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Technical Paper

Investigation of Fuel Impurities Effect on DME Powered Diesel Engine System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0468
DME as a fuel for compression ignition (diesel) engines has been actively studied for about ten years due to its characteristically low pollution and reputation as a “smokeless fuel”. During this time, the practical application is taking shape based on necessary tasks such as analysis of injection and combustion, engine performance, and development of experimental vehicles. At this moment, standardization of DME as a fuel was started under ISO in 2007. There are concerns regarding the impurities in DME regarding the mixing during production and distribution as well as their effect on additives for lubricity and odor. In this report, the effect of DME fuel impurities on performance of a DME powered diesel engine was investigated. The platform was a DME engine with common-rail fuel injection and was evaluated under partial load stable mode and Japanese transient mode (JE05) testing parameters.
Technical Paper

Study on Improvement of Combustion and Effect of Fuel Property in Advanced Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1117
The tasks to improve diesel emissions and fuel consumption must be accomplished with urgency. However, due to the trade-off relationship between NOx emissions, soot emissions and fuel consumption, clean diesel combustion should be achieved by both innovative combustion and fuel technologies. The objective of this study is to extend the clean diesel combustion operating range (Engine-out emission: NOx ≺ 0.2 g/kWh, Soot ≺ 0.02 g/kWh). In this study, performance of a single-cylinder test engine equipped with a hydraulic valve actuation system and an ultra-high pressure fuel injection system was investigated. Also evaluated, were the effects of fuel properties such as auto-ignitability, volatility and aromatic hydrocarbon components, on combustion performance. The results show that applying a high EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) rate can significantly reduce NOx emission with an increase in soot emission.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel Auto-ignitability on Premixed Compression Ignition Characteristics

2008-04-14
2008-01-0062
It has been clarified that diesel fuel properties have a great effect on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a conventional diesel combustion regime. And as other diesel combustion regimes are applied in order to improve exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, it can be supposed that the fuel properties also have significant effects. The purpose of this study is to propose the optimum diesel fuel properties for a premixed compression ignition (PCI) combustion regime. In this paper, the effect of the auto-ignitability of diesel fuels on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption was evaluated using a heavy-duty single-cylinder test engine. In all experiments, fuels were injected using an electronically controlled, common-rail diesel fuel injector, and most experiments were conducted under high EGR conditions in order to reduce NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics of DME Diesel Engine With Inline Injection Pump Developed for DME

2004-06-08
2004-01-1863
The engine performance and exhaust characteristics of the DME-powered diesel engine with an injection system developed for DME were investigated. The injection pump is an inline type that can inject double amount of DME fuel compared to the base injection pump because the calorific value of DME is about half lower than that of diesel fuel. The effect of injection timing on engine performances such as thermal efficiency, engine torque, and exhaust characteristics were investigated. Maximum torque and power with DME could be achieved the same or greater level compared to diesel fuel operation. Considering over all engine performances, the best dynamic injection timings without EGR were -3, -3, -6 and -9 deg. ATDC in 1120, 1680, 2240 and 2800 rpm engine speeds respectively in this experiment.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Analysis of Combustion in the DME Diesel Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0089
For better understanding of the combustion characteristics in a direct injection dimethyl ether (DME) engine, the chemiluminescences of a burner flame and in-cylinder flame were analyzed using the spectroscopic method. The emission intensities of chemiluminescences were measured by a photomultiplier after passing through a monochrome-spectrometer. For the burner flame, line spectra were found nearby the wave length of 310 nm, 430 nm and 515 nm, arising from OH, CH and C2 radicals, respectively. For the in-cylinder flame, a strong continuous spectrum was found from 340 nm wave length to 550 nm. Line spectra were also detected nearby 310 nm, 395 nm and 430 nm, arising from OH, HCHO, and C2 radicals, respectively, partially overlapping with the continuous spectrum. Of these line spectra, 310 nm of OH radical did not overlapped with the continuous spectrum.
Technical Paper

Fuel Characteristics Evaluation of GTL for DI Diesel Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0088
In this study, advantages of GTL fueled DI diesel engine were observed, then, some cautionary areas, notably the aptitude for sealing materials, were investigated. Some advantages of using GTL as a diesel engine fuel include reduction of soot emission levels, power output and fuel consumption with GTL to conventional diesel fuel operation is equivalent, super-low sulfur content of GTL and its liquid state at normal temperature and pressure. However, there are some problems with putting GTL fuel on the market, such as lubricity, aptitude for sealing materials, high cetane index and high pour point. It is necessary to use additives to improve GTL's lubricity, and selecting the most appropriate type of lubricity improver is also important. The influence of GTL on the swelling properties of standard rubber materials seem basically the same, but it is necessary to notice on used rubbers.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Analysis from In-Cylinder Combustion of a DME-Fueled DI Diesel Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3192
To date, the DME combustion mechanism has been investigated by in-cylinder gas sampling, numerical calculations and observation of combustion radicals. It has been possible to quantify the emission intensities of in-cylinder combustion using a monochromator, and to observe the emitting species as images by using band-pass filters. However, the complete band images were not observed since the broadband (thermal) intensity may be stronger than band spectra intensities. Emission intensities of DME combustion radicals from a pre-mixed burner flame have been measured using a spectroscope and photomultiplier. Results were compared to other fuels, such as n-butane and methane, then, in this study, to better understand the combustion characteristics of DME, emission intensities near CH bands of an actual DI diesel engine fueled with DME were measured, and band spectra emitted from the engine were defined. Near TDC, emission intensities did not vary with wavelength.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Conditions on Driving Performance of a DME Diesel Vehicle

2003-10-27
2003-01-3193
Since dimethyl ether (DME) is a synthetic fuel, it is possible to make it from natural gas, coal and biomass. It is a low-emission, oxygenated fuel, which does not generate soot in the exhaust. Therefore, it has recently been identified as a possible replacement for diesel fuel. In Japan, the new short-term emissions regulations will be enforced beginning in 2003, and the long-term emissions regulations are scheduled to be enforced in 2005. In order to meet these more stringent emissions regulations, existing diesel engines would not be as widely used in the near future as they currently are. This will thus bring about a more widespread use of DME engines due to their low emissions potential. Moreover, when the modification of existing diesel engines into DME engines is available at a moderate cost, the wider use of DME engines can be expected. This study targeted development and application of DME engine technology for diesel engine retrofit, in a used diesel vehicle.
Technical Paper

Lubricity of Liquefied Gas - Assessment of the Various Pressure and Temperature High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (VPT-HFRR) - LPG Blended Fuel for Diesel Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3092
In this research, a test apparatus (VPT-HFRR) for evaluating lubricity was manufactured at an arbitrary pressure according to the lubricity test method (HFRR) for diesel fuel. The lubricity of LPG blended fuel (LBF) for diesel engines was examined using VPT-HFRR., This was a value close to that of diesel fuel, and when a suitable lubricity had been maintained, it was checked. Prototype trucks were manufactured and their durability was examined. After a run of 70,000km or more, no serious trouble had occurred, and when LBF was maintained at a suitable lubricity, it was checked.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of a DI diesel engine Operated with LPG and Cetane Enhancing additives

2003-05-19
2003-01-1920
Experiments were conducted to operate a direct injection (DI) diesel engine by using Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as a main fuel. Aliphatic Hydrocarbon (AH), cetane enhancing additive and lubricating additive were also added to the LPG so that smooth operation was achieved with a wide range of engine loads. Since the lubricity of LPG is lower than the diesel fuel therefore lubricating additive was employed to enhance the lubricity of LPG blended fuel. Furthermore, prototype LPG diesel truck was developed in this work, and the mileage reached about 70,000 km without any major failure. Prototype truck has good starting, good drive-off, acceleration and braking characteristics.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Analysis of Combustion Flame Fueled with Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2003-05-19
2003-01-1797
To better understand the combustion characteristics of DME, emission intensities of DME combustion radicals from a pre-mixed burner flame were measured by a spectroscope and photomultiplier, Results were compared to other fuels, such as methane and butane. Large peaks in the band spectra from pre-mixed and diffusion DME flames were found near 310 nm, 430 nm, and 515 nm, arising from OH, CH and C2, respectively. The DME emission intensities decreased with increasing the equivalence ratio in this study. Notably, the relative decrease in the C2 band spectra peak was greater than that of the OH band. Comparing the pre-mixed DME and butane flames, the butane band spectra peaks were similar in shape, but much stronger than those for DME. However, it was remarkable that CH and C2 band spectra peaks decreased only slightly with increase in equivalence ratio compared to the DME case.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of LPG Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0764
In this study, spray images of LPG Blended Fuels (LBF) for DI diesel engines were observed using a constant volume chamber at high ambient temperature and pressure, and the spray characteristics of the fuel were investigated. The LBF spray started to vaporize at the injector tip and the outer downstream regions of the spray, like diesel fuel, because of the high temperature at these areas. There were more vaporized areas compared to diesel fuel. Sufficient fuel injection volume and volatility of LBF resulted in good fuel-air mixture, then, THC emissions decreased compared to diesel fuel at high load engine test conditions. Butane spray image could not be observed at the injector tip. It seems that the high temperature of the injector tip caused the butane spray to vaporize rapidly. Spray tip penetration with LBF and butane were equal or greater than with diesel fuel. The high volatility of LBF and butane had no noticeable effect on spray penetration.
Technical Paper

Development of Retrofit DME Diesel Engine Operating with Rotary Distributor Fuel Injection Pump

2003-03-03
2003-01-0758
In order to reduce environmental disruption due to exhaust PM and NOx emissions from diesel engines of dimethyl ether (DME) has been proposed the use for the next generation vehicles, because the discharge of the atmospheric pollutants is less. In this study, DME is used to fuel a retrofit type diesel engine, and operational tests were carried out using a rotary distributor fuel injection pump. In this experiment, comparison and examination of the effects of fuel injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter, and injection timing. When using DME as an alternative fuel, the fuel temperature affects engine operation. And diameter of the injector nozzle hole and larger injection quantity is regarded as factors affecting the improvement in engine performance. In addition, for understanding the DME spray in the cylinder, DME was sprayed in a constant volume chamber where atmospheric temperature and pressure increased simultaneously, and the result is compared and examined with diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fueled with Two Types of Gas To Liquid (GTL)

2002-10-21
2002-01-2691
In this study, the main properties of two types of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels were investigated. Then, performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine fueled with GTLs were investigated by comparison with diesel fuel. GTL1 was composed of 100% paraffin by volume, and GTL2 was composed of 99.8% paraffin and 0.2% aromatics by volume. Most GTL fuel properties were comparable to those of diesel fuel, while both fuels have a higher cetane number and lower sulphur. A diesel engine could be operated with GTL fueling without any special engine modifications. Our tests showed that with the high cetane number of GTLs, the ignition delay was shorter, and combustion started earlier than with diesel fuel. With GTL1 operation, THC and soot emissions were lower than with diesel fuel operation, and even lower with GTL2 fueling.
Technical Paper

Study on Removal of PM and NOx in Diesel Exhaust by Using DC Corona Discharge

2002-05-06
2002-01-1660
In order to remove the diesel particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel exhaust, the gas is passed through a corona discharge collector for PM and another corona discharge device for NOx oxidation. With the PM collector, PM is accumulated on the central electrode, after that, it is removed by incineration technique. NOx concentration is decreased by oxidation to HNO3. In this study, these corona discharge reactors were coupled for removal of PM and NOx in progression, and attempted to remove these emissions in a slipstream of 14 liters/min of an experimental diesel engine and an actual vehicle, respectively. In case of the experimental test engine, it is found that nearly 100% and 15% of the PM and NOx emissions were removed even at a low input power of 26W (1560 J/L specific energy deposition). In the vehicle tests 1) a PM removal rate of 60% is obtained at an input power of over 40W, 2) a NOx removal rate of 97% is obtained at an input power of over 100W.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of an LPG DI SI Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2002-05-06
2002-01-1648
This work aimed to develop an LPG fueled direct injection SI engine, especially in order to improve the exhaust emission quality while maintaining high thermal efficiency comparable to a conventional engine. In-cylinder direct injection engines developed recently worldwide utilizes the stratified charge formation technique at low load, whereas at high load, a close-to-homogeneous charge is formed. Thus, compared to a conventional port injection engine, a significant improvement of fuel consumption and power can be achieved. To implement such a combustion strategy, the stratification of mixture charge is very important, and an understanding of its combustion process is also inevitably necessary. In this work, a numerical simulation was performed using a CFD code (KIVA-3), where the shape of a combustion chamber, swirl intensity, injection timing and duration, etc. were varied and their effects on the mixture formation and combustion process were investigated.
Technical Paper

The Possibility of Gas to Liquid (GTL) as a Fuel of Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1706
In this study, engine performances and exhaust emissions characteristics of compression ignition engine fueled with GTL were investigated by comparison with diesel fuel. Diesel engine could be operated fueled with GTL without any special modify for the test engine. With the high cetane number of GTL, the ignition lag was shorter, and the combustion started earlier than that of diesel fuel. Brake thermal efficiency operated with GTL increased at middle load conditions due to incomplete combustion emission such as CO and THC were lower than that of diesel fuel operation. NOx emission with GTL was comparable to diesel fuel, and there was a little decrease at high load. With GTL, soot emission was lower than with diesel fuel at above middle load condition. It seemed to be a reason of soot reduction that there was little sulphur contained in GTL.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Investigation of the Combustion Process in DME Compression Ignition Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1707
For better understanding of the in-cylinder combustion characteristics of DME, combustion radicals of a direct injection DME-Fueled compression ignition engine were observed using a spectroscopic method. In this initial report, the emission intensity of OH, CH, CHO, C2 and NO radicals was measured using a photomultiplier. These radicals could be measured with wavelength resolution (half-width) as about 3.3 nm. OH and CHO radicals appeared first, and then CH radical emission was detected. After that, the combustion radicals were observed using a high-speed image intensified video camera with band-pass filter. All of radicals were able to observe as images with half-width as 6 or about 10 nm. Rich DME leaked from nozzle was burning at the end of combustion. Therefore, the second light emission of C2 radical after the main combustion was observed.
Technical Paper

Atomization Characteristics for Various Ambient Pressure of Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2002-05-06
2002-01-1711
Recently, dimethyl ether (DME) has been attracting much attention as a clean alternative fuel, since the thermal efficiency of DME powered diesel engine is comparable to diesel fuel operation and soot free combustion can be achieved. In this experiment, the effect of ambient pressure on DME spray was investigated with observation of droplet size such as Sauter mean diameter (SMD) by the shadowgraph and image processing method. The higher ambient pressure obstructs the growth of DME spray, therefore faster breakup was occurred, and liquid column was thicker with increasing the ambient pressure. Then engine performances and exhaust emissions characteristics of DME diesel engine were investigated with various compression ratios. The minimum compression ratio for the easy start and stable operation was obtained at compression ratio of about 12.
Technical Paper

Combustion Radicals Observation of DME Engine by Spectroscopic Method

2002-03-04
2002-01-0863
For better understanding of the in-cylinder combustion characteristics of DME, combustion radicals of a direct injection DME-Fueled compression ignition engine were observed using a spectroscopic method. In this initial report, the emission intensity of OH, CH, CHO, C2 and NO radicals was measured using a photomultiplier. These radicals could be measured with wavelength resolution (half-width) of about 3.3 nm. OH and CHO radicals appeared first, and then CH radical emission was detected. After that, the combustion radicals were observed using a high-speed image intensified video camera. C2 and CH radicals were able to observe roughly as images. However, the emission intensity of DME combustion was not strong enough to take OH, CHO and NO radical images. CH radical combustion occurred near the chamber wall and burned like a ring, as combustion progress, indicating active heat release occurred near the chamber wall.
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