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Technical Paper

Piston Bowl Geometry Effects on Combustion Development in a High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0167
In this work we studied the effects of piston bowl design on combustion in a small-bore direct-injection diesel engine. Two bowl designs were compared: a conventional, omega-shaped bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Experiments were carried out in the Sandia single-cylinder optical engine facility, with a medium-load, mild-boosted operating condition featuring a pilot+main injection strategy. CFD simulations were carried out with the FRESCO platform featuring full-geometric body-fitted mesh modeling of the engine and were validated against measured in-cylinder performance as well as soot natural luminosity images. Differences in combustion development were studied using the simulation results, and sensitivities to in-cylinder flow field (swirl ratio) and injection rate parameters were also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Computational Optimization of a Diesel Engine Calibration Using a Novel SVM-PSO Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0542
Accelerated computational optimization of a diesel engine calibration was achieved by combining Support Vector Regression models with the Particle Swarm Optimization routine. The framework utilized a full engine simulation as a surrogate for a real engine test with test parameters closely resembling a typical 4.5L diesel engine. Initial tests were run with multi-modal test problems including Rastragin's, Bukin's, Ackely's, and Schubert's functions which informed the ML model tuning hyper-parameters. To improve the performance of the engine the hybrid approach was used to optimize the Fuel Pressure, Injection Timing, Pilot Timing and Fraction, and EGR rate. Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Specific Fuel Consumption are simultaneously reduced. As expected, optimums reflect a late injection strategy with moderately high EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Ultra-High Fuel Injection Pressure with Massive EGR to Enable Simultaneous Reduction of Soot and NOx Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0227
In this study both double and triple injection strategies were used with fuel pressures up to 300 and 250 MPa, respectively. Tests were conducted at medium load conditions with cooled, high-pressure EGR at a ratio of 40% and higher. A four-cylinder production engine, featuring double turbochargers with one variable geometry turbocharger, was tested. The double injection strategy consisted of a 20% close-coupled pilot injection while the triple injection strategy introduced a post injection consisting of 10% the total cycle fuel. Results of this study do not indicate an advantage to extreme fuel pressure. The increased air entrainment reduces soot while increasing the premixed burn heat release, mean cylinder temperature, and NOx. Compared to the double injection scheme, triple injections achieved much lower soot for the same EGR rate with only a small NOx penalty.
Journal Article

The Influence of Fuel Cetane Number on Catalyst Light-Off Operation in a Modern Diesel Engine

2017-08-18
2017-01-9378
The design of modern diesel-powered vehicles involves optimization and balancing of trade-offs for fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise. To meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, diesel powertrains employ aftertreatment devices to control nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter emissions and use active exhaust warm-up strategies to ensure those devices are active as quickly as possible. A typical strategy for exhaust warm-up is to operate with retarded combustion phasing, limited by combustion stability and HC emissions. The amount of exhaust enthalpy available for catalyst light-off is limited by the extent to which combustion phasing can be retarded. Diesel cetane number (CN), a measure of fuel ignition quality, has an influence on combustion stability at retarded combustion phasing. Diesel fuel in the United States tends to have a lower CN (both minimum required and average in market) than other countries.
Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0734
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Technical Paper

Trade-Offs Between Emissions and Efficiency for Multiple Injections of Neat Biodiesel in a Turbocharged Diesel Engine Using an Enhanced PSO-GA Optimization Strategy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0630
Particle Swarm and the Genetic Algorithm were coupled to optimize multiple performance metrics for the combustion of neat biodiesel in a turbocharged, four cylinder, John Deere engine operating under constant partial load. The enhanced algorithm was used with five inputs including EGR, injection pressure, and the timing/distribution of fuel between a pilot and main injection. A merit function was defined and used to minimize five output parameters including CO, NOx, PM, HC and fuel consumption simultaneously. The combination of PSO and GA yielded convergence to a Pareto regime without the need for excessive engine runs. Results along the Pareto front illustrate the tradeoff between NOx and particulate matter seen in the literature.
Technical Paper

Measured and Predicted Soot Particle Emissions from Natural Gas Engines

2015-09-06
2015-24-2518
Due to the new challenge of meeting number-based regulations for particulate matter (PM), a numerical and experimental study has been conducted to better understand particulate formation in engines fuelled with compressed natural gas. The study has been conducted on a Heavy-Duty, Euro VI, 4-cylinder, spark ignited engine, with multipoint sequential phased injection and stoichiometric combustion. For the experimental measurements two different instruments were used: a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a fast-response particle size spectrometer (DMS) the latter able also to provide a particle size distribution of the measured particles in the range from 5 to 1000 nm. Experimental measurements in both stationary and transient conditions were carried out. The data using the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) were useful to detect which operating conditions lead to high numbers of particles. Then a further transient test was used for a more detailed and deeper analysis.
Journal Article

Applying Advanced CFD Analysis Tools to Study Differences between Start-of-Main and Start-of-Post Injection Flow, Temperature and Chemistry Fields Due to Combustion of Main-Injected Fuel

2015-09-06
2015-24-2436
This paper is part of a larger body of experimental and computational work devoted to studying the role of close-coupled post injections on soot reduction in a heavy-duty optical engine. It is a continuation of an earlier computational paper. The goals of the current work are to develop new CFD analysis tools and methods and apply them to gain a more in depth understanding of the different in-cylinder environments into which fuel from main- and post-injections are injected and to study how the in-cylinder flow, thermal and chemical fields are transformed between start of injection timings. The engine represented in this computational study is a single-cylinder, direct-injection, heavy-duty, low-swirl engine with optical components. It is based on the Cummins N14, has a cylindrical shaped piston bowl and an eight-hole injector that are both centered on the cylinder axis. The fuel used was n-heptane and the engine operating condition was light load at 1200 RPM.
Journal Article

Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0855
The focus of the present study was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition.
Journal Article

Load Limit Extension in Pre-Mixed Compression Ignition Using a 2-Zone Combustion System

2015-04-14
2015-01-0860
A novel 2-zone combustion system was examined at medium load operation consistent with loads in the light duty vehicle drive cycle (7.6 bar BMEP and 2600 rev/min). Pressure rise rate and noise can limit the part of the engine map where pre-mixed combustion strategies such as HCCI or RCCI can be used. The present 2-zone pistons have an axial projection that divides the near TDC volume into two regions (inner and outer) joined by a narrow communication channel defined by the squish height. Dividing the near TDC volume provides a means to prepare two fuel-air mixtures with different ignition characteristics. Depending on the fuel injection timing, the reactivity of the inner or outer volume can be raised to provide an ignition source for the fuel-air mixture in the other, less reactive volume. Multi-dimensional CFD modeling was used to design the 2-zone piston geometry examined in this study.
Journal Article

The Effect of Operating Parameters on Soot Emissions in GDI Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-1071
Due to the upcoming regulations for particulate matter (PM) emissions from GDI engines, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling study to predict soot emissions (both mass and solid particle number) from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines was undertaken to provide insights on how and why soot emissions are formed from GDI engines. In this way, better methods may be developed to control or reduce PM emissions from GDI engines. In this paper, the influence of engine operating parameters was examined for a side-mounted fuel injector configuration in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. The present models are able to reasonably predict the influences of the variables of interest compared to available experimental data or literature. For a late injection strategy, effects of the fuel composition, and spray cone angle were investigated with a single-hole injector.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of Soot Reduction Mechanisms of Post-Injection in Spray Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0794
The application of close-coupled post injections in diesel engines has been proven to be an effective in-cylinder strategy for soot reduction, without much fuel efficiency penalty. But due to the complexity of in-cylinder combustion, the soot reduction mechanism of post-injections is difficult to explain. Accordingly, a simulation study using a three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, coupled with the SpeedChem chemistry solver and a semi-detailed soot model, was carried out to investigate post-injection in a constant volume combustion chamber, which is more simple and controllable with respect to the boundary conditions than an engine. A 2-D axisymmetric mesh of radius 2 cm and height 5 cm was used to model the spray. Post-injection durations and initial oxygen concentrations were swept to study the efficacy of post-injection under different combustion conditions.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Variable Valve Actuation, Cylinder Deactivation and Injection Strategies for Low-Load RCCI Operation of a Light Duty Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0843
While Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) exhibit high thermal efficiency and produce low NOx and soot emissions, low load operation is still a significant challenge due to high unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, which occur as a result of poor combustion efficiencies at these operating points. Furthermore, the exhaust gas temperatures are insufficient to light-off the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), thereby resulting in poor UHC and CO conversion efficiencies by the aftertreatment system. To achieve exhaust gas temperature values sufficient for DOC light-off, combustion can be appropriately phased by changing the ratio of gasoline to diesel in the cylinder, or by burning additional fuel injected during the expansion stroke through post-injection.
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional-Modeling-Based Development of a Novel 2-Zone Combustion Chamber Applied to Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0840
A novel 2-zone combustion chamber concept (patent pending) was developed using multi-dimensional modeling. At minimum volume, an axial projection in the piston divides the volume into distinct zones joined by a communication channel. The projection provides a means to control the mixture formation and combustion phasing within each zone. The novel combustion system was applied to reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion in both light-duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Results from the study of an 8.8 bar BMEP, 2600 RPM operating condition are presented for the light-duty engine. The results from the heavy-duty engine are at an 18.1 bar BMEP, 1200 RPM operating condition. The effect of several major design features were investigated including the volume split between the inner and outer combustion chamber volumes, the clearance (squish) height, and the top ring land (crevice) volume.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Impact of Impingement Distance on Momentum Flux Rate of Injection Measurements of a Diesel Injector

2015-04-14
2015-01-0933
Diesel combustion and emissions is largely spray and mixing controlled. Spray and combustion models enable characterization over a range of conditions to understand optimum combustion strategies. The validity of models depends on the inputs, including the rate of injection profile of the injector. One method to measure the rate of injection is to measure the momentum, where the injected fuel spray is directed onto a force transducer which provides measurements of momentum flux. From this the mass flow rate is calculated. In this study, the impact of impingement distance, the distance from injector nozzle exit to the anvil connected to the force transducer, is characterized over a range of 2 - 12 mm. This characterization includes the impact of the distance on the momentum flux signal in both magnitude and shape. At longer impingement distances, it is hypothesized that a peak in momentum could occur due to increasing velocity of fuel injected as the pintle fully opens.
Journal Article

Effects of Oxygenated Fuels on Combustion and Soot Formation/Oxidation Processes

2014-10-13
2014-01-2657
The Leaner Lifted-Flame Combustion (LLFC) strategy offers a possible alternative to low temperature combustion or other globally lean, premixed operation strategies to reduce soot directly in the flame, while maintaining mixing-controlled combustion. Adjustments to fuel properties, especially fuel oxygenation, have been reported to have potentially beneficial effects for LLFC applications. Six fuels were selected or blended based on cetane number, oxygen content, molecular structure, and the presence of an aromatic hydrocarbon. The experiments compared different fuel blends made of n-hexadecane, n-dodecane, methyl decanoate, tri-propylene glycol monomethyl ether (TPGME), as well as m-xylene. Several optical diagnostics have been used simultaneously to monitor the ignition, combustion and soot formation/oxidation processes from spray flames in a constant-volume combustion vessel.
Technical Paper

High Speed Dual-Fuel RCCI Combustion for High Power Output

2014-04-01
2014-01-1320
In recent years society's demand and interest in clean and efficient internal combustion engines has grown significantly. Several ideas have been proposed and tested to meet this demand. In particular, dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion has demonstrated high thermal efficiency, and low engine-out NOx, and soot emissions. Unlike homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion, which solely relies on the chemical kinetics of the fuel for ignition control, RCCI combustion has proven to provide superior combustion controllability while retaining the known benefits of low emissions and high thermal efficiency of HCCI combustion. However, in order for RCCI combustion to be adopted as a high efficiency and low engine-out emission solution, it is important to achieve high-power operation that is comparable to conventional diesel combustion (CDC).
Technical Paper

Effects of Temporal and Spatial Distributions of Ignition and Combustion on Thermal Efficiency and Combustion Noise in DICI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1248
The effects of the temporal and spatial distributions of ignition timings of combustion zones on combustion noise in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition (DICI) engine were studied using experimental tests and numerical simulations. The experiments were performed with different fuel injection strategies on a heavy-duty diesel engine. Cylinder pressure was measured with the sampling intervals of 0.1°CA in order to resolve noise components. The simulations were performed using the KIVA-3V code with detailed chemistry to analyze the in-cylinder ignition and combustion processes. The experimental results show that optimal sequential ignition and spatial distribution of combustion zones can be realized by adopting a two-stage injection strategy in which the proportion of the pilot injection fuel and the timings of the injections can be used to control the combustion process, thus resulting in simultaneously higher thermal efficiency and lower noise emissions.
Technical Paper

Computational Investigation of Low Load Operation in a Light-Duty Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition [GDICI] Engine Using Single-Injection Strategy

2014-04-01
2014-01-1297
The use of gasoline in a compression ignition engine has been a research focus lately due to the ability of gasoline to provide more premixing, resulting in controlled emissions of the nitrogen oxides [NOx] and particulate matter. The present study assesses the reactivity of 93 RON [87AKI] gasoline in a GM 1.9L 4-cylinder diesel engine, to extend the low load limit. A single injection strategy was used in available experiments where the injection timing was varied from −42 to −9 deg ATDC, with a step-size of 3 deg. The minimum fueling level was defined in the experiments such that the coefficient of variance [COV] of indicated mean effective pressure [IMEP] was less than 3%. The study revealed that injection at −27 deg ATDC allowed a minimum load of 2 bar BMEP. Also, advancement in the start of injection [SOI] timing in the experiments caused an earlier CA50, which became retarded with further advancement in SOI timing.
Technical Paper

Extension of the Lower Load Limit of Gasoline Compression Ignition with 87 AKI Gasoline by Injection Timing and Pressure

2014-04-01
2014-01-1302
Previous work has demonstrated the capabilities of gasoline compression ignition to achieve engine loads as high as 19.5 bar BMEP with a production multi-cylinder diesel engine using gasoline with an anti-knock index (AKI) of 87. In the current study, the low load limit of the engine was investigated using the same engine hardware configurations and 87 AKI fuel that was used to achieve 19.5 bar BMEP. Single injection, “minimum fueling” style injection timing and injection pressure sweeps (where fuel injection quantity was reduced at each engine operating condition until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure rose to 3%) found that the 87 AKI test fuel could run under stable combustion conditions down to a load of 1.5 bar BMEP at an injection timing of −30 degrees after top dead center (°aTDC) with reduced injection pressure, but still without the use of intake air heating or uncooled EGR.
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