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Technical Paper

On-Board Fuel Property Classifier for Fuel Property Adaptive Engine Control System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0054
This paper explores the possibility of on-board fuel classification for fuel property adaptive compression-ignition engine control system. The fuel classifier is designed to on-board classify the fuel that a diesel engine is running, including alternative and renewable fuels such as bio-diesel. Based on this classification, the key fuel properties are provided to the engine control system for optimal control of in-cylinder combustion and exhaust treatment system management with respect to the fuel. The fuel classifier employs engine input-output response characteristics measured from standard engine sensors to classify the fuel. For proof-of-concept purposes, engine input-output responses were measured for three different fuels at three different engine operating conditions. Two neural-network-based fuel classifiers were developed for different classification scenarios. Of the three engine operating conditions tested, two conditions were selected for the fuel classifier to be active.
Technical Paper

HCCI Fuels Evaluations-Gasoline Boiling Range Fuels

2005-10-24
2005-01-3727
Four fuels in the gasoline boiling range where tested in a constant volume combustion bomb and a variable compression ratio HCCI engine. The fuels were tested using a port fuel injection system. The results of the experiments defined the range of HCCI operation in terms of the Coefficient of Variation (COV) of IMEP and the maximum rate of pressure rise. The results for the test fuels are compared to each other and to a baseline gasoline. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of the fuel properties (basically, various measure of ignition quality) on the engine heat release rates and efficiencies.
Technical Paper

Performance Predictions for High Efficiency Stoichiometric Spark Ignited Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0995
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is exploring the feasibility of extending the performance and fuel efficiency of the spark ignition (SI) engine to match that of the emission constrained compression (CI) engine, whilst retaining the cost effective 3-way stoichiometric aftertreatment systems associated with traditional SI light duty engines. The engine concept, which has a relatively high compression ratio and uses heavy EGR, is called “HEDGE”, i.e. High Efficiency Durable Gasoline Engine. Whereas previous SwRI papers have been medium and heavy duty development focused, this paper uses results from simulations, with some test bed correlations, to predict multicylinder torque curves, brake thermal efficiency and NOx emissions as well as knock limit for light and medium duty applications.
Technical Paper

The Heavy Duty Gasoline Engine - A Multi-Cylinder Study of a High Efficiency, Low Emission Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-1135
SwRI has developed a new technology concept involving the use of high EGR rates coupled with a high-energy ignition system in a gasoline engine to improve fuel economy and emissions. Based on a single-cylinder study [1], this study extends the concept of a high compression ratio gasoline engine with EGR rates > 30% and a high-energy ignition system to a multi-cylinder engine. A 2000 MY Isuzu Duramax 6.6 L 8-cylinder engine was converted to run on gasoline with a diesel pilot ignition system. The engine was run at two compression ratios, 17.5:1 and 12.5:1 and with two different EGR systems - a low-pressure loop and a high pressure loop. A high cetane number (CN) diesel fuel (CN=76) was used as the ignition source and two different octane number (ON) gasolines were investigated - a pump grade 91 ON ((R+M)/2) and a 103 ON ((R+M)/2) racing fuel.
Technical Paper

HCCI in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine-Effects of Engine Variables

2004-06-08
2004-01-1971
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) experiments were performed in a variable compression ratio single cylinder engine. This is the fourth paper resulting from work performed at Southwest Research Institute in this HCCI engine. The experimental variables, in addition to speed and load, included compression ratio, EGR level, intake manifold pressure and temperature, fuel introduction location, and fuel composition. Mixture preparation and start of reaction control were identified as fundamental problems that required non-traditional mixture preparation and control strategies. The effects of the independent variable on the start of reaction have been documented. For fuels that display significant pre-flame reactions, the start of the pre-flame reactions is controlled primarily by the selection of the fuel and the temperature history of the fuel air mixture.
Technical Paper

The Heavy-Duty Gasoline Engine - An Alternative to Meet Emissions Standards of Tomorrow

2004-03-08
2004-01-0984
A technology path has been identified for development of a high efficiency, durable, gasoline engine, targeted at achieving performance and emissions levels necessary to meet heavy-duty, on-road standards of the foreseeable future. Initial experimental and numerical results for the proposed technology concept are presented. This work summarizes internal research efforts conducted at Southwest Research Institute. An alternative combustion system has been numerically and experimentally examined. The engine utilizes gasoline as the fuel, with a combination of enabling technologies to provide high efficiency operation at ultra-low emissions levels. The concept is based upon very highly-dilute combustion of gasoline at high compression ratio and boost levels. Results from the experimental program have demonstrated engine-out NOx emissions of 0.06 g/hp/hr, at single-cylinder brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) above thirty-four percent.
Technical Paper

Fuel Requirements for HCCI Engine Operation

2003-05-19
2003-01-1813
Researchers at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) have been working for the past several years on the fundamental and practical aspects of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation of reciprocating engines. Much of the work has focused on the use of diesel fuel. The work at SwRI has, however, demonstrated that there are fundamental limitations on the use of current diesel fuels in HCCI engines. The results of engine and constant volume combustion bomb experiments are presented and discussed. The engine experiments were used to identify important fuel properties that must be included in a fuel specification for HCCI fuels. The primary properties relate to the distillation characteristics and the ignition characteristics. The engine test provided preliminary guidance on the distillation requirements and an indication of the important ignition requirements.
Technical Paper

Effects of Water-Fuel Emulsions on Spray and Combustion Processes in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2892
Significant reductions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines have been realized through fueling with water-fuel emulsions. However, the physical and chemical in-cylinder mechanisms that affect these pollutant reductions are not well understood. To address this issue, laser-based and chemiluminescence imaging experiments were performed in an optically-accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine using both a standard diesel fuel (D2) and an emulsion of 20% water, by mass (W20). A laser-based Mie-scatter diagnostic was used to measure the liquid-phase fuel penetration and showed 40-70% greater maximum liquid lengths with W20 at the operating conditions tested. At some conditions with low charge temperature or density, the liquid phase fuel may impinge directly on in-cylinder surfaces, leading to increased PM, HC, and CO emissions because of poor mixing.
Technical Paper

Partial Pre-Mixed Combustion with Cooled and Uncooled EGR in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0963
An experimental investigation of the effects of partial premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and EGR temperature was conducted on a Caterpillar C-12 heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE). The addition of EGR and PCCI combustion resulted in significant NOx reductions over the AVL 8-mode test. The lowest weighted BSNOx achieved was 2.55 g/kW-hr (1.90 g/hp-hr) using cooled EGR and 20% port fuel injection (PFI). This represents a 54% reduction compared to the stock engine. BSHC and BSCO emissions increased by a factor of 8 and 10, respectively, compared to the stock engine. BSFC also increased by 7.7%. In general, BSHC, BSCO, BSPM, and BSFC increased linearly with the amount of port-injected fuel.
Technical Paper

HCCI Operation of a Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Engine for Improved Fuel Efficiency and Ultra-Low NOx Emissions at Low to Moderate Engine Loads

2001-05-07
2001-01-1897
A new combustion concept has been developed and tested for improving the low to moderate load efficiency and NOx emissions of natural gas engines. This concept involves operation of a dual-fuel natural gas engine on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) in the load regime of idle up to 35 % of the peak torque. A dual-fuel approach is used to control the combustion phasing of the engine during HCCI operation, and conventional spark-ignited natural gas combustion is used for the high-load regime. This concept has resulted in an engine with power output and high-load fuel efficiency that are unchanged from the base engine, but with a 10 - 15 % improvement to the low to moderate load fuel efficiency. In addition, the engine-out NOx emissions during HCCI operation are over 90% lower than on spark-ignited natural gas operation over the equivalent load range.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Ignition Behaviour of the ASTM D-613 Primary Reference Fuels and Full Boiling Range Diesel Fuels in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) - Part III

1999-10-25
1999-01-3591
This paper reports on the third part of a continued study (SAE Papers 961182, 971636) to develop the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™). Past research has shown that this automated laboratory/refinery apparatus can be used to accurately predict the cetane number of middle distillates and alternative fuels using small sample volumes (< 50 mL). The paper reports on the main objective of a study performed by Advanced Engine Technology Ltd. (AET), in co-operation with its research partners. The primary research objective of this work is to further the understanding of fuel preparation (fuel air mixing) and start of combustion processes in the IQT™. Key to this understanding is the manner in which single molecule compounds and full boiling-range diesel fuels behave during these processes. Insights are provided into the manner in which the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-613 primary reference fuels (PRFs) undergo fuel preparation and start of combustion in the IQT™.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Degradation Rates of Lubricating Oil in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3574
The specific goal of this project was to determine if there is a difference in the lube oil degradation rates in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with an EGR system, as compared to the same configuration of the engine, but minus the EGR system. A secondary goal was to develop FTIR analysis of used lube oil as a sensitive technique for rapid evaluation of the degradation properties of lubricants. The test engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to meet the 2004 emissions standards. The most significant changes in the lubricant occurred during the first 50-100 hours of operation. The results clearly demonstrated that the use of EGR has a significant impact on the degradation of the engine lubricant.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Properties on Emissions from a 2.5gm NOx Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1998-10-19
982491
The engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Engine exhaust emissions, performance, and heat release rates were measured as functions of engine configuration, engine speed and load. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to achieve a NOx emissions level of 2.5 gm/hp-hr. Measurements were performed at 7 different steady-state, speed-load conditions on thirteen different test fuels. The fuel matrix was statistically designed to independently examine the effects of the targeted fuel properties. Cetane number was varied from 40 to 55, using both natural cetane number and cetane percent improver additives. Aromatic content ranged from 10 to 30 percent in two different forms, one in which the aromatics were predominantly mono-aromatic species and the other, where a significant fraction of the aromatics were either di- or tri-aromatics.
Technical Paper

Nox Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines - What is the Limit?

1998-02-23
980174
Methods to reduce direct injected diesel engine emissions in the combustion chamber will be discussed in this paper. The following NOx emission reduction technologies will be reviewed: charge air chilling, water injection, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Emphasis will be placed on the development of an EGR system and the effect of EGR on NOx and particulates. The lower limit of NOx that can be obtained using conventional diesel engine combustion will be discussed. Further reductions in NOx may require changing the combustion process from a diffusion flame to a homogeneous charge combustion system.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) - Part II

1997-05-01
971636
A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.). This R&D has resulted in a diesel fuel Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) that permits rapid and precise determination of the ignition quality of middle distillate and alternative fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. A preliminary investigation, reported in SAE paper 961182, has shown that the IQT results are highly correlated to the ASTM D-613 cetane number (CN). The objective of this paper is to report on efforts to further refine the original CN model and report on improvements to the IQT fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Cetane Numbers of Fatty Compounds:Influence of Compound Structure and of Various Potential Cetane Improvers

1997-05-01
971681
Biodiesel is a mixture of esters (usually methyl esters) of fatty acids found in the triglycerides of vegetable oils. The different fatty compounds comprising biodiesel possess different ignition properties. To investigate and potentially improve these properties, the cetane numbers of various fatty acids and esters were determined in a Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus. The cetane numbers range from 20.4 for linolenic acid to 80.1 for butyl stearate. The cetane numbers depend on the number of CH2 groups as well as the number of double bonds and other factors. Various oxygenated compounds were studied for their potential of improving the cetane numbers of fatty compounds. Several potential cetane improvers with ignition delay properties giving calculated cetane numbers over 100 were identified. The effect of these cetane improvers depended on their concentration and also on the fatty material investigated.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition of Diesel Fuel

1996-05-01
961160
A single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine was modified to operate on compression ignition of homogenous mixtures of diesel fuel and air. Previous work has indicated that extremely low emissions and high efficiencies are possible if ignition of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures is accomplished. The limitations of this approach were reported to be misfire and knock. These same observations were verified in the current work. The variables examined in this study included air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, fresh intake air temperature, exhaust gas recirculation rate, and intake mixture temperatures. The results suggested that controlled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is possible. Compression ratio, EGR rate, and air fuel ratio are the practical controlling factors in achieving satisfactory operation. It was found that satisfactory power settings are possible with high EGR rates and stoichiometric fuel-air mixtures.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT)

1996-05-01
961182
A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.) as an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) for laboratories and refineries. The IQT software/hardware system permits rapid and precise determination of ignition quality for middle distillate fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. Operating and test conditions were examined in the context of providing a high correlation with cetane number (CN), as determined by the ASTM D-613 method. Preliminary investigation indicates that the IQT results are highly repeatable (± 0.30 CN), providing a high sensitivity to CN variation over the 33 to 58 CN range.
Technical Paper

Cetane Effect on Diesel Ignition Delay Times Measured in a Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus

1995-10-01
952352
The key feature of diesel fuel ignition quality is ignition delay time. In the American Society for Testing and Materials standard test for cetane number measurement, (ASTM D 613) the ignition delay time is held constant while the compression ratio is varied until ignition occurs at the set time. On the other hand, commercial diesel engines have set compression ratios and therefore, the ignition delay time varies with the cetane number of the fuel. The shorter this delay time, the wider the time window over which the combustion processes are spread. This leads to a more controlled heat release rate and pressure rise, resulting in prevention of diesel knock and in lowering of emissions. High cetane fuels exhibit short ignition delay times. The Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA) precisely measures the ignition delay time of fuels. This study investigates the CVCA as a supplementary tool for characterization of diesel fuel ignition quality under a variety of conditions.
Technical Paper

Coal-Water-Slurry Autoignition in a High-Speed Detroit Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941907
Autoignition of coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel in a two-stroke engine operating at 1900 RPM has been achieved. A Pump-Line-Nozzle (PLN) injection system, delivering 400mm3/injection of CWS, was installed in one modified cylinder of a Detroit Diesel Corporation (DI)C) 8V-149TI engine, while the other seven cylinders remained configured for diesel fuel. Coal Combustion was sustained by maintaining high gas and surface temperatures with a combination of hot residual gases, warm inlet air admission, ceramic insulated components and increased compression ratio. The coal-fueled cylinder generated 85kW indicated power (80 percent of rated power), and lower NOx levels with a combustion efficiency of 99.2 percent.
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