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Technical Paper

Development of a Quasi-Steady Approach Based Simulation Tool for System Level Exhaust Aftertreatment Modeling

This article describes a system level 1D simulation tool that has been constructed on the Quasi-steady (QS) method. By assuming that spatial changes are much greater than the temporal ones, rigorous 1D governing equations can be considerably simplified thus becoming less computationally demanding to solve and therefore suitable for control oriented modeling purposes. With the proposed tool exhaust pipe wall temperature profiles, including multiple-wall-layer configurations, are solved through a finite difference scheme. Momentum equation is included for predicting pressure losses due to frictions and geometric irregularity. Exhaust fluid properties (transport and thermodynamic) are evaluated according to NASA or JANAF polynomial thermal data basis. The proposed tool allows the consideration of an arbitrary number of chemical species and reactions in the entire system. A novel semi-automatic approach was developed to handle catalytic reaction kinetics intuitively.
Technical Paper

Coupled 1-D/3-D Analysis of Fuel Injection and Diesel Engine Combustion

One of the most critical elements in diesel engine design is the selection and matching of the fuel injection system. The injection largely controls the combustion process, and with it also a wide range of related issues, such as: fuel efficiency, emissions, startability, load acceptance (acceleration) and combustion noise. Simulation has been a valuable tool for the engine design engineer to predict and optimize key parameters of the fuel injection system. This is a problem that spans a number of subsystems. Historically, simulations of these subsystems (hydraulics, gas dynamics, engine performance and 3-D CFD cylinder modeling) have typically been done in isolation. Recently, a simulation tool has been developed, which models the different subsystems in an integrated manner. This simulation tool combines a 1-D simulation tool for modeling of hydraulic and gas dynamics systems, with 3-D CFD code for modeling the in-cylinder combustion and emissions.
Technical Paper

“Virtual Engine/Powertrain/Vehicle” Simulation Tool Solves Complex Interacting System Issues

An integrated simulation tool has been developed, which is applicable to a wide range of design issues. A key feature introduced for the first time by this new tool is that it is truly a single code, with identical handling of engine, powertrain, vehicle, hydraulics, electrical, thermal and control elements. Further, it contains multiple levels of engine models, so that the user can select the appropriate level for the time scale of the problem (e.g. real-time operation). One possible example of such a combined simulation is the present study of engine block vibration in the mounts. The simulation involved a fully coupled model of performance, thermodynamics and combustion, with the dynamics of the cranktrain, engine block and the driveline. It demonstrated the effect of combustion irregularity on engine shaking in the mounts.
Technical Paper

Engine/Powertrain/Vehicle Modeling Tool Applicable to All Stages of the Design Process

Engine and vehicle development is a multi-step process: from component design, to system integration, to system control. There is a multitude of tools that are currently being used in the industry for these purposes. They include detailed simulations for component design on one hand, and simplified models for system and control applications on the other hand. This introduces one basic problem: these tools are almost totally disconnected, with attendant loss of accuracy and productivity. An integrated simulation tool has been developed, which is applicable to all of the design issues enumerated above. A key feature introduced for the first time by this new tool is that it is truly a single code, with identical handling of engine and powertrain elements. Further, it contains multiple levels of engine and powertrain models, so that the user can select the appropriate level for the project at hand (e.g. depending on the time scale of the problem).
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Exhaust Acoustics

Exhaust acoustics simulation is an important part of the exhaust system process. Especially important is the trend towards a coupled approach to performance and acoustics design. The present paper describes a new simulation tool developed for such coupled simulations. This tool is based on a one-dimensional fluid dynamics solution of the flow in the engine manifolds and exhaust and intake elements. To represent the often complex geometries of mufflers, an easy-to-use graphical pre-processor is provided, with which the user builds a model representation of mufflers using a library of basic elements. A comparison made to two engines equipped with exhaust silencers, shows that the predictions give good results.
Technical Paper

Integrated Engine/Vehicle Simulation and Control

An increasing emphasis is being placed in the vehicle development process on transient operation of engines and vehicles, and of engine/vehicle integration, because of their importance to fuel economy and emissions. Simulations play a large role in this process, complementing the more usual test-oriented hardware development process. This has fueled the development and continued evolution of advanced engine and powertrain simulation tools which can be utilized for this purpose. This paper describes a new tool developed for applications to transient engine and powertrain design and optimization. It contains a detailed engine simulation, specifically focused on transient engine processes, which includes detailed models of engine breathing (with turbocharging), combustion, emissions and thermal warm-up of components. Further, it contains a powertrain and vehicle dynamic simulation.
Technical Paper

Modeling for Diesel Engine Control: The CPower Environment

Diesel engine control has already become complex, and in order to meet future emissions standards (such as Euro 4) it is likely to be the control system that will provide the needed performance increment. Common rail fuel injection offers yet more degrees of freedom which will need to be exploited as new emissions standards emerge. Whatever the emissions standards, there is a need to reduce risk at the earliest stages in the development of the powertrain. This will involve early and extensive simulation of the powertrain including its control system, sensors and actuators. What is the best way to achieve this using current tools? The result lies in a combination of a phenomenological model of the engine and a flexible controls environment. To illustrate the principles of developing prototype control systems, we will use the example of the CPower environment, which is a combination of a detailed engine simulation code (GT-Power) and the Simulink simulation environment.
Technical Paper

Study of Intake System Wave Dynamics and Acoustics by Simulation and Experiment

This paper presents the results of an investigation into the comparison between measured and simulated intake system dynamics of the General Motors Quad 4 engine. Simulations of the engine were conducted at eleven wide-open-throttle operating conditions ranging in engine speed from 2500 rpm to 6000 rpm under both firing and motoring operation. Comparisons of basic engine performance (torque, volumetric efficiency, BSFC), as well as dynamic pressure at two locations within the intake manifold (runner and plenum) showed good correlation between measurements and simulation. The total sound pressure level radiated from the intake orifice was also calculated and compared to measured data. The results of this study show that the simulation program has the ability to accurately capture the major features of engine intake system wave dynamics, including amplitude, phasing, and excitation of system resonances throughout the engine operating range.
Technical Paper

Concurrent Simulation and Testing Concept in Engine Development

The use of engine simulation is rapidly increasing throughout the engine industry. In the present paper, the major contributing factors which drive this trend are discussed. These include the increasing sophistication of the simulations, both in the area of high accuracy and in user-friendliness. Also, the decreasing cost of engineering computer workstations places them on the desktop of engineers and makes them readily available. Furthermore, the steadily rising computer processing power now provides the response needed in the engine development environment. The advances seen in simulations now open a new area for their application--as a tool fully complementary to test and measurement in a “concurrent test and simulation” process. The wide-ranging benefits and opportunities offered by the process are described in detail.
Technical Paper

A New Generation of Tools for Accurate Thermo-Mechanical Finite Element Analyses of Engine Components

A set of methods is described to calculate boundary conditions for thermal and mechanical finite element (FE) analyses and to assess and present the results of those analyses in a clear and understandable way. The approach utilizes a combination of engine simulation programs and an empirical database of engine measurements developed over many years. The methodology relies on the use of specialized FE pre- and post-processors dedicated to the analyses of engine components. Gas-side thermal boundary conditions for combustion chamber components are calculated using an engine simulation code for standalone FE analyses or for FE analyses directly coupled to the engine simulation code itself. Coolant side boundary conditions are calculated using multidimensional flow analysis (computational fluid dynamics). Boundary conditions in intake and exhaust manifolds are calculated using a one-dimensional gas dynamics code.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study of Wall Temperature Effects on Engine Heat Transfer

Recently, several theories have been offered as possible explanations for claimed increases in diesel engine heat transfer when combustion chamber surface temperatures are raised through insulation. A multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, using a recently developed near wall turbulent heat transfer model, has been employed to investigate the validity of two of these theories. The proposed mechanisms for increased heat transfer in the presence of high wall temperatures are: 1 piston-induced compression heating of the near wall gas which increases the near wall temperature gradient when wall temperatures are high; 2 increased penetration of hot, burned gases into the near wall flow during combustion through reduction of the flame quench distance.
Technical Paper

Fluid Dynamic and Acoustic Modeling of Concentric-Tube Resonators/Silencers

Two models used for the prediction of noise attenuation in silencers have been evaluated. One is a full non-linear one-dimensional fluid-dynamic model, representing the entire engine (from the air cleaner to the tail pipe). The other is a linear acoustic model, representing a silencer and the exhaust and tail pipes. The evaluation was made by comparing the models' predictions to transmission lose measurements obtained with a set of concentric-tube resonators under speaker excitation at room temperature. This represents a test of the models in the linear range (small pressure pulsation amplitudes). The comparisons showed that both of the models performed well under these conditions. For the non-linear model this comparison represents validation for only one special case, since the main application of the model is to prediction of engine performance, insertion loss in silencer, absolute level of noise radiated from tailpipe and engine backpressure.
Technical Paper

An Improved Near Wall Heat Transfer Model for Multidimensional Engine Flow Calculations

An important aspect of calculation of engine combustion chamber heat transfer with a multi-dimensional flow code is the modeling of the near wall flow. Conventional treatments of the wall layer flow employ the use of wall functions which impose the wall boundary conditions on the solution grid points adjacent to solid boundaries. However, the use of wall functions for calculating complex flows such as those which exist in engines has numerous weaknesses, including dependence on grid resolution. An alternative wall modeling approach has been developed which overcomes the limitations of the wall functions and is applicable to the calculation of in-cylinder engine flows. In this approach the wall layer flow is solved dynamically on a grid spanning a very thin boundary layer region adjacent to solid boundaries which is separate from the global grid used to solve the outer flow.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Manifold Dynamics in the Chrysler 2.2 S.I. Engine by Measurements and Simulation

A combined experimental/analytical study was made of a 2.2ℓ production engine. The objective was to characterize the performance of the engine and the pressure wave dynamics in its manifolds, and to compare the data/predictions obtained using an engine simulation program. Description of the computer program is given, providing an overview of its capabilities and of the models it contains. The data was obtained at wide open throttle, at four engine speeds from 1600 rpm to 4800 rpm. The comparisons showed the ability of the simulation to predict the major features of the wave dynamics, including the amplitude, frequency and phasing of the waves, and their tuning and de-tuning at the various engine speeds.
Technical Paper

Warmup Characteristics of a Spark Ignition Engine as a Function of Speed and Load

The warmup characteristics of an engine have an important impact on a variety of design issues such as performance, emissions and durability. A computer simulation has been developed which permits a detailed transient simulation of the engine warmup period from initial ambient conditions to a fully warmed up state. The simulation combines a detailed crankangle-by-crankangle calculation of in-cylinder processes and of engine air flow, with finite element heat conduction calculations of heat transfer from the gases, through the structure to the coolant. The paper describes one particular application of the simulation to the warmup of a 2.5ℓ spark ignited engine from cold start to a fully warmed up state at several speeds ranging from 1600 to 5200 rpm and loads ranging from 25% to 100% at each speed. The response of structure temperatures, charge temperature at IVC and of the exhaust temperature has been calculated and is documented in terms of characteristic warmup times.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Structural Effects of Fiber Matrix Reinforcement in Aluminum Diesel Pistons

Selective reinforcement of squeeze-cast aluminum pistons by fiber matrix inserts is a method of improving high temperature strength in piston zones subject to severe thermal and mechanical loads in highly loaded diesel engines. An investigation was carried out into the effects of selective fiber-matrix reinforcement on the thermal and stress state of an aluminum piston for a heavy-duty truck diesel engine application. Specifically, effects of geometry of the reinforced zone (fiber matrix), fiber density in the matrix, fiber orientation and piston combustion bowl shape were sought. Thermal and structural finite element analysis of the configurations were carried out. Thermal analyses were fully coupled to a simulation of a highly rated heavy-duty diesel.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer in a Cooled and an Insulated Diesel Engine

Detailed heat transfer measurements were made in the combustion chamber of a Cummins single cylinder NH-engine in two configurations: cooled metal and ceramic-coated. The first configuration served as the baseline for a study of the effects of insulation and wall temperature on heat transfer. The second configuration had several in-cylinder components coated with 1.25 mm (0.050″) layer of zirconia plasma spray -- in particular, piston top, head firedeck and valves. The engine was operated over a matrix of operating points at four engine speeds and several load levels at each speed. The heat flux was measured by thin film thermocouple probes. The data showed that increasing the wall temperature by insulation reduced the heat flux. This reduction was seen both in the peak heat flux value as well as in the time-averaged heat flux. These trends were seen at all of the engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Integrating Engine Performance and Component Design Analysis Through Simulation

The development of I.C. engines is a sophisticated process bringing together a multitude of specialists. It is important that all of these specialists work together as a team and communicate effectively. One tool of communication can be an integrated engineering software package that simulates many of the important facets of engine operation, and describes their essential interactions. Then, if changes are made in one part of the hardware or in operating conditions, their effects on other components of the system can be assessed. This paper describes initial efforts made in that direction through the development of a comprehensive engine simulation code, IRIS, which permits a coupled analysis of engine performance and component thermal and structural state.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Experiments in an Insulated Diesel

A set of heat flux data was obtained in a Cummins single cylinder NH-engine coated with zirconia plasma spray. Data were acquired at two locations on the head, at several speeds and several load levels, using a thin film Pt-Pt/Rh thermocouple plated onto the zirconia coating. Careful attention was given to the probe design and to data reduction to assure high accuracy of the measurements. The data showed that the peak heat flux was consistently reduced by insulation and by the increasing wall temperature. The mean heat flux was also reduced. The results agree well with a previously developed flow-based heat transfer model. This indicates that the nature of the heat transfer process was unchanged by the increased wall temperature. Based on these results, the conclusion is drawn that insulation and increasing wall temperatures lead to a decrease in heat transfer and thus contribute positively to thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Turbulent Heat Transfer with Application to IC Engines

A detailed research program has been initiated to study the modeling aspects of turbulent heat transfer in engine applications using multidimensional codes. The main concerns are the representation of turbulent transport in flow regions that differ significantly from constant-pressure boundary layers for which the currently used models have been developed and validated. Both the treatment of near-wall and bulk-flow transport are being investigated. Models are being tested on several representative test cases. A number of such test cases have been identified, which contain key flow features relevant to engine applications and for which a good experimental data base exists. Calculations of these test cases have been made using a standard k-ε model.