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Technical Paper

Experimental Verification of Residual Compression in Tempered Automotive Glass with Holes

Tempered float glass is commonly used for both side windows and backlites in the automotive industry. The success of such products is primarily attributed to high level of residual compression, following tempering, which provides abrasion resistance as well as 3X higher functional strength to sustain mechanical, vibrational and thermal stresses during the vehicle's lifetime. Certain applications of tempered glass, however, require mounting holes whose surface-finish must be controlled carefully to withstand transient tensile stresses during tempering. Simultaneously, the nature and magnitude of residual compression at the hole must provide sufficient robustness to bear mounting, vibrational and thermal stresses throughout the life of the vehicle. This paper presents (i) analysis of residual compression at the hole, (ii) measurement of biaxial strength of annealed glass with hole at center, and (iii) measurement of biaxial strength of tempered glass with hole at center.
Technical Paper

New Developments in Diesel Oxidation Catalysts and Diesel Particulate Filters

Stringent emissions legislation for diesel-powered vehicles, soon to go into effect, has led to new advances in both Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). This paper reviews some of the new developments in DOC support design which lead to improved light-off behavior and higher overall emissions performance through lower thermal mass, higher Geometric Surface Area (GSA) and larger Open Frontal Area (OFA) than those afforded by the standard cordierite 400/6.5 cell configuration. The four different DOC supports examined in this paper include 400/4, 200/8, 300/8 and 400/6.5 - the last one serving as baseline.
Technical Paper

Physical Durability of Thin Wall Ceramic Substrates

Significant advances in composition and the manufacturing process have led to thin wall cordierite ceramic substrates with low thermal mass, high surface area, and large open frontal area-properties that are critical for fast light-off, high conversion efficiency and low back pressure. Indeed, such substrates are ideal catalyst supports for meeting the ever-stringent emissions regulations, ala SULEV and ULEV, as demonstrated by recent performance data1. This paper focuses on the physical durability of 400/4 and 600/4 cordierite ceramic substrates. In particular, it presents strength, fatigue, and modulus data which influence the mechanical durability. In addition, it presents thermal expansion data which impact the thermal durability. Both of these durabilities are examined as a function of operating temperature.
Technical Paper

Advanced Three-Way Converter System for High Temperature Exhaust Aftertreatment

An advanced three-way converter system with significant improvements in light-off performance, conversion efficiency, thermal stability and physical durability at high operating temperature is described. The converter system is comprised of a light-weight ceramic substrate with high surface area triangular cell structure, a new catalyst formulation with enhanced thermal stability and good substrate compatibility, and a durable packaging design which together lead to consistent improvements in high temperature performance and durability. Experimental data including FTP performance, canning trials, and high temperature vibration and thermal shock tests for both the advanced and standard three-way converter systems are presented.
Technical Paper

Size Effect on the Strength of Ceramic Catalyst Supports

The typical ceramic catalyst support for automotive application has a total volume of 1640 cm3. Approximately 10% of this volume is subjected to tensile thermal stresses due to a radial temperature gradient in service [1]*. These stresses are kept below 50% of the substrate strength to minimize fatigue degradation and to ensure long-term durability [2]. However, the tensile strength measurements are carried out in 4-point bending using 2.5 cm wide x 1.2 cm thick x 10 cm long modulus of rupture bars in which the specimen volume subjected to tensile stress is merely 3.2 cm3 or 0.2% of the total substrate volume [3]. Thus, a large specimen population is often necessary (50 specimens or more) to obtain the strength distribution representative of full substrate. This is particularly true for large frontal area substrates for diesel catalyst supports with an order of magnitude larger stressed volume. In this paper, the modulus of rupture data are obtained as function of specimen size.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Fatigue Data for Cordierite Ceramic Wall-Flow Diesel Filters

The dynamic fatigue data for two different cordierite ceramic wall-flow diesel filter compositions, EX-54 and EX-66, are obtained at 200° and 400°C using the 4-point bend test. These compositions offer larger mean pore size and experience lower pressure drop than the EX-47 composition, and hence are more desirable for certain applications. Their fatigue behavior in the operating temperature range is found to be equivalent or superior to that of EX-47 composition which helps promote filter durability. The fatigue data are used to arrive at a safe allowable stress, which would ensure the required 290K vehicle mile durability. The paper also discusses the impact of mean pore size on high temperature strength and fatigue properties and their effect on filter durability.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Fatigue in Ceramic Honeycomb Catalyst Supports

The high temperature dynamic fatigue data for the catalyst support composition, EX-20, 400/6.8, are presented. These data indicate that the fatigue effects are more severe when the substrate temperature in the peripheral region is near 200°C. The major impact of high temperature fatigue is the slow degradation of substrate’s initial strength while in service. Such a degradation must be taken into account in designing the total converter package to meet life requirements. For the EX-20, 400/6.8 substrate, approximately 50% of its initial strength is available to withstand the combined stresses from mechanical, thermal, and vibrational loads in service. At temperatures well above 200°C, the available design strength can be as high as 65% of substrate’s initial strength. The fatigue theory, the measurement technique, and the application of fatigue data to long term durability of cordierite substrates are discussed.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Fatigue in Ceramic Wall-Flow Diesel Filters

Under certain operating conditions when the combined stresses in a ceramic wall-flow diesel filter from mechanical, thermal, and vibrational loads exceed its threshold strength, the fatigue effects become important. This paper reviews the theory of static and dynamic fatigue, and presents fatigue data for Coming's high efficiency filter composition (EX-47, 100/17) in the temperature range 25° - 400°C which is representative of the stressed peripheral region during regeneration. The measurement and analysis of fatigue data, together with the implication on long-term durability of cordierite ceramic filters, is discussed.
Technical Paper

Thermal Stresses in Ceramic Wall Flow Diesel Filters

Thermal stresses constitute a major portion of the total stress which the ceramic wall flow filter experiences in service. The primary source of these stresses is the temperature gradients, both in radial and axial directions, which attain their maximum values during regeneration. The level of particulate loading, the flow rate, the filter size and the mounting design govern the severity of temperature gradients which, together with physical properties and aspect ratio of the filter, dictate the magnitude and distribution of thermal stresses. The filter, the mounting, and the regeneration conditions should be so designed as to minimize these stresses to insure reliable and fracture free performance of the filter throughout the lifetime of the vehicle. In this paper we present a thermal stress model, based on finite element method, which computes stresses in the axisymmetric filter subjected to linear or step temperature gradients in radial and axial directions.