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Technical Paper

Development of a High Sensitivity and High Response Portable Smoke Meter

2014-04-01
2014-01-1580
The filtration efficiency of a DPF drops when it suffers a failure such as melting and cracks during regeneration. And then, on-board diagnostics (OBD) device has become needed worldwide to detect a DPF failure. In the development of an OBD soot sensor, evaluation of the sensor demands a portable instrument which can measure the soot concentration for on-board and in-field use. Some of the emission regulations require the in-field emission measurements under normal in-use operation of a vehicle. This study is intended to develop a high sensitivity and high response portable smoke meter for on-board soot measurements and a reference to OBD soot sensors under development. The smoke meter accommodates a 650 nm laser diode, and its principle is based on light extinction in high soot concentration range and backward light scattering for low soot concentration measurement.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Characterization of Particulate Emissions from Advanced Diesel Combustion

2007-07-23
2007-01-1945
The applicability of several popular diesel particulate matter (PM) measurement techniques to low temperature combustion is examined. The instruments' performance in measuring low levels of PM from advanced diesel combustion is evaluated. Preliminary emissions optimization of a high-speed light-duty diesel engine was performed for two conventional and two advanced low temperature combustion engine cases. A low PM (<0.2 g/kg_fuel) and NOx (<0.07 g/kg_fuel) advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and early injection timing was chosen as a baseline. The three other cases were selected by varying engine load, injection timing, injection pressure, and EGR mass fraction. All engine conditions were run with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. An extensive characterization of PM from these engine operating conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Rate of Multiple Fuel Injection with Diesel Fuel and DME

2001-03-05
2001-01-0527
The accuracy of the injection rate meter based on W. Zeuch's method in the measurement of multiple injection rate and amount was calibrated using a small cam driven piston that is driven by an electric motor. For the pre- or early-injection, a sensor with a high sensitivity can be applied to measure the small pressure increase due to the small injection amount. In case of the multiple injection that has the post and/or late injection, a pressure sensor with a low sensitivity must cover not only the large pressure increase due to the main injection but also the small pressure increase due to the post and/or late injection because the output of the high sensitivity sensor is saturated after the main injection. So the linearity of the low sensitivity pressure sensor was calibrated with the cam driven piston prior to the experiment with the actual injection system.
Technical Paper

Two–Dimensional Imaging of Formaldehyde Formed During the Ignition Process of a Diesel Fuel Spray

2000-03-06
2000-01-0236
The time of, and location where ignition first occurs in a diesel fuel spray were investigated in a rapid compression machine (RCM) using the two–dimensional techniques of silicone oil particle scattering imaging (SSI), and the planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde has been hypothesized to be one of the stable intermediate species marking the start of oxidation reactions in a transient spray under compression ignition conditions. In this study, the LIF images of the formaldehyde formed in a diesel fuel spray during ignition process have been successfully obtained for the first time by exciting formaldehyde with the 3rd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. SSI images of the vaporizing spray, and the LIF images of formaldehyde were obtained together with the corresponding time record of combustion chamber pressures at initial ambient temperatures ranging from 580 K to 790 K.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Rate of Multiple-Injection in CDI Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1257
The injection rate meter based on W. Zeuch's method was improved to meet the recent requirement for precise measurement of the multiple injection rate and amount in CDI (Common rail Direct Injection) diesel engines. A pressure sensor with a high sensitivity was added to measure the small pressure increase due to the pilot injection and after injection. At the same time a flow meter having a high accuracy was installed in the discharge pipe line to obtain a correction factor to the modulus of elasticity of volume. As a result it became possible to measure the multiple injection amount at an accuracy of ±0.2mm3/stroke in a range up to 40mm3/stroke.
Technical Paper

A Two-Zone Model Analysis of Heat Release Rate in Diesel Engines

1997-10-01
972959
A thermodynamic two-zone model which assumes a stoichiornetric burned gas region and unburned air region is presented in an attempt to calculate more precise rate of heat release of diesel combustion. A comparison is made of the rate of heat release obtained by the two-zone model with that obtained by the conventional single-zone model. It shows around 10 % increase in the rate of heat release with the two-zone model. The effect of state equation of gas is also examined with the single-zone model and the use of a real gas law in stead of the perfect gas law is found to yield minor difference in the rate of heat release at a high boost operating condition.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer From Impinging Diesel Flames to the Combustion Chamber Wall

1997-02-24
970896
The local heat fluxes from impinging combusting and evaporating diesel sprays to the wall of a square combustion chamber were measured in a rapid compression machine. It was revealed that the ratio of local heat flux between the combusting and evaporating spray, q̇c/q̇e, is of the same order of magnitude as (Tc-Tw)/(Te-Tw) and its values estimated by a two-zone model agree roughly with the measured ones. The time-mean local heat flux during the spray impingement was found to be approximately proportional to the 0.8th power of the injection velocity and the heat-transfer phenomenon depends largely on whether the ignition starts before or after the impingement.
Technical Paper

Combustion Enhancement of Very Lean Premixture Part in Stratified Charge Conditions

1996-10-01
962087
Local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration affects combustion characteristics in the lean burn system and also in the stratified charge combustion system. To investigate such combustion systems, the effects of inhomogeneous mixtures were examined using a carefully controlled experimental system. In this study, a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge by using a removable partition inside the chamber, was developed. Flow and combustion characteristics were examined by indicated pressure analysis, Schlieren photography, ion probe measurements and local equivalence ratios measurements while varying the combination of initial equivalence ratios on each side of the partition. As a result, combustion characteristics of charge stratified, very lean propane-air mixture were clarified.
Technical Paper

Ignition, Combustion and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine Equipped with a Micro-Hole Nozzle

1996-02-01
960321
In an attempt to achieve lean combustion in Diesel engines which has a potential for simultaneous reduction in no and soot, the authors developed a micro-hole nozzle which has orifices with a diameter as small as 0.06 mm. Combustion tests were carried out using a rapid compression-expansion machine which has a DI Diesel type combustion chamber equipped with the micro-hole nozzle. A comparison with the result of a conventional nozzle experiment revealed that the ignition delay was shortened by 30 %, and in spite of that, both peaks of initial premixed combustion and diffusion combustion increased significantly. The combustion in the case of the micro-hole nozzle experiment was accompanied with a decrease in soot emission, whereas an increase in NO emission.
Technical Paper

Development of a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine Simulating Diesel Combustion

1995-10-01
952514
A rapid compression-expansion machine was developed, which can simulate intake, compression, expansion and exhaust strokes in a single Diesel cycle by an electrically controlled and hydraulically actuated driving system. The whole system which is composed of a hydraulic actuator, fuel injector and a valve driving device, is sequentially controlled by a micro-computer. The machine features; 1) accurate control of piston position at TDC, 2) no effect of lubricant on HC emission due to the use of dry piston rings; 3) independent control of local wall temperature; and 4) high power output to drive heavy piston at high frequency. The single cycle operation permits Diesel combustion experiments under a wide range of operating conditions and easy access of optical diagnostics with minimized amount of test fuel. The performance test showed that the machine can drive a DI Diesel type piston with a 100 mm bore at a maximum frequency of 16.7 Hz at a maximum compression pressure of 15 MPa.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of 2-D Fuel Vapor Concentration in a Transient Spray via Laser-Induced Fluorescence Technique

1994-10-01
941953
A new method to determine simultaneously the temperature and the fuel vapor concentration inside an evaporating spray was described by using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. A TMPD doped base fuel composed of C12H26: 22%, C13H28: 54% and C14H30: 30% was injected into the combustion chamber of a rapid compression machine which is filled with a high temperature and high pressure nitrogen. The laser sheet was used for incident light, which was reflected by a prism located inside the combustion chamber and propagated through the center of an evaporating spray. The laser induced fluorescence intensity was imaged by a high speed-gated intensifier from a direction perpendicular to the incident light. The results shows that mixtures with high equivalence ratio are observed in the central region, while low equivalence ratio mixtures are observed in the periphery of the spray. It is also observed that the temperature of richest mixture is 50 K as low as the surrounding gas temperature.
Technical Paper

On the Air-Entrainment Characteristics of Diesel Sprays and Flames in a Quiescent Atmosphere

1994-10-01
941924
Air-entrainment characteristics of non-evaporating sprays and flames were measured by means of high-speed photography including ordinary shadowgraphy of sprays, back diffused light illumination photography and laser shadow photography of flames. Effects of injection pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on air-entrainment characteristics were investigated parametrically. The amount of air entrained into a flame was calculated by a two-zone thermodynamic model with data obtained from the photographs and the pressure measurement in the combustion chamber. The air-entrainment characteristics of flames were compared with those of the corresponding sprays. It showed that immediately after the start of ignition, the air entrainment into a flame increased more rapidly as compared with the corresponding spray and then, with the development of diffusion combustion, the air entrainment gradually approached that of the spray.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Mixing in a Transient Jet

1993-10-01
932657
To understand further the mixing process between the injected fuel and air in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, the turbulent mixing process in a one-phase, two-dimensional transient jet was theoretically studied using the discrete vortex simulation. First, the simulation model was evaluated by comparisons between calculated and experimental data on two-dimensional turbulent jets. Second, the trajectories of the injected fluid elements marked with different colors were graphically demonstrated. Also the process of entrainment of the surrounding fluid into the jet was visually presented using colored tracers.
Technical Paper

Effects of Flame Motion and Temperature on Local Wall Heat Transfer in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine Simulating Diesel Combustion

1992-10-01
922208
Local heat flux from the flame to the combustion chamber wall, q̇, was measured the wall surfaces of a rapid compression-expansion machine which can simulate diesel combustion. Temperature of the flame zone, T1, was calculated by a thermodynamic two-zone model using measured values of cylinder pressure and flame volume. A local heat transfer coefficient was proposed which is defined as q̇/(T1-Tw). Experiments showed that the local heat transfer coefficient depends slightly on the temperature difference, T1-Tw, but depends significantly on the velocity of the flame which contacts the wall surface.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Diesel Combustion in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine

1991-09-01
911845
According to previous papers on the combustion process in LHR diesel engines the combustion seems to deteriorate in LHR diesel engines. However it has been unclear whether this was caused by the high temperature gas or high temperature combustion chamber walls. This study was intended to investigate the effect of gas temperature on the rate of heat release through the heat release analysis and other measurements using a rapid compression-expansion machine. Experiments conducted at high gas temperatures which was achieved by the employment of oxygen-argon-helium mixture made it clear that the combustion at a high gas temperature condition deteriorated actually and this was probably due to the poorer mixing rate because of the increase in gas viscosity at a high gas temperature condition.
Technical Paper

Fast Burning and Reduced Soot Formation via Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Fuel Injection

1991-02-01
910225
The relation between the characteristics of a non-evaporating spray and those of a corresponding frame achieved in a rapid compression machine was investigated experimentally. The fuel injection pressure was changed in a range of 55 to 260 MPa and the other injection parameters such as orifice diameter and injection duration were changed systematically. The characteristics of the non-evaporating spray such as the Sauter mean diameter and the mean excess air ratio of the spray were measured by an image analysis technique. The time required for a pressure rise due to combustion was taken as an index to characterize the flame. It was concluded that the mean excess air ratio of a spray is the major factor which controls the burning rate and that the high injection pressure is effective in shortening the combustion duration and reducing soot formation.
Technical Paper

Stratification of Swirl Intensity in the Axial Direction for Control of Turbulence Generation During the Compression Stroke

1991-02-01
910261
Control of turbulence during the compression stroke is suggested by both theoretical calculations and experimental results obtained with an LDV measurement in a motored engine. The authors have found experimentally that when an axial distribution of swirl intensity exists, a large-scale annular vortex is formed inside the cylinder during the compression stroke and this vortex generates and transports turbulence energy. A numerical calculation is adopted to elucidate this phenomenon. Then, an axial stratification of swirl intensity is found to generate a large-scale annular vortex during the compression stroke by an interaction between the piston motion and the axial pressure gradient. The initial swirl profile is parametrically varied to assess its effect on the turbulence parameters. Among calculated results, turbulence energy is enhanced strongest when the swirl intensity is highest at the piston top surface and lowest at the bottom surface of the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Measurement Tool for Fuel Injection Rate in Diesel Engines

1989-02-01
890317
A new instrument for the measurement of fuel injection rate in diesel engines was developed. The instrument, whose measurement principle is based on the Zeuch's method, i.e., the constant volume method, incorporates a device for the precise calibration of the volume elasticity of the fuel. This instrument was proved experimentally to have a capability of measuring injection rate with ± 1% accuracy up to an injection pump rotating speed of 2500rpm.
Technical Paper

Development of a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine to Simulate Combustion in Diesel Engines

1988-10-01
881640
A rapid compression-expansion machine which can simulate the combustion processes in diesel engines is developed. The configuration of the combustion chamber is a 100 mm bore and a 90 mm stroke, and the compression ratio is 15. The piston is driven by an electro-hydraulic system with a thrust of 90 kN and the maximum frequency of 20 Hz. The whole system composed of a hydraulic actuator, a fuel injection system, and a valve driving unit is sequentially controlled by a computer. The reproducibility of the stop position of the piston at the end of compression is achieved with an accuracy of ±0.1 mm by employing a hydraulic-mechanical brake mechanism. The experiment shows that the combustion in the expansion stroke is achieved, and that the combustion characteristics such as the rate of heat release and indicated output as well as the exhaust emission can be measured.
Technical Paper

High Combustion Temperature for the Reduction of Particulate in Diesel Engines

1988-02-01
880423
Experiments on the effects of temperature T and equivalence ratio ϕ on soot formation at high pressures up to 5 MPa were conducted. The soot formation region is mapped on ϕ-T diagram using the results obtained in the experiments and the published data. NO formation region is also determined by the Zeldovich equations and is plotted on the same diagram. The time histories of ϕ and T of the flame in a DI diesel engine which was obtained by a gas sampling study, are plotted on the ϕ-T diagram to form a trajectory. Discussion of the trajectory in relation to both soot and NO formation region gives suggestion of a possibility of high temperature - rich mixture combustion to reduce particulate formation in diesel engines.
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