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Journal Article

Side Impact Pressure Sensor Predictions with Computational Gas and Fluid Dynamic Methods

2017-03-28
2017-01-0379
Three computational gas and fluid dynamic methods, CV/UP (Control Volume/Uniform Pressure), CPM (Corpuscular Particle Method), and ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian and Eulerian), were investigated in this research in an attempt to predict the responses of side crash pressure sensors. Acceleration-based crash sensors have been used extensively in the automotive industry to determine the restraint system firing time in the event of a vehicle crash. The prediction of acceleration-based crash pulses by using computer simulations has been very challenging due to the high frequency and noisy responses obtained from the sensors, especially those installed in crush zones. As a result, the sensor algorithm developments for acceleration-based sensors are largely based on prototype testing. With the latest advancement in the crash sensor technology, side crash pressure sensors have emerged recently and are gradually replacing acceleration-based sensor for side crash applications.
Journal Article

Simulation and Optimization of an Aluminum-Intensive Body-on-Frame Vehicle for Improved Fuel Economy and Enhanced Crashworthiness - Front Impacts

2015-04-14
2015-01-0573
Motivated by a combination of increasing consumer demand for fuel efficient vehicles, more stringent greenhouse gas, and anticipated future Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, automotive manufacturers are working to innovate in all areas of vehicle design to improve fuel efficiency. In addition to improving aerodynamics, enhancing internal combustion engines and transmission technologies, and developing alternative fuel vehicles, reducing vehicle weight by using lighter materials and/or higher strength materials has been identified as one of the strategies in future vehicle development. Weight reduction in vehicle components, subsystems and systems not only reduces the energy needed to overcome inertia forces but also triggers additional mass reduction elsewhere and enables mass reduction in full vehicle levels.
Journal Article

Modeling of an Advanced Steering Wheel and Column Assembly for Frontal and Side Impact Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0803
This paper presents the final phase of a study to develop the modeling methodology for an advanced steering assembly with a safety-enhanced steering wheel and an adaptive energy absorbing steering column. For passenger cars built before the 1960s, the steering column was designed to control vehicle direction with a simple rigid rod. In severe frontal crashes, this type of design would often be displaced rearward toward the driver due to front-end crush of the vehicle. Consequently, collapsible, detachable, and other energy absorbing steering columns emerged to address this type of kinematics. These safety-enhanced steering columns allow frontal impact energy to be absorbed by collapsing or breaking the steering columns, thus reducing the potential for rearward column movement in severe crashes. Recently, more advanced steering column designs have been developed that can adapt to different crash conditions including crash severity, occupant mass/size, seat position, and seatbelt usage.
Journal Article

Modeling of Adaptive Energy Absorbing Steering Columns for Dynamic Impact Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0802
The objective of this paper focused on the modeling of an adaptive energy absorbing steering column which is the first phase of a study to develop a modeling methodology for an advanced steering wheel and column assembly. Early steering column designs often consisted of a simple long steel rod connecting the steering wheel to the steering gear box. In frontal collisions, a single-piece design steering column would often be displaced toward the driver as a result of front-end crush. Over time, engineers recognized the need to reduce the chance that a steering column would be displaced toward the driver in a frontal crash. As a result, collapsible, detachable, and other energy absorbing steering columns emerged as safer steering column designs. The safety-enhanced construction of the steering columns, whether collapsible, detachable, or other types, absorb rather than transfer frontal impact energy.
Journal Article

Side Crash Pressure Sensor Prediction for Unitized Vehicles: An ALE Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-0657
With a goal to help develop pressure sensor calibration and deployment algorithms using computer simulations, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) approach was adopted in this research to predict the responses of side crash pressure sensors for unitized vehicles. For occupant protection, acceleration-based crash sensors have been used in the automotive industry to deploy restraint devices when vehicle crashes occur. With improvements in the crash sensor technology, pressure sensors that detect pressure changes in door cavities have been developed recently for vehicle crash safety applications. Instead of using acceleration (or deceleration) in the acceleration-based crash sensors, the pressure sensors utilize pressure change in a door structure to determine the deployment of restraint devices. The crash pulses recorded by the acceleration-based crash sensors usually exhibit high frequency and noisy responses.
Journal Article

Side Crash Pressure Sensor Prediction for Body-on-Frame Vehicles: An ALE Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-0666
In an attempt to assist pressure sensor algorithm and calibration development using computer simulations, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) approach was adopted in this study to predict the responses of side crash pressure sensors for body-on-frame vehicles. Acceleration based, also called G-based, crash sensors have been used extensively to deploy restraint devices, such as airbags, curtain airbags, seatbelt pre-tensioners, and inflatable seatbelts, in vehicle crashes. With advancements in crash sensor technologies, pressure sensors that measure pressure changes in vehicle side doors have been developed recently and their applications in vehicle crash safety are increasing. The pressure sensors are able to detect and record the dynamic pressure change when the volume of a vehicle door changes as a result of a crash.
Journal Article

Side Crash Pressure Sensor Prediction: An Improved Corpuscular Particle Method

2012-04-16
2012-01-0043
In an attempt to predict the responses of side crash pressure sensors, the Corpuscular Particle Method (CPM) was adopted and enhanced in this research. Acceleration-based crash sensors have traditionally been used extensively in automotive industry to determine the air bag firing time in the event of a vehicle accident. The prediction of crash pulses obtained from the acceleration-based crash sensors by using computer simulations has been very challenging due to the high frequency and noisy responses obtained from the sensors, especially those installed in crash zones. As a result, the sensor algorithm developments for acceleration-based sensors are largely based on prototype testing. With the latest advancement in the crash sensor technology, side crash pressure sensors have emerged recently and are gradually replacing acceleration-based sensor for side impact applications.
Journal Article

Side Crash Pressure Sensor Prediction: An ALE Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0046
An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) approach was adopted in this study to predict the responses of side crash pressure sensors in an attempt to assist pressure sensor algorithm development by using computer simulations. Acceleration-based crash sensors have traditionally been used to deploy restraint devises (e.g., airbags, air curtains, and seat belts) in vehicle crashes. The crash pulses recorded by acceleration-based crash sensors usually exhibit high frequency and noisy responses depending on the vehicle's structural design. As a result, it is very challenging to predict the responses of acceleration-based crash sensors by using computer simulations, especially those installed in crush zones. Therefore, the sensor algorithm developments for acceleration-based sensors are mostly based on physical testing.
Journal Article

Crash Performance Simulation of a Multilayer Thermoplastic Fuel Tank with Manufacturing and Assembly Consideration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0009
The modeling of plastic fuel tank systems for crash safety applications has been very challenging. The major challenges include the prediction of fuel sloshing in high speed impact conditions, the modeling of multilayer thermoplastic fuel tanks with post-forming (non-uniform) material properties, and the modeling of tank straps with pre-tensions. Extensive studies can be found in the literature to improve the prediction of fuel sloshing. However, little research had been conducted to model the post-forming fuel tank and to address the tension between the fuel tank and the tank straps for crash safety simulations. Hoping to help improve the modeling of fuel systems, the authors made the first attempt to tackle these major challenges all at once in this study by dividing the modeling of the fuel tank into eight stages. An ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) method was adopted to simulate the interaction between the fuel and the tank.
Journal Article

Fracture Modeling of AHSS in Component Crush Tests

2011-04-12
2011-01-0001
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have been implemented in the automotive industry to balance the requirements for vehicle crash safety, emissions, and fuel economy. With lower ductility compared to conventional steels, the fracture behavior of AHSS components has to be considered in vehicle crash simulations to achieve a reliable crashworthiness prediction. Without considering the fracture behavior, component fracture cannot be predicted and subsequently the crash energy absorbed by the fractured component can be over-estimated. In full vehicle simulations, failure to predict component fracture sometimes leads to less predicted intrusion. In this paper, the feasibility of using computer simulations in predicting fracture during crash deformation is studied.
Journal Article

Cross-Section Optimization for Axial and Bending Crushes Using Dual Phase Steels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1125
To achieve optimal axial and bending crush performance using dual phase steels for components designed for crash energy absorption and/or intrusion resistance applications, the cross sections of the components need to be optimized. In this study, Altair HyperMorph™ and HyperStudy® optimization software were used in defining the shape design variables and the optimization problem setup, and non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA® software was used in crush simulations. Correlated crash simulation models were utilized and the square cross-section was selected as the baseline. The optimized cross-sections for bending and axial crush performance resulted in significant mass and cost savings, particularly with the application of dual phase steels.
Technical Paper

Approaches to Modeling the Dynamic Interaction for an Automotive Seat and Occupant System

2007-04-16
2007-01-0988
There are a wide variety of approaches to model the automotive seat and occupant interaction. This paper traces the studies conducted for simulating the occupant to seat interaction in frontal and/or rear crash events. Starting with an initial MADYMO model, a MADYMO-LS/DYNA coupled model was developed. Subsequently, a full Finite Element Analysis model using LS/DYNA was studied. The main objective of the studies was to improve the accuracy and efficiency of CAE models for predicting the dummy kinematics and structural deformations at the restraint attachment locations in laboratory tests. The occupant and seat interaction was identified as one of the important factors that needed to be accurately simulated. Quasi-static and dynamic component tests were conducted to obtain the foam properties that were input into the model. Foam specimens and the test setup are discussed. Different material models in LS/DYNA were evaluated for simulating automotive seat foam.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviors of Aluminum Honeycombs Under Dynamic Inclined Loads

2007-04-16
2007-01-0979
Macroscopic constitutive behaviors of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycombs under dynamic inclined loads with respect to the out-of-plane direction are investigated by experiments. The results of the dynamic crush tests indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the normal crush strength increases and the shear strength remains nearly the same for a fixed ratio of the normal to shear displacement rate. The experimental results suggest that the macroscopic yield surface of the honeycomb specimens as a function of the impact velocity under the given dynamic inclined loads is not governed by the isotropic hardening rule of the classical plasticity theory. As the impact velocity increases, the shape of the macroscopic yield surface changes, or more specifically, the curvature of the yield surface increases near the pure compression state.
Technical Paper

Implicit and Explicit Finite Element Methods for Crash Safety Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-0982
Explicit method is commonly used in crashworthiness analysis due to its capability to solve highly non-linear problems without numerous iterations and convergence problems. However, the time step for explicit methods is limited by the time that the physical wave crosses the element. Therefore, to avoid large amount of CPU time, the explicit method is usually used for non-linear dynamic problems with a short period of simulation duration. For problems under quasi-static loading conditions at pre-crash and post-crash, implicit method could be more efficient than explicit methods because the required computation time is much shorter. Due to the recent advance of crash codes, which allows both implicit and explicit computations to be performed in the same code, crash engineers are able to use explicit computation for crash simulation as well as implicit computation for some of the pre-crash quasi-static loading or post-crash spring back simulations.
Technical Paper

Testing and Finite Element Modeling of Hydroform Frames in Crash Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0981
Hydroformed components are replacing stamped parts in automotive frames and front end and roof structures to improve the crash performance of vehicles. Due to the increasing application of hydroformed components, a better understanding of the crash behavior of these parts is necessary to improve the correlation between full-vehicle crash tests and FEM analysis. Accurately predicting the performance of hydroformed components will reduce the amount of physical crash testing necessary to develop the new components and new vehicles as well as reduce cycle time. Virgin material properties are commonly used in FEM analysis of hydroformed components, which leads to erroneous prediction of the full-vehicle crash response. Changes in gauge and material properties during the hydroforming process are intuitive and can be reasonably predicted by using forming simulations. The effects of the forming process have been investigated in the FEA models that are created for crash analyses.
Technical Paper

Impact Testing of Bushings for Crashworthiness Simulation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0317
The dynamic response of a front lower control arm (LCA) is very important in crash safety. In the event of a crash, the deformation of the LCA affects the frame rail's ability to crush and absorb energy on impact. Therefore, the deformation and rupture of the LCA during a crash may indirectly influence the deceleration pulse which is needed for safety sensor calibration of airbag deployment [1]. Depending on compliance, bushings have a significant effect on the deformation and rupture of the LCA. During a high speed impact test, the bushings allow the LCA to rotate at the joints or points where the LCA connects to the frame. The development of new LCA and bushing designs, constructed of different materials and geometries, require a standard test to measure their performance. The overall goal of this study was to develop a standardized procedure to test the stiffness, deformation, and strength of LCA bushings.
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization for Vehicle Pitch and Drop

2006-04-03
2006-01-0316
The optimization method and CAE analysis have been widely used in structure design for crash safety. Combining the CAE analysis and optimization approach, vehicle structure design for crash can be implemented more efficiently. One of the recent safety desirables in structure design is to reduce vehicle pitch and drop. At frontal impact tests with unbelted occupants, the interaction between occupant's head and interior header/sun visor, which is caused by excessive vehicle pitch and drop, is not desired in vehicle crash development. In order to comply with the federal frontal crash requirements for unbelted occupant, it is necessary to manage the vehicle pitch and drop by improving structure design. In this paper, a systematic process of CAE analysis with optimization approach is applied for discovering the major structural components affecting vehicle pitch and drop.
Technical Paper

Impact Simulation of Hydro-formed Front End Vehicle Structure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0312
The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of the hydro-forming process and the effect of strain rate on crash performance and develop a modeling approach to improve the accuracy of crash prediction. Work hardening, thinning and strain rate effects are investigated in both component and full vehicle analyses to understand their sensitivities. Gages measured and material properties tested from post-formed tubes are compared with hydro-forming simulation results to confirm accuracy of the modeling methodology proposed in the paper. Front crash simulation using strain rate and forming effects are correlated with the test data for both component and full vehicle analyses and conclusion has been drawn from this comparison.
Technical Paper

Modeling Energy Absorption and Deformation of Multicorner Columns in Lateral Bending

2006-04-03
2006-01-0123
The frame rail has an impact on the crash performance of body-on-frame (BOF) and uni-body vehicles. Recent developments in materials and forming technology have prompted research into improving the energy absorption and deformation mode of the frame rail design. It is worthwhile from a timing and cost standpoint to predict the behavior of the front rail in a crash situation through finite element techniques. This study focuses on improving the correlation of the frame component Finite Element model to physical test data through sensitivity analysis. The first part of the study concentrated on predicting and improving the performance of the front rail in a frontal crash [1]. However, frame rails in an offset crash or side crash undergo a large amount of bending. This paper discusses appropriate modeling and testing procedures for front rails in a bending situation.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Spot Weld under Impact Loading and Its Effect on Crash Simulation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0959
Spot weld is the primary joining method to assemble the automotive body structure. In any crash events some separation of spot-welds can be expected. However, if this happens in critical areas of the vehicle it can potentially affect the integrity of the structure. It will be beneficial to identify such issues through CAE simulation before prototypes are built and tested. This paper reports a spot weld modeling methodology to characterize spot weld separation and its application in full vehicle crash simulation. A generalized two-node spring element with 6 DOF at each node is used to model the spot weld. Separation of spot welds is modeled using three alternative rupture criteria defined in terms of peak force, displacement and energy. Component level crash tests are conducted using VIA sled at various impact speeds to determine mean crush load and identify possible separation of welds.
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