Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 11 of 11
Technical Paper

Development of the Texas Drayage Truck Cycle and Its Use to Determine the Effects of Low Rolling Resistance Tires on the NOX Emissions and Fuel Economy

2009-04-20
2009-01-0943
Trucks operating in inter-modal (drayage) operation in and around port and rail terminals, are responsible for a large proportion of the emissions of NOX, which are problematic for the air quality of the Houston and Dallas/Ft. Worth metro areas. A standard test cycle, called the Texas Dray Truck Cycle, was developed to represent the operation of heavy-duty diesel trucks in dray operations. The test cycle reflects the substantial time spent at idle (~45%) and the high intensity of the on-road portions. This test cycle was then used in the SAE J1321 test protocol to evaluate the effect on fuel consumption and NOX emissions of retrofitting dray trucks with light-weight, low-rolling resistance wide-single tires. In on-track testing, a reduction in fuel consumption of 8.7% was seen, and NOX emissions were reduced by 3.8% with the wide single tires compared to the conventional tires.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 4: Fuel Consumption, Emissions, and Cost-Effectiveness of an Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Compared to Conventional Diesel Fuels

2005-04-11
2005-01-1724
The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an ultra-low-sulfur, low aromatic, high cetane number diesel fuel (TxLED, Texas Low Emission Diesel) in June 2003. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness to reduce emissions and influence fuel economy of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel used in both their on-road and off-road equipment. The study incorporated analyses for the fleet operated by the Association of General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Some members of AGC use 2D off-road diesel in their equipment. One off-road engine, two single-axle dump trucks, and two tandem-axle dump trucks were tested. The equipment tested included newer electronically-controlled diesels. The off-road engine was tested over the TxDOT Telescoping Boom Excavator Cycle. The dump trucks were tested using the “route” technique over the TxDOT Single-Axle Dump Truck Cycle or the TxDOT Tandem-Axle Dump Truck Cycle.
Technical Paper

Improving Heavy-Duty Engine Efficiency and Durability: The Rotating Liner Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-1653
The Rotating Linear Engine (RLE) derives improved fuel efficiency and decreased maintenance costs via a unique lubrication design, which decreases piston assembly friction and the associated wear for heavy-duty natural gas and diesel engines. The piston ring friction exhibited on current engines accounts for 1% of total US energy consumption. The RLE is expected to reduce this friction by 50-70%, an expectation supported by hot motoring and tear-down tests on the UT single cylinder RLE prototype. Current engines have stationary liners where the oil film thins near the ends of the stroke, resulting in metal-to-metal contact. This metal-to-metal contact is the major source of both engine friction and wear, especially at high load. The RLE maintains an oil film between the piston rings and liner throughout the piston stroke due to liner rotation. This assumption has also been confirmed by recent testing of the single cylinder RLE prototype.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 2: Comparisons of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for a Fuel/Water Emulsion and Conventional Diesel Fuels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0087
The Texas Department of Transportation began using an emulsified diesel fuel in 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel and 2D off-road diesel. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsion, Lubrizol PuriNOx®, relative to conventional diesel fuels. Two engines and eight trucks, four single-axle dump trucks, and four tandem-axle dump trucks were tested. The equipment tested included both older mechanically-controlled diesels and newer electronically-controlled diesels. The two engines were tested over two different cycles that were developed specifically for this project. The dump trucks were tested using the “route” technique over one or the other of two chassis dynamometer cycles that were developed for this project In addition to fuel efficiency, emissions of NOx, PM, CO, and HCs were measured. Additionally, second-by-second results were obtained for NOx and HCs.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 3: Cost-Effectiveness Analyses for an Emulsified Diesel Fuel for Highway Construction Equipment Fleets

2004-03-08
2004-01-0086
The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an emulsified diesel fuel as an emissions control measure in July 2002. They initiated a study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to conventional diesel fuel for TxDOT's Houston District operations and included the fleet operated by the Associated General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Cost-effectiveness analyses, including the incremental cost per ton of NOx removed, were performed. NOx removal was the focus of this study because Houston is an ozone nonattainment area, and NOx is believed to be the limiting factor in ozone formation in the Houston area. The cost factors accounted for in the cost-effectiveness analyses included the incremental cost of the fuel (including an available rebate from the State of Texas), the cost of refueling more often, implementation costs, productivity costs, maintenance costs, and various costs associated with the tendency of the emulsion to separate.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 1: Development of TxDOT-Specific Test Cycles with Emphasis on a “Route” Technique for Comparing Fuel/Water Emulsions and Conventional Diesel Fuels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0090
The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an emulsified diesel fuel in July 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel, which they use in both their on-road and off-road equipment. The study also incorporated analyses for the fleet operated by the Associated General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Some members of AGC use 2D off-road diesel fuel in their equipment. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsified fuel relative to the conventional diesel fuels. Cycles that are known to be representative of the typical operations for TxDOT and AGC equipment were required for use in this study. Four test cycles were developed from data logged on equipment during normal service: 1) the TxDOT Telescoping Boom Excavator Cycle, 2) the AGC Wheeled Loader Cycle, 3) the TxDOT Single-Axle Dump Truck Cycle, and 4) the TxDOT Tandem-Axle Dump Truck Cycle.
Technical Paper

Direct Measurement of Powertrain Component Efficiencies for a Light-Duty Vehicle with a CVT Operating Over a Driving Cycle

2003-10-27
2003-01-3202
In order to determine the factors that affect fuel economy quantitatively, the power flows through the major powertrain components were measured during operation over transient cycles. The fuel consumption rate and torque and speed of the engine output and axle shafts were measured to assess the power flows in a vehicle with a CVT. The measured power flows were converted to energy loss for each component to get the efficiency. Tests were done at Phase 1 and Phase 3 of the FTP and for two different CVT shift modes. The measured energy distributions were compared with those from the ADVISOR simulation and to results from the PNGV study. For both the Hot 505 and the Cold 505, and for both shift modes, the major powertrain loss occurs in the engine, including or excluding standby losses. However, the efficiency of the drivetrain/transmission is important because it influences the efficiency of the engine.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Parameters on FTP Emissions of a 1998 Toyota with a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1907
The effects of fuel properties on the emissions of a production vehicle with a gasoline direct injection engine operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle were investigated. The vehicle used was a 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine. Engine-out and tailpipe FTP emissions for six fuels and a California Phase 2 RFG reference fuel are presented. Four of the test fuels were blended from refinery components to meet specified distillation profiles. The remaining test fuels were iso-octane and toluene, an iso-alkane and an aromatic with essentially the same boiling point (at atmospheric pressure) that is near the T50 point for the blended fuels. Statistically significant effects, at the 95% confidence level, of the fuels on tailpipe emissions were found. Correlations were sought between the properties of the five blends and the Emissions Indices for engine-out hydrocarbons and NOx and for tailpipe particulates.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Economy of a 1998 Toyota with a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1527
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested via a variety of driving cycles using California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline. A comparable PFI vehicle was also evaluated. The standard driving cycles examined were the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test, US06, simulated SC03, Japanese 10-15, New York City Cycle, and European ECE+EDU. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas phase species were measured each second. Hydrocarbon speciations were performed for each phase of the FTP for both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions. Tailpipe particulate mass emissions were also measured. The results are analyzed to identify the emissions challenges facing the DISI engine and the factors that contribute to the particulates, NOx, and hydrocarbon emissions problems of the DISI engine.
Technical Paper

The Texas Project, Part 5 - Economic Analysis: CNG and LPG Conversions of Light-Duty Vehicle Fleets

1998-10-19
982447
The Texas Project was a multi-year study of aftermarket conversions of a variety of light-duty vehicles to CNG or LPG. One aspect of this project was to examine the factors that influence the economics of fleet conversions to these alternative fuels. The present analysis did not include longer-term effects (such as possible increases in exhaust system life or increases in tire wear). Additionally, assumptions were required to estimate the costs of repairs to the alternative fuel system and engine. Other factors considered include conversion cost, fuel prices, annual alternative fuel tax (as applied for the state of Texas), annual miles accumulated, and the percent miles traveled while using the alternative fuel for dual fuel conversions.
Technical Paper

The Design and Fabrication of “Texas Native Sun”, The University of Texas Entry in G.M. Sunrayce U.S.A., a Solar Powered Vehicle Race Across the United States

1990-08-01
901515
A team of student engineers at the University of Texas at Austin has designed and built “Texas Native Sun”, a solar powered vehicle for competition in GM Sunrayce U.S.A. The single-seat vehicle uses conventional photovoltaic solar cells to produce electricity for vehicle propulsion. The vehicle features graphite/epoxy composite monocoque construction, a high power-density permanent magnet electric motor, a mechanical/hydraulic continuously variable transmission, nickel-hydrogen satellite batteries, and a composite leaf spring suspension. The race strategies and tactics of energy management are optimized through use of a computer code which simulates the vehicle under race conditions. Much of the technology employed in the vehicle may one day become an ordinary part of future transportation systems which seek greater energy efficiency and less damage to the environment.
X