Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Toward Predictive Combustion Modeling of CNG SI Engines in 1D Simulation Tools

2020-09-15
2020-01-2079
In the recent years, the interest in heavy-duty engines fueled with Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is increasing due to the necessity to comply with the stringent CO2 limitation imposed by national and international regulations. Indeed, the reduced number of carbon atoms of the NG molecule allows to reduce the CO2 emissions compared to a conventional fuel. The possibility to produce synthetic methane from renewable energy sources, or bio-methane from agricultural biomass and/or animal waste, contributes to support the switch from conventional fuel to CNG. To drive the engine development and reduce the time-to-market, the employment of numerical analysis is mandatory. This requires a continuous improvement of the simulation models toward real predictive analyses able to reduce the experimental R&D efforts. In this framework, 1D numerical codes are fundamental tools for system design, energy management optimization, and so on.
Technical Paper

Efficient Thermal Electric Skipping Strategy Applied to the Control of Series/Parallel Hybrid Powertrain

2020-04-14
2020-01-1193
The optimal control of hybrid powertrains represents one of the most challenging tasks for the compliance with the legislation concerning CO2 and pollutant emission of vehicles. Most common off-line optimization strategies (Pontryagin minimum principle - PMP - or dynamic programming) allow to identify the optimal control along a predefined driving mission at the expense of a quite relevant computational effort. On-line strategies, suitable for on-vehicle implementation, involve a certain performance degradation depending on their degree of simplification and computational effort. In this work, a simplified control strategy is presented, where the conventional power-split logics, typical of the above-mentioned strategies, is here replaced with an alternative utilization of the thermal and electric units for the vehicle driving (Efficient Thermal Electric Skipping Strategy - ETESS).
Technical Paper

Experimental and 1D Numerical Investigations on the Exhaust Emissions of a Small Spark Ignition Engine Considering the Cylinder-by-Cylinder Variability

2020-04-14
2020-01-0578
This paper reports a numerical and experimental analysis on a twin-cylinder turbocharged Spark Ignition engine carried out to investigate the cylinder-to-cylinder variability in terms of performance, combustion evolution and exhaust emissions. The engine was tested at 3000 rpm in 20 different steady-state operating conditions, selected with the purpose of observing the influence of cylinder-by-cylinder A/F ratio variations and the EGR effects on the combustion process and exhaust emissions for low to medium/high loads. The experimental outcomes showed relevant differences in the combustion evolution (characteristic combustion angles) between cylinders and not negligible variations in the emissions of the single cylinder exhaust and the overall engine one. This misalignment resulted to be due to differences in the injected fuel amount by the port injectors in the two cylinders, mainly deriving from the specific fuel rail geometry.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of an Advanced Multi-Cylinder SI Engine Operating in Ultra-Lean Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0075
In this work the performance and noxious emissions of a prototype Spark Ignition (SI) engine, working in ultra-lean conditions, are investigated. It is a four-cylinder engine, having a very high compression ratio, and an active pre-chamber. The required amount of air is provided by a low-pressure variable geometry turbocharger, coupled to a high-pressure E-compressor. The engine is equipped with a variable valve timing device on the intake camshaft. The goal of this activity is to support the development and the calibration of the described engine, and to exploit the full potential of the ultra-lean concept. To this aim, a combustion model for a pre-chamber engine, set up and validated in a previous paper for a similar single-cylinder unit, is utilized. It is coupled to additional in-house developed sub-models, employed for the prediction of the in-cylinder turbulence, heat transfer, knock and pollutant emissions.
Technical Paper

Effects of the Domain Zonal Decomposition on the Hybrid URANS/LES Modeling of the TCC-III Motored Engine Flow

2019-09-09
2019-24-0097
Hybrid URANS/LES turbulence modeling is rapidly emerging as a valuable complement to standard LES for full-engine multi-cycle simulation. Among the available approaches, zonal hybrids are potentially attractive due to the possibility of clearly identify URANS and LES zones, eventually introducing further zone types with dynamically switching behavior. The present work aims at evaluating the impact of different zonal configurations on the simulated flow statistics using the well-assessed TCC-III experimental engine setup. More specifically, different methods (URANS, LES or seamless DES) are applied inside the cylinder volume, as well as into the intake/exhaust ports and plenums. For each of the five tested configurations, in-cylinder flow features are compared against the reference TCC-III experimental measurements, in terms of velocity field statistics and quality indices.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Syngas Blends Combustion in a Research Single-Cylinder Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0094
Despite syngas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines (ICEs), its extensive adoption has not been adequately investigated so far. The dedicated literature offers several fundamental studies dealing with H2/CO blends burning at high pressure and room temperature, as well as preheated mixture at low pressure. However, these thermodynamic states are far from the operational conditions typical of ICEs. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the syngas combustion process at engine-like conditions to shed light on this fuel performance, in order to fully benefit from syngas characteristics in ICE application. One of the key properties to characterize a combustion process is laminar flame speed, which is also used by the most widespread turbulent combustion models.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis and Knock Prediction into Crevices of Piston to Liner Fireland of an High Performance ICE

2019-09-09
2019-24-0006
The paper aims at defining a methodology for the prediction and understanding of knock tendency in internal combustion engine piston crevices by means of CFD simulations. The motivation for the analysis comes from a real design requirement which appeared during the development of a new high performance SI unit: it is in fact widely known that, in high performance engines (especially the turbocharged ones), the high values of pressure and temperature inside the combustion chamber during the engine cycle may cause knocking phenomena. “Standard” knock can be easily recognized by direct observation of the in-cylinder measured pressure trace; it is then possible to undertake proper actions and implement design and control improvements to prevent it with relatively standard 3D-CFD analyses.
Technical Paper

A Comparison between Different Moving Grid Techniques for the Analysis of the TCC Engine under Motored Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0218
The accurate representation of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) flows via CFD is an extremely complex task: it strongly depends on a combination of highly impacting factors, such as grid resolution (both local and global), choice of the turbulence model, numeric schemes and mesh motion technique. A well-founded choice must be made in order to avoid excessive computational cost and numerical difficulties arising from the combination of fine computational grids, high-order numeric schemes and geometrical complexity typical of ICEs. The paper focuses on the comparison between different mesh motion technologies, namely layer addition and removal, morphing/remapping and overset grids. Different grid strategies for a chosen mesh motion technology are also discussed. The performance of each mesh technology and grid strategy is evaluated in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency (stability, scalability, robustness).
Technical Paper

A Tabulated-Chemistry Approach Applied to a Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model for a Fast and Accurate Knock Prediction in Spark-Ignition Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0471
The description of knock phenomenon is a critical issue in a combustion model for Spark-Ignition (SI) engines. The most known theory to explain this phenomenon is based on the Auto-Ignition (AI) of the end-gas, ahead the flame front. The accurate description of this process requires the handling of various aspects, such as the impact of the fuel composition, the presence of residual gas or water in the burning mixture, the influence of cool flame heat release, etc. This concern can be faced by the solution of proper chemistry schemes for gasoline blends. Whichever is the modeling environment, either 3D or 0D, the on-line solution of a chemical kinetic scheme drastically affects the computational time. In this paper, a procedure for an accurate and fast prediction of the hydrocarbons auto-ignition, applied to phenomenological SI engine combustion models, is proposed. It is based on a tabulated approach, operated on both ignition delay times and reaction rates.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional Model of Pre-Chamber Spark-Ignition Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0470
Increasingly stringent pollutant and CO2 emission standards require the car manufacturers to investigate innovative solutions to further improve the fuel economy of their fleets. Among these techniques, an extremely lean combustion has a large potential to simultaneously reduce the NOx raw emissions and the fuel consumption of spark-ignition engines. Application of pre-chamber ignition systems is a promising solution to realize a favorable air/fuel mixture ignitability and an adequate combustion speed, even with very lean mixtures. In this work, the combustion characteristics of an active pre-chamber system are experimentally investigated using a single-cylinder research engine. Conventional gasoline fuel is injected into the main chamber, while the pre-chamber is fed with compressed natural gas. In a first stage, an experimental campaign was carried out at various speeds, spark timings and air-fuel ratios.
Technical Paper

Techniques for CO2 Emission Reduction over a WLTC. A Numerical Comparison of Increased Compression Ratio, Cooled EGR and Water Injection

2018-05-30
2018-37-0008
In this work, various techniques are numerically applied to a base engine - vehicle system to estimate their potential CO2 emission reduction. The reference thermal unit is a downsized turbocharged spark-ignition Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) engine, with a Compression Ratio (CR) of 10. In order to improve its fuel consumption, preserving the original full-load torque, various technologies are considered, including an increased CR, an external low-pressure cooled EGR, and a ported Water Injection (WI). The analyses are carried out by a 1D commercial software (GT-Power™), enhanced by refined user-models for the description of in-cylinder processes, namely turbulence, combustion, heat transfer and knock. The latter were validated with reference to the base engine architecture in previous activities. To minimize the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) all over the engine operating plane, the control parameters of the base and modified engines are calibrated based on PID controllers.
Technical Paper

Impact of Grid Density on the LES Analysis of Flow CCV: Application to the TCC-III Engine under Motored Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0203
Large-eddy simulation (LES) applications for internal combustion engine (ICE) flows are constantly growing due to the increase of computing resources and the availability of suitable CFD codes, methods and practices. The LES superior capability for modeling spatial and temporal evolution of turbulent flow structures with reference to RANS makes it a promising tool for describing, and possibly motivating, ICE cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) and cycle-resolved events such as knock and misfire. Despite the growing interest towards LES in the academic community, applications to ICE flows are still limited. One of the reasons for such discrepancy is the uncertainty in the estimation of the LES computational cost. This in turn is mainly dependent on grid density, the CFD domain extent, the time step size and the overall number of cycles to be run. Grid density is directly linked to the possibility of reducing modeling assumptions for sub-grid scales.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Spray Evolution, Hydraulics and Atomization for a 60 MPa Injection Pressure GDI System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0271
In recent years, the GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) technology has significantly spread over the automotive market under the continuous push toward the adoption of combustion systems featuring high thermodynamic conversion efficiency and moderate pollutant emissions. Following this path, the injection pressure level has been progressively increased from the initial 5-15 MPa level nowadays approaching 35 MPa. The main reason behind the progressive injection pressure increase in GDI engines is the improved spray atomization, ensuring a better combustion process control and lower soot emissions. On the other hand, increasing injection pressure implies more power absorbed by the pumping system and hence a penalty in terms of overall efficiency. Therefore, the right trade-off has to be found between soot formation tendency reduction thanks to improved atomization and the energetic cost of a high pressure fuel injection system.
Journal Article

Combined Effects of Valve Strategies, Compression Ratio, Water Injection, and Cooled EGR on the Fuel Consumption of a Small Turbocharged VVA Spark-Ignition Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0854
In this work, various techniques are numerically investigated to assess and quantify their relative effectiveness in reducing the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) of a downsized turbocharged spark-ignition Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) engine. The analyzed solutions include the Variable Compression Ratio (VCR), the port Water Injection (WI), and the external cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The numerical analysis is developed in a 1D modeling framework. The engine is schematized in GT-Power™ environment, employing refined sub-models of the in-cylinder processes, such as the turbulence, combustion, knock, and heat transfer. The combustion and knock models have been extensively validated in previous papers, at different speed/load points and intake valve strategies, including operations with a relevant internal EGR rate and with liquid WI.
Technical Paper

Refinement of a 0D Turbulence Model to Predict Tumble and Turbulent Intensity in SI Engines. Part I: 3D Analyses

2018-04-03
2018-01-0850
Recently, a growing interest in the development of more accurate phenomenological turbulence models is observed, since this is a key pre-requisite to properly describe the burn rate in quasi-dimensional combustion models. The latter are increasingly utilized to predict engine performance in very different operating conditions, also including unconventional valve control strategies, such as EIVC or LIVC. Therefore, a reliable phenomenological turbulence model should be able to physically relate the actuated valve strategy to turbulence level during the engine cycle, with particular care in the angular phase when the combustion takes place.
Technical Paper

Refinement of a 0D Turbulence Model to Predict Tumble and Turbulent Intensity in SI Engines. Part II: Model Concept, Validation and Discussion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0856
As known, reliable information about underlying turbulence intensity is a mandatory pre-requisite to predict the burning rate in quasi-dimensional combustion models. Based on 3D results reported in the companion part I paper, a quasi-dimensional turbulence model, embedded under the form of “user routine” in the GT-Power™ software, is here presented in detail. A deep discussion on the model concept is reported, compared to the alternative approaches available in the current literature. The model has the potential to estimate the impact of some geometrical parameters, such as the intake runner orientation, the compression ratio, or the bore-to-stroke ratio, thus opening the possibility to relate the burning rate to the engine architecture. Preliminarily, a well-assessed approach, embedded in GT-Power commercial software v.2016, is utilized to reproduce turbulence characteristics of a VVA engine.
Journal Article

Development of Chemistry-Based Laminar Flame Speed Correlation for Part-Load SI Conditions and Validation in a GDI Research Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0174
The detailed study of part-load conditions is essential to characterize engine-out emissions in key operating conditions. The relevance of part-load operations is further emphasized by the recent regulations such as the new WLTP standard. Combustion development at part-load operations depends on a complex interplay between moderate turbulence levels (low engine speed and tumble ratio), low in-cylinder pressure and temperature, and stoichiometric-to-lean mixture quality (to maximize fuel efficiency). From a modelling standpoint, the reduced turbulence intensity compared to full-load operations complicates the interaction between different sub-models (e.g., reconsideration of the flamelet hypothesis adopted by common combustion models). In this article, the authors focus on chemistry-based simulations for laminar flame speed of gasoline surrogates at conditions typical of part-load operations. The analysis is an extension of a previous study focused on full-load operations.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Two Phenomenological Combustion Models Applied to Different SI Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2184
Nowadays, the development of a new engine is becoming more and more complex due to conflicting factors regarding technical, environmental and economic issues. The experimental activity has to comply with the above complexities, resulting in increasing cost and duration of engine development. For this reason, the simulation is becoming even more prominent, thanks to its lower financial burden, together with the need of an improved predictive capability. Among the other numerical approaches, the 1D models represent a proper compromise between reliability and computational effort, especially if the engine behavior has to be investigated over a number of operating conditions. The combustion model has a key role in this contest and the research of consistent approaches is still on going. In this paper, two well-assessed combustion models for Spark Ignition (SI) engines are described and compared: the eddy burn-up theory and the fractal approach.
Technical Paper

Chemistry-Based Laminar Flame Speed Correlations for a Wide Range of Engine Conditions for Iso-Octane, n-Heptane, Toluene and Gasoline Surrogate Fuels

2017-10-08
2017-01-2190
CFD simulations of reacting flows are fundamental investigation tools used to predict combustion behaviour and pollutants formation in modern internal combustion engines. Focusing on spark-ignited units, most of the flamelet-based combustion models adopted in current simulations use the fuel/air/residual laminar flame propagation speed as a background to predict the turbulent flame speed. This, in turn, is a fundamental requirement to model the effective burn rate. A consolidated approach in engine combustion simulations relies on the adoption of empirical correlations for laminar flame speed, which are derived from fitting of combustion experiments. However, these last are conducted at pressure and temperature ranges largely different from those encountered in engines: for this reason, correlation extrapolation at engine conditions is inevitably accepted. As a consequence, relevant differences between proposed correlations emerge even for the same fuel and conditions.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive CFD-CHT Methodology for the Characterization of a Diesel Engine: from the Heat Transfer Prediction to the Thermal Field Evaluation

2017-10-08
2017-01-2196
High power-density Diesel engines are characterized by remarkable thermo-mechanical loads. Therefore, compared to spark ignition engines, designers are forced to increase component strength in order to avoid failures. 3D-CFD simulations represent a powerful tool for the evaluation of the engine thermal field and may be used by designers, along with FE analyses, to ensure thermo-mechanical reliability. The present work aims at providing an integrated in-cylinder/CHT methodology for the estimation of a Diesel engine thermal field. On one hand, in-cylinder simulations are fundamental to evaluate not only the integral amount of heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls, but also its point-wise distribution. To this specific aim, an improved heat transfer model based on a modified thermal wall function is adopted to estimate correctly wall heat fluxes due to combustion.
X