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Technical Paper

An Optical Study on the Combustion of Gasoline/PODEn Blends in a Constant Volume Vessel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1748
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) have high cetane number, high oxygen content and high volatility, therefore can be added to gasoline to optimize the performance and soot emission of Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) combustion. High speed imaging was used to investigate the spray and combustion process of gasoline/PODEn blends (PODEn volume fraction 0%-30%) under various ambient conditions and injection strategies in a constant volume vessel. Results showed that with an increase of PODEn proportion from 10% to 30%, liquid-phase penetration of the spray increased slightly, ignition delay decreased from 3.8 ms to 2.0 ms and flame lift off length decreased 29.4%, causing a significant increase of the flame luminance. For blends with 20% PODEn, when ambient temperature decreased from 893 K to 823 K, the ignition delay increased 1.3 ms and the flame luminance got lower.
Technical Paper

Effect of Single and Double-Deck Pre-Chamber Designs to the Combustion Characteristics of Premixed CH4 /Air

2018-09-10
2018-01-1688
An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of single and double-deck pre-chamber on the combustion characteristics of premixed CH4/air in a constant volume vessel using schlieren method. A special design was proposed for the visualization of the pre-chamber. Combustion with different initial temperatures (300 K, 400 K, 500 K) were observed at stoichiometric ratio to lean-burn limit. Although single-deck pre-chamber has advantages over double-deck pre-chamber in both initial flame development duration and main combustion duration, the latter could extend the lean-burn limit by up to 0.3 and promote the stability of ignition. It is also found that extensive distribution of active species in main chamber before ignition can accelerate speed of flame propagation enormously.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Fuel Temperature on Spray Collapse and Mixture Formation Characteristics in GDI Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0311
Spray atomization, spray-wall impingement, and mixture formation are key factors in affecting the particulate matter (PM) emission in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Current knowledge of wall-wetting phenomenon and mixture formation are mostly based on the studies that the fuel is injected at ordinary temperature and various ambient conditions. In the real GDI engine, the fuel pipe and injector are always heated up by the pump and the engine body, especially at hot engine conditions, thus the fuel temperature is always higher than the ordinary temperature, and the relevant research is still limited. The aim of this study is to numerically investigate the spray, spray-wall impingement, and mixture formation characteristics under different fuel temperature conditions, so as to provide theoretical support in optimizing the combustion performance and further reducing the PM emission of GDI engines.
Journal Article

Comparative Study on Gasoline HCCI and DICI Combustion in High Load Range with High Compression Ratio for Passenger Cars Application

2017-10-08
2017-01-2257
This study compared the combustion and emission characteristics of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Direct Injection Compression Ignition (DICI) modes in a boosted and high compression ratio (17) engine fueled with gasoline and gasoline/diesel blend (80% gasoline by volume, denoted as G80). The injection strategy was adjusted to achieve the highest thermal efficiency at different intake pressures. The results showed that Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR) was not observed in gasoline HCCI. However, 20% additional diesel could lower down the octane number and improve the autoignition reactivity of G80, which contributed to a weak LTHR, accounting for approximately 5% of total released heat. The combustion efficiency in gasoline DICI was higher than those in gasoline HCCI and G80 HCCI, while the exhaust loss and heat transfer loss in DICI mode were higher than those in HCCI mode.
Technical Paper

PLII-LEM and OH* Chemiluminescence Study on Soot Formation in Spray Combustion of PODEn-Diesel Blend Fuels in a Constant Volume Vessel

2017-10-08
2017-01-2329
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) are promising alternative fuel candidates for diesel engines because they present advantages in soot reduction. This study uses a PODEn mixture (contains PODE3-6) from mass production to provide oxygen component in blend fuels. The spray combustion of PODEn-diesel bend fuels in a constant volume vessel was studied using high speed imaging, PLII-LEM and OH* chemiluminescence. Fuels of several blend ratios are compared with pure diesel. Flame luminance data show a near linear decrease tendency with the blend ratio increasing. The OH* images reveal that the ignition positions of all the cases have small differences, which indicates that using a low PODEn blend ratio of no more than 30% does not need significant adjustment in engine combustion control strategies. It is found that 30% PODEn blended with diesel (P30) can effectively reduce the total soot by approximately 68% in comparison with pure diesel.
Technical Paper

Effect of the Pre-Chamber Orifice Geometry on Ignition and Flame Propagation with a Natural Gas Spark Plug

2017-10-08
2017-01-2338
Natural gas is one of the promising alternative fuels due to the low cost, worldwide availability, high knock resistance and low carbon content. Ignition quality is a key factor influencing the combustion performance in natural gas engines. In this study, the effect of pre-chamber geometry on the ignition process and flame propagation was studied under varied initial mixture temperatures and equivalence ratios. The pre-chambers with orifices in different shapes (circular and slit) were investigated. Schlieren method was adopted to acquire the flame propagation. The results show that under the same cross-section area, the slit pre-chamber can accelerate the flame propagation in the early stages. In the most of the cases, the penetration length of the flame jet and flame area development are higher in the early stages of combustion.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of WDF in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine over Wide Load Range

2017-10-08
2017-01-2265
Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) refers to the fuels with a distillation range from initial boiling point of gasoline to final boiling point of diesel. Recent experimental results have shown WDF by blending 50% gasoline and 50% diesel (G50) exhibits much lower soot emissions than diesel at medium load with similar thermal efficiency. However, the engine performances fueled by G50 at both low load end and high load end are still unknown. In this study, the combustion and emission characteristics of G50 and diesel are compared over a wide load range from 0.2 MPa IMEP to 1.4 MPa IMEP at a light-duty diesel engine. The results shown that at 0.2 MPa IMEP, G50 exhibits low combustion stability and thermal efficiency. With the increase of load, the poor combustion quality of G50 is improved. G50 can achieve soot-free combustion up to 1.0 MPa IMEP, while diesel cannot.
Technical Paper

Investigations into Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition Mode Fuelled with Different Mixtures of Gasoline and Diesel

2015-04-14
2015-01-0833
A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with mixtures of gasoline and diesel is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the same fuel mass per cycle. By keeping the same intake pressure and EGR ratio, the influence of different blending ratios in gasoline and diesel mixtures (90vol%, 80vol% and 70vol% gasoline) is investigated. Combustion and emission characteristics are compared by sweeping the first (−95 ∼ −35deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (−1 ∼ 9deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 80/20 and an injection pressure of 80MPa. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the gasoline and diesel mixtures can reduce NOx and soot emissions simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency, but the HC and CO emissions are high for the mixtures.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Different Blends of Diesel and Gasoline (Dieseline) in a CI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2686
Combustion behaviour and emissions characteristics of different blending ratios of diesel and gasoline fuels (Dieseline) were investigated in a light-duty 4-cylinder compression-ignition (CI) engine operating on partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode. Experiments show that increasing volatility and reducing cetane number of fuels can help promote PPCI and consequently reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions reduction depends on the engine load. Three different blends, 0% (G0), 20% (G20) and 50% (G50) of gasoline mixed with diesel by volume, were studied and results were compared to the diesel-baseline with the same combustion phasing for all experiments. Engine speed was fixed at 1800rpm, while the engine load was varied from 1.38 to 7.85 bar BMEP with the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) application.
Technical Paper

Study of Engine Knock in HCCI Combustion using Large Eddy Simulation and Complex Chemical Kinetics

2014-10-13
2014-01-2573
This paper studied the knock combustion process in gasoline HCCI engines. The complex chemical kinetics was implemented into the three-dimensional CFD code with LES (Large eddy simulation) to study the origin of the knock phenomena in HCCI combustion process. The model was validated using the experimental data from the cylinder pressure measurement. 3D-CFD with LES method gives detailed turbulence, species, temperature and pressure distribution during the gasoline HCCI combustion process. The simulation results indicate that HCCI engine knock originates from the random multipoint auto-ignition in the combustion chamber due to the slight inhomogeneity. It is induced by the significantly different heat release rate of high temperature oxidation (HTO) and low temperature oxidation (LTO) and their interactions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Heavy Naphtha for High Efficiency and Low Emissions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2678
A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with heavy naphtha is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from 0.5MPa to 0.9MPa. Commercial diesel is also tested with the single injection for reference. The combustion and emissions characteristics of the heavy naphtha are investigated by sweeping the first (−200 ∼ −20 deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (−5 ∼ 15 deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 50/50. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the naphtha MPCI can reduce NOx, soot emissions and particle number simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency. A low pressure rise rate can be achieved due to the two-stage combustion character of the MPCI mode but with the penalty of high HC and CO emissions, especially at 0.5MPa IMEP.
Technical Paper

Impacts of Cold-Start and Gasoline RON on Particulate Emission from Vehicles Powered by GDI and PFI Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2836
An experimental study of particulate matter (PM) emission was conducted on four cars from Chinese market. Three cars were powered by gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines and one car was powered by a port fuel injection (PFI) engine. Particulate mass, number and size distribution were measured based on a chassis dynamometer over new European driving cycle (NEDC). The particulate emission behaviors during cold start and hot start NEDCs were compared to understand how the running conditions influence particulate emission. Three kinds of gasoline with RON 91.9, 94.0 and 97.4 were tested to find the impact of RON on particulate emission. Because of time and facilities constraints, only one cold/hot start NEDC was conducted for every vehicle fueled with every fuel. The test results showed that more particles were emitted during cold start condition (first 200s in NEDC). Compared with cold start NEDC, the particulate mass and number of hot start NEDC decreased by a wide margin.
Technical Paper

Numerical methods of improving computation efficiency on diesel spray and combustion using large eddy simulation in KIVA3V code

2014-04-01
2014-01-1149
Unlike RANS method, LES method needs more time and much more grids to accurately simulate the spray process. In KIVA, spray process was modeled by Lagrangain-drop and Eulerian-fluid method. The coarse grid can cause errors in predicting the droplet-gas relative velocity, so for reducing grid dependency due to the relative velocity effects, an improved spray model based on a gas-jet theory is used in this work and in order to validate the model seven different size grids were used. In this work, the local dense grid was used to reduce the computation cost and obtain accurate results that also were compared with entire dense grid. Another method to improve computation efficiency is the MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Laws) differencing scheme that was implemented into KIVA3V-LES code to calculate the momentum convective term and reduce numerical errors.
Journal Article

Impact of Octane Number on Fuel Efficiency of Modern Vehicles

2013-10-14
2013-01-2614
Fuel quality, including antiknock rating, plays a critical role in enabling optimal operation of advanced gasoline engines. As new designs introduced into the market implement technologies to improve fuel efficiency, the overall octane level of the gasoline pool may need to be increased to ensure optimal performance. Turbocharging, higher compression ratios and downsized displacement all lead to higher combustion pressures and temperatures that make engines more susceptible to knocking. All modern gasoline engines are equipped with knock sensors that detect abnormal combustion resulting from autoignition caused by insufficient octane quality. The ability of an engine to account for the use of lower octane fuel by retarding spark timing and enriching air-fuel ratio to reduce knock is limited, and engine efficiency is directly and adversely impacted when the use of lower octane gasoline is accommodated, resulting in higher fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Numerical Resolution of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) Mode and Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) Mode for Low Octane Gasoline

2013-10-14
2013-01-2631
Two premixed compression ignition modes for low octane gasoline are numerically investigated. The multiple premixed compression ignition (MPCI) mode is featured with a sequence of “spray- combustion- spray- combustion”, while the partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode is a sequence of “spray- spray- combustion”. This paper compares the combustion process of the two modes using multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-3v, which can perform chemical reaction calculations for different fuels by a discrete multiple component (DMC) method. The fuel used for simulation consists of 58.5% i-C8H18 and 41.5% n-C7H16 in volume, and has the same RON and similar physical properties to straight-run naphtha used in the experiment. The engine operating condition is fixed at a 1600rpm and 0.7 MPa IMEP. The injection strategies for these two modes are different. All of the parameters in the simulation come from the single cylinder engine experiments.
Journal Article

Research on Unregulated Emissions from an Alcohols-Gasoline Blend Vehicle Using FTIR, HPLC and GC-MS Measuring Methods

2013-04-08
2013-01-1345
Unregulated emissions have become an important factor restricting the development of methanol and ethanol alternative alcohols fuels. Using two light-duty vehicles fuelled with pure gasoline, gasoline blend of 10% and 20% volume fraction of ethanol fuels, gasoline blend of 15% and 30% volume fraction of methanol fuels, New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) emission tests were carried on a chassis dynamometer according to ECE R83-05. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) were used to measure methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene and isobutene emissions in the exhaust during the NEDC.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of DMF and Gasoline Spray and Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1592
2, 5-Dimethylfuran (DMF) has been receiving increasing interest as a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels, owing to the recent development of new production technology. However, the influence of DMF properties on the in-cylinder fuel spray and its evaporation, subsequent combustion processes as well as emission formation in current gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is still not well understood, due to the lack of comprehensive understanding of its physical and chemical characteristics. To better understand the spray characteristics of DMF and its application to the IC engine, the fuel sprays of DMF and gasoline were investigated by experimental and computational methods. The shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques were used for measuring spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of both fuels.
Technical Paper

High Efficiency and Low Pollutants Combustion: Gasoline Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI)

2012-04-16
2012-01-0382
A new combustion mode namely multiple premixed compression ignition (MPCI) for gasoline engines was proposed. The MPCI mode can be realized by two or more times gasoline injections into cylinder with a high pressure around the compression TDC and featured with a premixed combustion after each injection in the cylinder, which is different from the existed gasoline direct injection compression ignition (GDICI) modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode with gasoline injection occurred in intake stroke, and partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode with multiple gasoline injections in intake and compression strokes before the start of combustion (SOC). Therefore the spray and combustion of the MPCI mode are alternatively occurred as "spray-combustion-spray-combustion" near the TDC, rather than "spray-spray-combustion" sequence as traditional PPCI gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a PPCI Engine Fuelled with Dieseline

2012-04-16
2012-01-1138
In this paper blends of diesel and gasoline (dieseline) fuelled Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) combustion and the comparison to conventional diesel combustion is investigated. The tests are carried out using a light duty four cylinder Euro IV diesel engine. The engine condition is maintained at 1800 rpm, 52 Nm (equivalent IMEP around 4.3 bar). Different injection timings and different amounts of EGR are used to achieve the PPCI combustion. The results show that compared to the conventional diesel combustion, the smoke and NOx emissions can be reduced by more than 95% simultaneously with dieseline fuelled PPCI combustion. The particle number total concentration can be reduced by 90% as well as the mean diameter (from 54 nm for conventional diesel to 16 nm for G50 fuelled PPCI). The penalty is a slightly increased noise level and lower indicated efficiency, which is decreased from 40% to 38.5%.
Technical Paper

Research on Steady and Transient Performance of an HCCI Engine with Gasoline Direct Injection

2008-06-23
2008-01-1723
In this paper, a hybrid combustion mode in four-stroke gasoline direct injection engines was studied. Switching cam profiles and injection strategies simultaneously was adopted to obtain a rapid and smooth switch between SI mode and HCCI mode. Based on the continuous pressure traces and corresponding emissions, HCCI steady operation, HCCI transient process (combustion phase adjustment, SI-HCCI, HCCI-SI, HCCI cold start) were studied. In HCCI mode, HCCI combustion phase can be adjusted rapidly by changing the split injection ratio. The HCCI control strategies had been demonstrated in a Chery GDI2.0 engine. The HCCI engine simulation results show that, oxygen and active radicals are stored due to negative valve overlap and split fuel injection under learn burn condition. This reduces the HCCI sensitivity on inlet boundary conditions, such as intake charge and intake temperature. The engine can be run from 1500rpm to 4000rpm in HCCI mode without spark ignition.
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