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Technical Paper

Thermal Efficiency Improvement and its Mechanism at Low Load Conditions in Semi-Premixed Diesel Combustion with Twin Peak Shaped Heat Release

Semi-premixed diesel combustion with a twin peak shaped heat release with the two-stage fuel injection (twin combustion) has the potential to establish efficient, low emission, and low noise operation. However, with twin combustion at low loads the indicated thermal efficiencies are poorer than at medium loads due to the lower combustion efficiencies. In this report, to increase the combustion efficiencies at low loads, the thermal efficiency related parameters were investigated in a 0.55 L single cylinder diesel engine. The results show that the indicated thermal efficiency improves with increases in the intake gas temperatures at low loads. However, at the higher loads where the combustion efficiencies are somewhat higher the indicated thermal efficiencies decrease with increases in the intake gas temperatures due to increases in the cooling losses.
Journal Article

Chemical Reaction Processes of Fuel Reformation by Diesel Engine Piston Compression of Rich Homogeneous Air-Fuel Mixture

To extend the operational range of premixed diesel combustion, fuel reformation by piston induced compression of rich homogeneous air-fuel mixtures was conducted in this study. Reformed gas compositions and chemical processes were first simulated with the chemistry dynamics simulation, CHEMKIN Pro, by changing the intake oxygen content, intake air temperature, and compression ratio. A single cylinder diesel engine was utilized to verify the simulation results. With the simulation and experiments, the characteristics of the reformed gas with respect to the reformer cylinder operating condition were obtained. Further, the thermal decomposition and partial oxidation reaction mechanisms of the fuel in extremely low oxygen concentrations were obtained with the characteristics of the gas production at the various reaction temperatures.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Transient DPF Pressure Drop under Cold Start Conditions in Diesel Engines

To monitor emission-related components/systems and to evaluate the presence of malfunctioning or failures that can affect emissions, current diesel engine regulations require the use of on-board diagnostics (OBD). For diesel particulate filters (DPF), the pressure drop across the DPF is monitored by the OBD as the pressure drop is approximately linear related to the soot mass deposited in a filter. However, sudden acceleration may cause a sudden decrease in DPF pressure drop under cold start conditions. This appears to be caused by water that has condensed in the exhaust pipe, but no detailed mechanism for this decrease has been established. The present study developed an experimental apparatus that reproduces rapid increases of the exhaust gas flow under cold start conditions and enables independent control of the amount of water as well as the gas flow rate supplied to the DPF.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Reaction Mechanism for n-Tridecane Based on Knowledge of Detailed Reaction Paths

n-Tridecane is a low boiling point component of gas oil, and has been used as a single-component fuel for diesel spray and combustion experiments. However, no reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-tridecane have been presented for three-dimensional modeling. A detailed mechanism developed by KUCRS (Knowledge-basing Utilities for Complex Reaction Systems), contains 1493 chemical species and 3641 reactions. Reaction paths during ignition process for n-tridecane in air computed using the detailed mechanism, were analyzed with the equivalence ratio of 0.75 and the initial temperatures of 650 K, 850 K, and 1100 K, which are located in the cool-flame dominant, negative-temperature coefficient, and blue-flame dominant regions, respectively.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of Combustion Process, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in Diesel Engine Fueled with Blends of Jatropha Oil-Diesel Fuel and Jatropha Oil-Kerosene

A comparative study was performed by use of blends of Jatropha oil-diesel fuel and Jatropha oil-kerosene in order to investigate the feasibility of direct utilization of Jatropha oil in a DI diesel engine. Experimental results at low load demonstrated that mixing 60 vol.% of Jatropha oil into both diesel fuel and kerosene gave less impact on indicated thermal efficiency, whereas further increase of Jatropha oil deteriorated it. Jatropha oil-kerosene decreased particulate matter compared to Jatropha oil-diesel fuel, although particulate matter increased with the increase of Jatropha oil fraction. At partial load where double injection was applied, mixing 80 vol.% of Jatropha oil gave no significant impact on indicated thermal efficiency, exhaust gas emissions and particulate matter and no significant difference was observed between diesel fuel blends and kerosene blends.
Technical Paper

Premixed Fuel Effect on Ignition and Combustion of Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine

Effects of chemical reaction characteristics of premixed fuel were experimentally studied in a dual fuel compression ignition engine using port injection (PI) of gasoline-like component and direct injection (DI) of diesel fuel. Octane number of port injection fuels, direct injection timing and injection amount ratio between PI and DI were swept to assess the interaction between chemical reaction and mixture distribution in a combustion chamber. Chemical kinetic study using multi-zone modeling was also performed in order to explain experimental results under quiescent condition.
Technical Paper

Artificial Control of Diesel Spray and Flame Feature by using Dual-component Fuel

Fuel design approach has been proposed as the control technique of spray and combustion processes in diesel engine to improve thermal efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions. In order to kwow if this approach is capable of controlling spray flame structure and interaction between the flame and a combustion chamber wall, the present study investigated ignition and flame characteristics of dual-component fuels, while varying mixing fraction, fuel temperature and ambient conditions. Those characteristics were evaluated through chemiluminescence photography and luminous flame photography. OH radical images and visible luminous flame images were analyzed to reveal flame shape aspect ratio and its fractal dimension.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Using Jatropha Crude Oil Blends

Jatropha biofuel is promising renewal oil to produce biodiesel fuel through transesterification method which is shown in many papers. The ideal diesel alternative fuel obtained considering Jatropha as materials is Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME). It is more desirable than the viewpoint of economical efficiency and CO2 control to operate a diesel engine with Jatropha crude (JC) oil. It is the purpose of this research to examine a possibility of using advantageous JC oil direct use as diesel engine fuel, in consideration of the sustainable production of the Jatropha biofuel in Mozambique. The adaptability to the diesel engine of diesel oil and the mixed fuel of JC was examined. Jatropha crude oil contains phorbol ester (PEs) which is a promoter of cancer. Measurement of the concentration of PEs in an exhaust gas was performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
Journal Article

Simultaneous Reduction of Pressure Rise Rate and Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine by Use of Dual-Component Fuel Spray

Ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel spray were examined for ranges of injection timing and intake-air oxygen concentration. Fuels used were binary mixtures of gasoline-like component i-octane (cetane number 12, boiling point 372 K) and diesel fuel-like component n-tridecane (cetane number 88, boiling point 510 K). Mass fraction of i-octane was also changed as the experimental variable. The experimental study was carried out in a single cylinder compression ignition engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and an exhaust gas recirculation system. The results demonstrated that the increase of the i-octane mass fraction with optimizations of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration reduced pressure rise rate and soot and NOx emissions without deterioration of indicated thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Effects of Mixedness and Ignition Timings on PCCI Combustion with a Dual Fuel Operation

A dual fuel operation with different reactivity fuels has the possibility of optimizing performance and emissions in premixed charge compression ignition engines by controlling the spatial concentration and distribution of both fuels. In the present study, n-heptane and i-octane were independently injected through two different injectors. In-cylinder pressure analysis and emissions measurement were performed in a compression ignition engine. Injection timings, fuel quantity ratio between the injections were changed for the two cases, in which one fuel was injected using a port fuel injection system while the other was directly injected into the cylinder, in order to drastically vary mixture distributions and ignition timings. In addition, an optical diagnostic was performed in a rapid compression and expansion machine to develop an understanding of the ignition processes of the two mixtures.
Technical Paper

Study on Impinging Diffusion DI Diesel Engine - Numerical Study on Effect of Impinging Part on In-Cylinder Flow -

The effects of the spray impinging part on the in-cylinder airflow were numerically analyzed in the combustion chamber of the impinging diffusion direct injection diesel engine using KIVA-3 code. KIVA-3 code was enhanced to cater the impinging part as an internal obstacle by adopting the virtual droplet method, which is relatively easy to implement. Numerical result shows that the turbulence generation is promoted by the impinging part and is transformed by the squish flow into the piston cavity. The secondary flow is generated beneath the impinging part as well. The secondary flow area increases as the distance between top surface of the impinging part and bottom surface of the cylinder cover increases.
Technical Paper

Development of a direct-injection diesel engine with mixture formation by fuel spray impingement

The mixture formation by fuel spray impingement (OSKA system) was applied to a small direct-injection diesel engine in order to reduce the wall quenching- induced emissions, i.e., the emissions of THC and soluble organic fractions (SOF). Experiments were carried out using a single-cylinder engine, fitted with various piston cavity geometries, ran under a wide range of compression ratios and fuel injection specifications. The piston cavity was designed as a centrally located reentrant type. The combination of the high squish flow and the weak penetration of the OSKA spray was very effective in reducing harmful emissions. A short ignition delay, under the retarded fuel injection timing, was obtained because of the high compression ratio. The OSKA DI diesel engine showed reduced NOx, smoke, and THC emissions without deterioration of the fuel consumption compared to modern DI diesel engines used in automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Particulate Formation of DI Diesel Engine with Direct Sampling from Combustion Chamber

This paper is concerned with the formation of Particulate Matter (PM) in direct-injection (DI) diesel engines. A system featuring an electromagnetically actuated sampling valve was used for sampling of gas directly from the combustion chamber. The concentrations of total particulate matter (TPM) and of its two components, the Soluble Organic Fractions (SOF) and the Insoluble Fractions (ISF), were determined at different locations in the combustion chamber at different sampling times (different crank angles). High concentrations of SOF were found at sampling positions along the spray flame axis. The concentrations of SOF and ISF were higher at sampling positions close to the wall than away from the wall. The results suggest that SOF formation is significantly affected by wall quenching. Also, the PM concentrations were much higher in the combustion chamber than in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Combustion Observation of OSKA-DH Diesel Engine by High-Speed Photography and Video System

The OSKA-DH diesel engine employed a unique system (hereafter called OSKA system) which is composed of a single-hole fuel injector, an impinging disk and a re-entrant type combustion chamber. This study is concerned with the combustion observation of both OSKA-DH diesel engine and conventional DI diesel engine by the high-speed photography and video system. This video system enables us to take combustion photographs under the warm-up condition of the engine. From the observation of those photographs, the OSKA-DH engine shows the shorter ignition delay compared with a DI diesel engine and the combustion flame of OSKA-DH diesel engine are concentrated in the center of the combustion chamber and a relatively monotonous flame intensity are observed. THE AUTHORS HAVE DEVELOPED a new type of Direct Injection Stratified Charge Engine called “Direct Fuel Injection Impingement Diffusion Stratified Charge System” (hereafter called OSKA System).
Technical Paper

Development of OSKA-DH Diesel Engine Using Fuel Jet Impingement and Diffusion Investigation of Mixture Formation and Combustion

This study is concerned with development of a new type of diesel engine using the fuel jet impingement (OSKA-DH). Simultaneous reduction of the NOx and smoke emission were demonstrated with single cylinder prototype OSKA-DH engine. As a fundamental study on the mixture formation process, the observation of impinged fuel spray was studied by using a pressurized constant volume vessel. The high-speed combustion photographs of both re-entrant and open type combustion chamber were also taken by using the experimental transparent engine. From the observation of pressurized vessel and high-speed combustion photographs, the mixture formation and combustion was strongly affected by the squish flow velocity. The short ignition delay and faster combustion were observed by the re-entrant type combustion chamber because of high squish speed.
Technical Paper

Development of Low NOx Emission Diesel Engine by Impingment of Fuel Jet

This study is concerned with development of a new type of Diesel engine by impingement of fuel jet. The impinging part is installed on the cylinder head (OSKA-DH), against which the fuel jet is injected to spread and form fuel-air mixture. As a fundamental study on the mixture formation process, the observation of the impinged fuel jet was studied by using a pressurized vessel. High-speed combustion photographs of the OSKA and DI Diesel engine were also taken by using the experimental transparent engine. A single cylinder 4 stroke cycle prototype OSKA-DH engine (ø 118 x 108 mm) was developed. Pintle type single hole fuel injector is used and relatively low opening pressure of 15.3 MPa is employed. The re-entrant type combustion chamber and relatively high compression ratio of 20.4: 1 are employed. Experiments with a single cylinder proto-type engine showed that the lower NOx and smoke emissions compared with the conventional DI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Performance of Glow Plug Assisted Direct Injection Methanol Engine by Impingement of Fuel Jet(OSKA-F)

The authors previously reported the performance of the “Stratified Charge Methanol Engine by Impingement of Fuel Jet (OSKA System) with Spark Plug Ignition.” In that report, the impinging part was installed in the center of the piston cavity and a spark plug was used for ignition. In this report, the impinging part is installed on the cylinder head and a glow plug is used for ignition. A single-hole fuel injector (throttle type) is used. The centerline of the fuel injector coincides with that of the impinging part. A relatively low opening pressure (7.MPa) of the fuel injector is needed for this OSKA system. The fuel is injected against the impinging part, spreads and forms the fuel-air mixture. A glow plug is located just beside the impinging part. Experiments with a single-cylinder 4-stroke cycle prototype engine (bore × stroke = 94 × 90 mm) showed that the maximum Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) was 1.04 MPa and the Maximum Brake Thermal Efficiency was 41.9 % (429.6 g/kW.h).
Technical Paper

New Type of Diesel Engine by Impingement of Fuel Jet (OSKA-D)

The new type of Diesel combustion engine has been developed. The new Idea Incorporates an impingement part in the central piston cavity. The fuel jet is injected against the impingement part, spreads and form fuel-air mixture. Single hole fuel injection nozzle is used and the relatively low opening pressure is needed. Intake air swirl is not needed. The re-entrant type combustion chamber is employed to get a relatively strong squish speed. Experimental with single cylinder 4 stroke prototype test engine showed that the brake mean effective pressure was 0.82 MPa and the maximum net specific fuel consumption was 220 g/kW.h. The NOx and smoke emissions was reduced compared with the conventional DI Diesel engine. The authors have developed a new type of Direct Injection Stratified Charge SI engine called “Direct Fuel Injection Impingement Diffusion Stratified Charge System” (hereafter called OSKA).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Oxygenated Fuel by Direct Injection Diesel and Direct Fuel Injection Impingement Diffusion Combustion Diesel Engines

Selected as an alternative diesel fuel based on consideration regarding the relationship between the fuel molecular structure and exhaust emission and criteria as alternative fuels, Dimethylacetal (DMA) was evaluated in both a direct injection (DI) diesel and a Direct Fuel Injection Impingement Diffusion Combustion Diesel (OSKA-D) engines. Since DMA with a 1% commercial-type cetane improver has 53 for the cetane number, no ignition-assist divice such as a spark plug is needed, unlike methanol. According to the DI diesel engine test, the NOx emission for DMA was almost equal to that for hydrocarbon diesel fuel, but smoke for DMA was much lower than that for diesel fuel. The OSKA-D engine test showed that NOx emission for DMA was much lower than that for diesel fuel and smoke emission for DMA was zero under all engine conditions.
Technical Paper

New Mixture Formation Technology of Direct Fuel Injection Stratified Charge Si Engine (OSKA) - Test Result with Gasoline Fuel

The new idea incorporates an impinging part in the central piston cavity. A relatively low injection pressure, lower than that of a conventional IDI Diesel engine, and a single hole fuel nozzle are used. The fuel spray is injected against the impinging part, spreads and forms a fuel-air mixture. Since a comparatively rich fuel-air mixture always stays around the impinging part and ignition is accomplished near the center of the mixture, steady, instantaneous and high-speed combustion is possible. As the fuel-air mixture is formed mostly in the cavity, there is little fuel in the squish area. Therefore, it is possible to prevent end-gas knocking, and in spite of the use of spark ignition, to employ a higher compression ratio than that of the conventional premixed SI engine. Experiments with a single cylinder prototype (4-stroke cycle) engine with gasoline fuel showed that the maximum BMEP was 1.0 MPa and the maximum brake thermal efficiency was 37.7 % (217 g/kW.h).