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Technical Paper

Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

2019-09-09
2019-24-0156
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Especially for coated GPF applications, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. The paper presents key-findings for the different GPF application variants. In the first part, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Ash accumulates as thin wall layers and short plugs, but does not penetrate into the wall. However, it suppresses deep bed filtration of soot, initially decreasing the soot-loaded backpressure. For the emission calibration, the non-linear backpressure development complicates the soot load monitoring, eventually leading to compromises between high safety against soot overloading and a low number of active regenerations.
Technical Paper

Efficient Test Bench Operation with Early Damage Detection Systems

2019-09-09
2019-24-0192
The efficient operation of powertrain test benches in research and development is strongly influenced by the state of “health” of the functional test object. Hence, the use of Early Damage Detection Systems (EDDS) with Unit Under Test (UUT) monitoring is becoming increasingly popular. An EDDS should primarily avoid total loss of the test object and ensure that damaged parts are not completely destroyed, and can still be inspected. Therefore, any abnormality from the standard test object behavior, such as an exceeding of predefined limits, must be recognized at an early testing time, and must lead to a shutdown of the test bench operation. With sensors mounted on the test object, it is possible to isolate the damage cause in the event of its detection. Advanced EDDS configurations also optimize the predefined limits by learning new shutdown values according to the test object behavior within a very short time.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Space- and Species-Resolved Measurements of Engine-Out Emissions from a Single-Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0745
The development and validation of detailed simulation models of in-cylinder combustion, emission formation mechanisms and reaction kinetics in the exhaust system are of crucial importance for the design of future low-emission powertrain concepts. To investigate emission formation mechanisms on one side and to create a solid basis for the validation of simulation methodologies (e.g. 3D-CFD, multi-dimensional in-cylinder models, etc.) on the other side, specific detailed measurements in the exhaust system are required. In particular, the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions are difficult to be investigated in simulation and experimentally, due to their complex composition and their post-oxidation in the exhaust system. In this work, different emission measurement devices were used to track the emission level and composition at different distances from the cylinder along the exhaust manifold, from the exhaust valve onwards.
Technical Paper

Objectified Drivability Evaluation and Classification of Passenger Vehicles in Automated Longitudinal Vehicle Drive Maneuvers with Engine Load Changes

2019-04-02
2019-01-1286
To achieve global market and brand specific drivability characteristics as unique selling proposition for the increasing number of passenger car derivatives, an objectified evaluation approach for the drivability capabilities of the various cars is required. Thereto, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of different engine concepts in various complex and interlinked powertrain topologies during engine load change maneuvers based on physical criteria. Such an objectification approach enables frontloading of drivability related engineering tasks by the execution of drivability development and calibration work within vehicle subcomponent-specific closed-loop real-time co-simulation environments in early phases of a vehicle development program. So far, drivability functionalities could be developed and calibrated only towards the end of a vehicle development program, when test vehicles with a sufficient level of product maturity became available.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Oxygenated-Fuel Combustion by Quantitative Multiscalar SRS/LIF Measurements in a Diesel-Like Jet

2018-09-28
2018-01-5037
Due to experimental challenges, combustion of diesel-like jets has rarely been characterized by laser-based quantitative multiscalar measurements. In this work, recently developed laser diagnostics for combustion temperature and the concentrations of CO, O2, and NO are applied to a diesel-like jet, using a highly oxygenated fuel. The diagnostic is based on spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) methods. Line imaging yields multiscalar profiles across the jet cross section. Measurements turn out to be particularly accurate, because near-stoichiometric combustion occurs in the central region of the jet. Thereby, experimental cross-influences by light attenuation and interfering emissions are greatly reduced compared to the combustion of conventional, sooting diesel fuel jets. This is achieved by fuel oxygenation and enhanced premixing.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Oil Sources in the Combustion Chamber of Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1811
To reduce hydrocarbon and particle emissions as well as irregular combustion phenomena, the identification and quantification of possible oil sources in the combustion chamber of the direct injection gasoline engine are of main interest. The aim of this research activity is to fundamentally investigate the formation of locally increased lubricating oil concentration in the combustion chamber. For this purpose, the oil sources are considered separately from each other and divided into two groups - piston/compression ring and lubricating film on the liner. The associated oil emissions and their influence on the engine combustion process are the core of the investigations.
Technical Paper

Virtual Transmission Evaluation Using an Engine-in-the-Loop Test Facility

2018-04-03
2018-01-1361
This paper describes an approach to reduce development costs and time by frontloading of engineering tasks and even starting calibration tasks already in the early component conception phases of a vehicle development program. To realize this, the application of a consistent and parallel virtual development and calibration methodology is required. The interaction between vehicle subcomponents physically available and those only virtually available at that time, is achieved with the introduction of highly accurate real-time models on closed-loop co-simulation platforms (HiL-simulators) which provide the appropriate response of the hardware components. This paper presents results of a heterogeneous testing scenario containing a real internal combustion engine on a test facility and a purely virtual vehicle using two different automatic transmission calibration and hardware setups.
Technical Paper

Influence of Vehicle Operators and Fuel Grades on Particulate Emissions of an SI Engine in Dynamic Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0350
With the implementation of the “Worldwide harmonized Light duty Test Procedure” (WLTP) and the highly dynamic “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE) tests in Europe, different engineering methodologies from virtual calibration approaches to Engine-in-the-loop (EiL) methods have to be considered to define and calibrate efficient exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies without the availability of prototype vehicles in early project phases. Since different types of testing facilities can be used, the effects of test benches as well as real and virtual vehicle operators have to be determined. Moreover, in order to effectively reduce harmful emissions, the reproducibility of test cycles is essential for an accurate and efficient application of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems and the calibration of internal combustion engines.
Journal Article

Improving Engine Efficiency and Emission Reduction Potential of HVO by Fuel-Specific Engine Calibration in Modern Passenger Car Diesel Applications

2017-10-08
2017-01-2295
The optimization study presented herein is aimed to minimize the fuel consumption and engine-out emissions using commercially available EN15940 compatible HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) fuel. The investigations were carried out on FEV’s 3rd generation HECS (High Efficiency Combustion System) multi-cylinder engine (1.6L, 4 Cylinder, Euro 6). Using a global DOE approach, the effects of calibration parameters on efficiency and emissions were obtained and analyzed. This was followed by a global optimization procedure to obtain a dedicated calibration for HVO. The study was aiming for efficiency improvement and it was found that at lower loads, higher fractions of low pressure EGR in combination with lower fuel injection pressures were favorable. At higher loads, a combustion center advancement, increase of injection pressure and reduced pilot injection quantities were possible without exceeding the noise and NOx levels of the baseline Diesel.
Journal Article

Assessment of the Full Thermodynamic Potential of C8-Oxygenates for Clean Diesel Combustion

2017-09-04
2017-24-0118
Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” (TMFB) at the RWTH Aachen University, two novel biogenic fuels, namely 1-octanol and its isomer dibutyl ether (DBE), were identified and extensively analyzed in respect of their suitability for combustion in a Diesel engine. Both biofuels feature very different properties, especially regarding their ignitability. In previous works of the research cluster, promising synthesis routes with excellent yields for both fuels were found, using lignocellulosic biomass as source material. Both fuels were investigated as pure components in optical and thermodynamic single cylinder engines (SCE). For 1-octanol at lower part load, almost no soot emission could be measured, while with DBE the soot emissions were only about a quarter of that with conventional Diesel fuel. At high part load (2400 min-1, 14.8 bar IMEP), the soot reduction of 1-octanol was more than 50% and for DBE more than 80 % respectively.
Journal Article

Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Tailor-Made Fuels in an Optical Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0711
The influence of two oxygenated tailor-made fuels on soot formation and oxidation in an optical single cylinder research diesel engine has been studied. For the investigation a planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) measurement technique was applied to the engine in order to detect and evaluate the planar soot distribution for the two bio fuels within a laser light sheet. Furthermore the OH* chemiluminescence and broad band soot luminosity was visualized by high speed imaging to compare the ignition and combustion behavior of tested fuels: Two C8 oxygenates, di-n-butylether (DNBE) and 1-octanol. Both fuels have the same molecular formula but differ in their molecular structure. DNBE ignites fast and burns mostly diffusive while 1-octanol has a low cetane number and therefore it has a longer ignition delay but a more homogeneous mixture at time of ignition. The two bio fuels were finally compared to conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Internal and External Measures for Catalyst Light-Off Support

2015-09-06
2015-24-2501
Within a project of the Research Association for Combustion Engines e.V., different measures for rising the temperature of exhaust gas aftertreatment components of both a passenger car and an industrial/commercial vehicle engine were investigated on a test bench as well as in simulation. With the passenger car diesel engine and different catalyst configurations, the potential of internal and external heating measures was evaluated. The configuration consisting of a NOx storage catalyst (NSC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) illustrates the potential of an electrically heated NSC. The exhaust aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a DPF shows in simulation how variable valve timing in combination with electric heated DOC can be used to increase the exhaust gas temperature and thus fulfill the EU6 emission limits.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of Biofuel Effects on NO and PAH Formation in Diesel-Like Jets

2015-09-06
2015-24-2485
In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this reason in this paper a blend out of 1-octanol and di-n-butylether and pure di-n-butylether are investigated in comparison to n-heptane as diesel-like fuel. The alternative fuels have a different combustion behavior particularly concerning important combustion parameters like ignition delay and mixture formation. Especially the formation of pollutants like nitrogen oxides in the combustion of alternative fuels is of global interest. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is important to design new engine geometries or implement a new calibration of the engine. In previous measurements in a single cylinder engine it was found out that both alternative fuels form nearly no soot emissions. For this reason now NOx is investigated optically to avoid the traditional soot NOx trade-off in diesel combustion.
Journal Article

The Oxidation Potential Number: An Index to Evaluate Inherent Soot Reduction in D.I. Diesel Spray Plumes

2015-09-01
2015-01-1934
A new index to evaluate the inherent soot reduction in a diesel-like spray plume is proposed in this study. The index is named “Oxidation Potential Number” and was derived with the help of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. C8 - C16 n-alkanes, 1-alcohols and di-n-ethers were studied with the help of this index over four part load engine operating conditions, representative of a C-class diesel vehicle. The CFD modelling results have shown that C8 molecules feature a higher potentiality to reduce the soot. Thus, C8 molecules were tested in a single cylinder diesel engine over the same operating conditions. In conclusion, the proposed index is compared with the soot engine out emission.
Journal Article

On the Potential of Oxygenated Fuels as an Additional Degree of Freedom in the Mixture Formation in Direct Injection Diesel Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0890
The current and future restrictions on pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines require a holistic investigation of the abilities of alternative fuels to optimize the combustion process and ensure cleaner combustion. In this regard, the Tailor-made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB) Cluster at Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen University aims at designing production processes for biofuels as well as fuels optimal for use in internal combustion engines. The TMFB Cluster's scientific approach considers the molecular structure of the fuels as an additional degree of freedom for the optimization of both the production pathways and the combustion process of such novel biofuels. Thus, the model-based specification of target parameters is of the utmost importance to improve engine combustion performance and to send feedback information to the biofuel production process.
Journal Article

Mixture-Formation Analysis by PLIF in an HSDI Diesel Engine Using C8-Oxygenates as the Fuel

2015-04-14
2015-01-0960
With increasing interest in new biofuel candidates, 1-octanol and di-n-butylether (DNBE) were presented in recent studies. Although these molecular species are isomers, their properties are substantially different. In contrast to DNBE, 1-octanol is almost a gasoline-type fuel in terms of its auto-ignition quality. Thus, there are problems associated with engine start-up for neat 1-octanol. In order to find a suitable glow-plug position, mixture formation is studied in the cylinder under almost idle operating conditions in the present work. This is conducted by planar laser-induced fluorescence in a high-speed direct-injection optical diesel engine. The investigated C8-oxygenates are also significantly different in terms of their evaporation characteristics. Thus, in-cylinder mixture formation of these two species is compared in this work, allowing conclusions on combustion behavior and exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of Lignin and Cellulose Based Oxygenated Fuels in a Compression-Ignition Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0910
Lignocellulosic biomass consists of (hemi-) cellulose and lignin. Accordingly, an integrated biorefinery will seek to valorize both streams into higher value fuels and chemicals. To this end, this study evaluated the overall combustion performance of both cellulose- and lignin derivatives, namely the high cetane number (CN) di-n-butyl ether (DnBE) and low CN anisole, respectively. Said compounds were blended both separately and together with EN590 diesel. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder compression ignition engine, which has been optimized for improved combustion characteristics with respect to low emission levels and at the same time high fuel efficiency. The selected operating conditions have been adopted from previous “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB)” work.
Journal Article

Utilization of HVO Fuel Properties in a High Efficiency Combustion System: Part 2: Relationship of Soot Characteristics with its Oxidation Behavior in DPF

2014-10-13
2014-01-2846
The present work is a continuation of the earlier published results by authors on the investigation of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) on a High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System (SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. Paper No. 2013-01-1677 and JSAE Paper No. 283-20145128). In order to further validate and interpret the previously published results of soot microstructure and its consequences on oxidation behavior, the test program was extended to analyze the impact of soot composition, optical properties, and physical properties such as size, concentration etc. on the oxidation behavior. The experiments were performed with pure HVO as well as with petroleum based diesel and today's biofuel (i.e. FAME) as baseline fuels. The soot samples for the different analyses were collected under constant engine operating conditions at indicated raw NOx emissions of Euro 6 level using closed loop combustion control methodology.
Technical Paper

C8-Oxygenates for Clean Diesel Combustion

2014-04-01
2014-01-1253
Within this paper, the two possible alternative and biomass-based fuel candidates Di-n-butyl ether (DNBE) and 1-octanol are investigated with regard to their utilization in a diesel-type engine. In order to asses the fuels emission-reduction potential, both have been tested in a single cylinder engine (SCE) and a high pressure chamber (HPC) in comparison to conventional EN590 diesel at various load points. Due to its reduced reactivity 1-octanol features a longer ignition delay and thus higher degrees of homogenization at start of combustion, whereas DNBE ignites rather rapidly in both the HPC and the engine leading to a predominantly mixing controlled combustion. Thus, both fuels feature completely different combustion characteristics. However, compared to diesel, both fuels contribute to a significant reduction in Filter Smoke Number (FSN) up to a factor of 15.
Journal Article

Probing Species Formed by Pilot Injection During Re-Compression in a Controlled Auto-Ignition Engine by H2CO LIF and Chemiluminescence Imaging

2014-04-01
2014-01-1275
Pilot injection (PI) during the negative-valve-overlap (NVO) period is one method to improve control of combustion in gasoline controlled auto-ignition engines. This is generally attributed to both chemical and thermal effects. However, there are little experimental data on active species formed by the combusting PI and their effect on main combustion in real engines. Thus, it is the objective of the current study to apply and assess optical in-cylinder diagnostics for these species. Firstly, the occurrence and nature of combustion during the NVO period is investigated by spectrally-resolved multi-species flame luminescence measurements. OH*, CH*, HCO*, CO-continuum chemiluminescence, and soot luminosity are recorded. Secondly, spectrally-, spatially-, and cycle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements of formaldehyde are conducted. It is attempted to find a cycle-resolved measure of the chemical effect of PI.
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