fuel injection remains an enigma. This region is difficult to interrogate with light in the visible range and difficult to model due to the rapid interaction between liquid and gas. In particular, modeling strategies that rely on Lagrangian particle tracking of droplets have struggled in this area. To better represent the strong interaction between phases, Eulerian modeling has proven particularly useful. Models built on the concept of surface area density are advantageous where primary and secondary atomization have not yet produced droplets, but rather form more complicated liquid structures. Surface area density, a more general concept than Lagrangian droplets, naturally represents liquid structures, no matter how complex. These surface area density models, however, have not been directly experimentally validated in the past due to the inability of optical methods to elucidate such a quantity.
Technical Paper

Soot Model Calibration Based on Laser Extinction Measurements

In this work a detailed soot model based on stationary flamelets is used to simulate soot emissions of a reactive Diesel spray. In order to represent soot formation and oxidation processes properly, a calibration of the soot reaction rates has to be performed. This model calibration is usually performed on basis of engine out soot measurements. Contrary to this, in this work the soot model is calibrated on local soot concentrations along the spray axis obtained from laser extinction chamber measurements. The measurements are performed with B7 certification Diesel and a series production multihole injector to obtain engine similar boundary conditions. In order to ensure that the flow and mixture field is captured well by the CFD-simulation, the simulated liquid penetration lengths and flame lift-off lengths are compared to chamber measurements.
Journal Article

Schlieren Methodology for the Analysis of Transient Diesel Flame Evolution

Schlieren/shadowgraphy has been adopted in the combustion research as a standard technique for tip penetration analysis of sprays under diesel-like engine conditions. When dealing with schlieren images of reacting sprays, the combustion process and the subsequent light emission from the soot within the flame have revealed both limitations as well as considerations that deserve further investigation. Seeking for answers to such concerns, the current work reports an experimental study with this imaging technique where, besides spatial filtering at the Fourier plane, both short exposure time and chromatic filtering were performed to improve the resulting schlieren image, as well as the reliability of the subsequent tip penetration measurement. The proposed methodology has reduced uncertainties caused by artificial pixel saturation (blooming).
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Behavior and Spray Characteristics of a Common Rail Diesel Injection System Using Gasoline Fuel

Regulations on emissions from diesel engines are becoming more stringent worldwide. Hence there is a great deal of interest in developing engine combustion systems that offer the fuel efficiency of a diesel engine, but with low smoke and NOx emissions. Thus, premixed compression ignition combustion is an interesting way to achieve a clean and efficient engine. However, using a high reactivity fuel such as diesel fuel leads to a complex and expensive engine design. A proven way to overcome this drawback is to actively control the reactivity of the fuel using low cetane fuels such as gasoline. This strategy has been explored with single and multiple cylinder engines. However no detailed and well conducted studies of the injection process were found related to the effects of gasoline use in a standard commercial compression ignition diesel engine injection system.