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Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of Combustion Process, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in Diesel Engine Fueled with Blends of Jatropha Oil-Diesel Fuel and Jatropha Oil-Kerosene

2015-11-17
2015-32-0797
A comparative study was performed by use of blends of Jatropha oil-diesel fuel and Jatropha oil-kerosene in order to investigate the feasibility of direct utilization of Jatropha oil in a DI diesel engine. Experimental results at low load demonstrated that mixing 60 vol.% of Jatropha oil into both diesel fuel and kerosene gave less impact on indicated thermal efficiency, whereas further increase of Jatropha oil deteriorated it. Jatropha oil-kerosene decreased particulate matter compared to Jatropha oil-diesel fuel, although particulate matter increased with the increase of Jatropha oil fraction. At partial load where double injection was applied, mixing 80 vol.% of Jatropha oil gave no significant impact on indicated thermal efficiency, exhaust gas emissions and particulate matter and no significant difference was observed between diesel fuel blends and kerosene blends.
Technical Paper

Premixed Fuel Effect on Ignition and Combustion of Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1789
Effects of chemical reaction characteristics of premixed fuel were experimentally studied in a dual fuel compression ignition engine using port injection (PI) of gasoline-like component and direct injection (DI) of diesel fuel. Octane number of port injection fuels, direct injection timing and injection amount ratio between PI and DI were swept to assess the interaction between chemical reaction and mixture distribution in a combustion chamber. Chemical kinetic study using multi-zone modeling was also performed in order to explain experimental results under quiescent condition.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Using Jatropha Crude Oil Blends

2014-10-13
2014-01-2770
Jatropha biofuel is promising renewal oil to produce biodiesel fuel through transesterification method which is shown in many papers. The ideal diesel alternative fuel obtained considering Jatropha as materials is Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME). It is more desirable than the viewpoint of economical efficiency and CO2 control to operate a diesel engine with Jatropha crude (JC) oil. It is the purpose of this research to examine a possibility of using advantageous JC oil direct use as diesel engine fuel, in consideration of the sustainable production of the Jatropha biofuel in Mozambique. The adaptability to the diesel engine of diesel oil and the mixed fuel of JC was examined. Jatropha crude oil contains phorbol ester (PEs) which is a promoter of cancer. Measurement of the concentration of PEs in an exhaust gas was performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Droplet Vaporization Model for Ethanol-Blended Fuels and its Application to Spray Simulation

2014-10-13
2014-01-2733
Ethanol is a promising alternative to fossil fuels because it can be made from biomass resources that are renewable. In the most cases, however, ethanol is blended with conventional fuels because of the limited amount of production. Ethanol-fuel blends are typically azeotropic and have a unique characteristic in vapor pressure and phase equilibrium, which is different from that of blends composed of simple aliphatic hydrocarbons. The current studies by the authors have developed a numerical vaporization model for ethanol-gasoline blends, which takes into account vapor-liquid equilibrium of azeotrope and high latent heat of vaporization of ethanol, in order to update the authors' multicomponent fuel spray model and to investigate effects of blending ethanol on droplet vaporization processes. In this paper, the developed vaporization model was validated through a comparison with experimentally-observed vaporization rate for single droplets of ethanol-n-heptane blends.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Evaporating Sprays of Ethanol Fuel Blends

2013-10-14
2013-01-2552
Ethanol is a promising alternative to fossil fuels because it can be produced from biomass resources that are renewable. Due to the amount of production, however, the usage would be limited to blends with other conventional fuels. Ethanol-fuel blends are azeotropic and have unique vaporization characteristics different from blends composed of aliphatic hydrocarbons, so that the present study developed a numerical scheme which takes into account the vapor-liquid equilibrium of azeotrope in order to update the author's original version of the multi-component fuel CFD model and to evaluate the effect of mixing ethanol into gasoline on the evaporation process. The numerical simulation was implemented for evaporating sprays of ethanol-n-heptane blends, which are injected through a single hole nozzle. In addition to the vapor-liquid equilibrium, the effect of the latent heat of vaporization was investigated.
Journal Article

Simultaneous Reduction of Pressure Rise Rate and Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine by Use of Dual-Component Fuel Spray

2012-10-23
2012-32-0031
Ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel spray were examined for ranges of injection timing and intake-air oxygen concentration. Fuels used were binary mixtures of gasoline-like component i-octane (cetane number 12, boiling point 372 K) and diesel fuel-like component n-tridecane (cetane number 88, boiling point 510 K). Mass fraction of i-octane was also changed as the experimental variable. The experimental study was carried out in a single cylinder compression ignition engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and an exhaust gas recirculation system. The results demonstrated that the increase of the i-octane mass fraction with optimizations of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration reduced pressure rise rate and soot and NOx emissions without deterioration of indicated thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Effects of Mixedness and Ignition Timings on PCCI Combustion with a Dual Fuel Operation

2011-08-30
2011-01-1768
A dual fuel operation with different reactivity fuels has the possibility of optimizing performance and emissions in premixed charge compression ignition engines by controlling the spatial concentration and distribution of both fuels. In the present study, n-heptane and i-octane were independently injected through two different injectors. In-cylinder pressure analysis and emissions measurement were performed in a compression ignition engine. Injection timings, fuel quantity ratio between the injections were changed for the two cases, in which one fuel was injected using a port fuel injection system while the other was directly injected into the cylinder, in order to drastically vary mixture distributions and ignition timings. In addition, an optical diagnostic was performed in a rapid compression and expansion machine to develop an understanding of the ignition processes of the two mixtures.
Technical Paper

Study on Impinging Diffusion DI Diesel Engine - Numerical Study on Effect of Impinging Part on In-Cylinder Flow -

2003-05-19
2003-01-1780
The effects of the spray impinging part on the in-cylinder airflow were numerically analyzed in the combustion chamber of the impinging diffusion direct injection diesel engine using KIVA-3 code. KIVA-3 code was enhanced to cater the impinging part as an internal obstacle by adopting the virtual droplet method, which is relatively easy to implement. Numerical result shows that the turbulence generation is promoted by the impinging part and is transformed by the squish flow into the piston cavity. The secondary flow is generated beneath the impinging part as well. The secondary flow area increases as the distance between top surface of the impinging part and bottom surface of the cylinder cover increases.
Technical Paper

Development of a direct-injection diesel engine with mixture formation by fuel spray impingement

2000-06-12
2000-05-0102
The mixture formation by fuel spray impingement (OSKA system) was applied to a small direct-injection diesel engine in order to reduce the wall quenching- induced emissions, i.e., the emissions of THC and soluble organic fractions (SOF). Experiments were carried out using a single-cylinder engine, fitted with various piston cavity geometries, ran under a wide range of compression ratios and fuel injection specifications. The piston cavity was designed as a centrally located reentrant type. The combination of the high squish flow and the weak penetration of the OSKA spray was very effective in reducing harmful emissions. A short ignition delay, under the retarded fuel injection timing, was obtained because of the high compression ratio. The OSKA DI diesel engine showed reduced NOx, smoke, and THC emissions without deterioration of the fuel consumption compared to modern DI diesel engines used in automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Particulate Formation of DI Diesel Engine with Direct Sampling from Combustion Chamber

1997-10-01
972969
This paper is concerned with the formation of Particulate Matter (PM) in direct-injection (DI) diesel engines. A system featuring an electromagnetically actuated sampling valve was used for sampling of gas directly from the combustion chamber. The concentrations of total particulate matter (TPM) and of its two components, the Soluble Organic Fractions (SOF) and the Insoluble Fractions (ISF), were determined at different locations in the combustion chamber at different sampling times (different crank angles). High concentrations of SOF were found at sampling positions along the spray flame axis. The concentrations of SOF and ISF were higher at sampling positions close to the wall than away from the wall. The results suggest that SOF formation is significantly affected by wall quenching. Also, the PM concentrations were much higher in the combustion chamber than in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Combustion Observation of OSKA-DH Diesel Engine by High-Speed Photography and Video System

1996-05-01
961159
The OSKA-DH diesel engine employed a unique system (hereafter called OSKA system) which is composed of a single-hole fuel injector, an impinging disk and a re-entrant type combustion chamber. This study is concerned with the combustion observation of both OSKA-DH diesel engine and conventional DI diesel engine by the high-speed photography and video system. This video system enables us to take combustion photographs under the warm-up condition of the engine. From the observation of those photographs, the OSKA-DH engine shows the shorter ignition delay compared with a DI diesel engine and the combustion flame of OSKA-DH diesel engine are concentrated in the center of the combustion chamber and a relatively monotonous flame intensity are observed. THE AUTHORS HAVE DEVELOPED a new type of Direct Injection Stratified Charge Engine called “Direct Fuel Injection Impingement Diffusion Stratified Charge System” (hereafter called OSKA System).
Technical Paper

Development of OSKA-DH Diesel Engine Using Fuel Jet Impingement and Diffusion Investigation of Mixture Formation and Combustion

1994-03-01
940667
This study is concerned with development of a new type of diesel engine using the fuel jet impingement (OSKA-DH). Simultaneous reduction of the NOx and smoke emission were demonstrated with single cylinder prototype OSKA-DH engine. As a fundamental study on the mixture formation process, the observation of impinged fuel spray was studied by using a pressurized constant volume vessel. The high-speed combustion photographs of both re-entrant and open type combustion chamber were also taken by using the experimental transparent engine. From the observation of pressurized vessel and high-speed combustion photographs, the mixture formation and combustion was strongly affected by the squish flow velocity. The short ignition delay and faster combustion were observed by the re-entrant type combustion chamber because of high squish speed.
Technical Paper

Development of Low NOx Emission Diesel Engine by Impingment of Fuel Jet

1992-09-01
921645
This study is concerned with development of a new type of Diesel engine by impingement of fuel jet. The impinging part is installed on the cylinder head (OSKA-DH), against which the fuel jet is injected to spread and form fuel-air mixture. As a fundamental study on the mixture formation process, the observation of the impinged fuel jet was studied by using a pressurized vessel. High-speed combustion photographs of the OSKA and DI Diesel engine were also taken by using the experimental transparent engine. A single cylinder 4 stroke cycle prototype OSKA-DH engine (ø 118 x 108 mm) was developed. Pintle type single hole fuel injector is used and relatively low opening pressure of 15.3 MPa is employed. The re-entrant type combustion chamber and relatively high compression ratio of 20.4: 1 are employed. Experiments with a single cylinder proto-type engine showed that the lower NOx and smoke emissions compared with the conventional DI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Performance of Glow Plug Assisted Direct Injection Methanol Engine by Impingement of Fuel Jet(OSKA-F)

1991-09-01
911769
The authors previously reported the performance of the “Stratified Charge Methanol Engine by Impingement of Fuel Jet (OSKA System) with Spark Plug Ignition.” In that report, the impinging part was installed in the center of the piston cavity and a spark plug was used for ignition. In this report, the impinging part is installed on the cylinder head and a glow plug is used for ignition. A single-hole fuel injector (throttle type) is used. The centerline of the fuel injector coincides with that of the impinging part. A relatively low opening pressure (7.MPa) of the fuel injector is needed for this OSKA system. The fuel is injected against the impinging part, spreads and forms the fuel-air mixture. A glow plug is located just beside the impinging part. Experiments with a single-cylinder 4-stroke cycle prototype engine (bore × stroke = 94 × 90 mm) showed that the maximum Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) was 1.04 MPa and the Maximum Brake Thermal Efficiency was 41.9 % (429.6 g/kW.h).
Technical Paper

New Type of Diesel Engine by Impingement of Fuel Jet (OSKA-D)

1990-09-01
901618
The new type of Diesel combustion engine has been developed. The new Idea Incorporates an impingement part in the central piston cavity. The fuel jet is injected against the impingement part, spreads and form fuel-air mixture. Single hole fuel injection nozzle is used and the relatively low opening pressure is needed. Intake air swirl is not needed. The re-entrant type combustion chamber is employed to get a relatively strong squish speed. Experimental with single cylinder 4 stroke prototype test engine showed that the brake mean effective pressure was 0.82 MPa and the maximum net specific fuel consumption was 220 g/kW.h. The NOx and smoke emissions was reduced compared with the conventional DI Diesel engine. The authors have developed a new type of Direct Injection Stratified Charge SI engine called “Direct Fuel Injection Impingement Diffusion Stratified Charge System” (hereafter called OSKA).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Oxygenated Fuel by Direct Injection Diesel and Direct Fuel Injection Impingement Diffusion Combustion Diesel Engines

1990-09-01
901566
Selected as an alternative diesel fuel based on consideration regarding the relationship between the fuel molecular structure and exhaust emission and criteria as alternative fuels, Dimethylacetal (DMA) was evaluated in both a direct injection (DI) diesel and a Direct Fuel Injection Impingement Diffusion Combustion Diesel (OSKA-D) engines. Since DMA with a 1% commercial-type cetane improver has 53 for the cetane number, no ignition-assist divice such as a spark plug is needed, unlike methanol. According to the DI diesel engine test, the NOx emission for DMA was almost equal to that for hydrocarbon diesel fuel, but smoke for DMA was much lower than that for diesel fuel. The OSKA-D engine test showed that NOx emission for DMA was much lower than that for diesel fuel and smoke emission for DMA was zero under all engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection Stratified Charge Engine by Impingement of Fuel Jet (OSKA)-Performance and Combustion Characteristics

1990-02-01
900608
A direct injection stratified charge engine using New Mixture Formation Technology (OSKA) has been developed. Experiments on a single cylinder engine, with methanol and gasoline fuels showed the following results: 1) With methanol, the maximum IMEP was 1.3 MPa and the best indicated thermal efficiency was 46 %. 2) With gasoline, the maximum IMEP was 1.16 MPa and the best indicated thermal efficiency was 43 %. Analysis of the cylinder pressure diagram showed the following results: 1) High indicated thermal efficiency was observed by low time loss. 2) A relatively short combustion duration was observed even if the engine was operated with an overall lean fuel-air mixture in the part-load condition. This fact suggests that a stratified charge was attained. 3) From observation of the heat release rate,it will be predicted that combustion is characterized by flame propagation.
Technical Paper

New Mixture Formation Technology of Direct Fuel Injection Stratified Charge Si Engine (OSKA) - Test Result with Gasoline Fuel

1988-09-01
881241
The new idea incorporates an impinging part in the central piston cavity. A relatively low injection pressure, lower than that of a conventional IDI Diesel engine, and a single hole fuel nozzle are used. The fuel spray is injected against the impinging part, spreads and forms a fuel-air mixture. Since a comparatively rich fuel-air mixture always stays around the impinging part and ignition is accomplished near the center of the mixture, steady, instantaneous and high-speed combustion is possible. As the fuel-air mixture is formed mostly in the cavity, there is little fuel in the squish area. Therefore, it is possible to prevent end-gas knocking, and in spite of the use of spark ignition, to employ a higher compression ratio than that of the conventional premixed SI engine. Experiments with a single cylinder prototype (4-stroke cycle) engine with gasoline fuel showed that the maximum BMEP was 1.0 MPa and the maximum brake thermal efficiency was 37.7 % (217 g/kW.h).
Technical Paper

New Mixture Formation Technology of Direct Fuel Injection Stratified Combustion SI Engine (OSKA)

1987-09-01
871689
A new type of internal combustion engine has been developed. The new idea incorporates an impinging part in the central piston cavity. The fuel spray is injected against the impinging area, spreads and forms a fuel mixture. Since a comparatively rich fuel mixture always stays around the impinging part and ignition is acomplished at the center of the rich fuel mixture, steady, instantaneous and high-speed combustion is possible. As the fuel mixture is always formed in the cavity, there is little fuel in the squish area. Therefore, it is possible to prevent end-gas knocking, and in spite of the use of spark ignition, to operate the engine at higher compression ratio than a conventional premixed SI engine. Experiments with methanol fuel showed that BMEP was 1.1MPa and the maximum brake thermal efficiency was 42%. The combustion noise was lower than that of diesel engine. Brief tests with gasoline showed a maximum brake thermal effiency of 36%.
Technical Paper

Silicon Nitride Swirl Lower-Chamber for High Power Turbocharged Diesel Engines

1985-02-01
850523
This paper describes application of sintered silicon nitride to the swirl lower-chamber in order to improve performance of turbocharged diesel engines. Various stress analyses by finite element method and stress measurements have been applied to determine the design specifications for the component, which compromise brittleness of ceramic materials. Material development was conducted to evaluate strength, fracture toughness, and thermal properties for the sintered bodies. Ceramic injection molding has been employed to fabricate components with large quantities in the present work. Quality assurance for the components can be made by reliability evaluation methods as well as non-destructive and stress loading inspections. It is found that the engine performance with ceramic component has been increased in the power out put of 9PS as compared to that of conventional engines.
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