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Technical Paper

Improved Sulfur Resistance of Noble Metal Catalyst for Lean-Burn Natural Gas Applications

2013-09-08
2013-24-0155
Natural gas and biogas alone or in combination with conventional liquid fuels (dual-fuel applications) are advanced alternative solutions to diesel and gasoline in the future. Burning of natural- or biogas produces less CO2 emissions per energy unit, and particulate matter emissions can also be reduced compared to more traditional liquefied fuels. This decrease in engine out emissions can be utilized as a tool to meet tightening emission limits and to improve the air quality locally in the areas with big challenges especially related nitrogen oxide and particulate emissions. In the present study the focus was on the development of catalytic emission control technology for both mobile and stationary lean-burn natural gas applications. Main activities were related to the oxidation catalyst and its improvements towards sulfur poisoning and to enhance methane light-off performance.
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Performance of Particle Oxidation Catalyst and Particle Formation Studies with Sulphur Containing Fuels

2012-06-18
The aim of this paper is to analyse the quantitative impact of fuel sulphur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulphur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulphur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulphur level. The Fuel Sulphur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC.
Journal Article

Performance of Particle Oxidation Catalyst and Particle Formation Studies with Sulphur Containing Fuels

2012-04-16
2012-01-0366
The aim of this paper is to analyze the quantitative impact of fuel sulfur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulfur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulfur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulfur level. The Fuel Sulfur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC.
Technical Paper

Design and Durability of Vanadium-SCR Catalyst Systems in Mobile Off-Road Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1316
The emission regulations for mobile off-road applications are following on-road trends by a short delay. The latest Stage 3B and 4 emission limits mean a gradual implementation of oxidation and SCR catalysts as well as particulate filters with off-road machines/vehicles in the 2010s. The driving conditions and test cycles differ from on-road truck applications which have been the first design base for off-road aftertreatment technologies. Aftertreatment systems for Stage 4 were first analyzed and they will include oxidation catalysts, a NOx reduction catalyst (SCR or LNT), a particulate filter and possibly units for urea hydrolysis and ammonia slip removal. The design and durability of V₂O₅/TiO₂-WO₃ catalysts based on metallic substrates were investigated by engine bench and field experiments. NOx emissions were measured with 6.6 and 8.4 liters engines designed for agricultural and industrial machinery.
Journal Article

Effects of Biofuel Blends on Performance of Exhaust Gas Catalyst: Ethanol and Acetaldehyde Reactions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0894
The use of biofuels in internal combustion engines changes the composition of the engine exhaust gas. When burning a biofuel blend, significant amounts of oxygenated hydrocarbons such as alcohols, ethers and aldehydes are present in the exhaust gas. It is known, that these compounds influence catalytic processes in exhaust gas converters. In this work we propose a global kinetic model for ethanol and acetaldehyde oxidation on commonly used Pt, PtPd and Pd-based catalytic oxidation converters of automobile exhaust gases. The mechanism is based on two steps: (i) partial oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, and (ii) complete oxidation of acetaldehyde to CO₂ and H₂O. Kinetic parameters of ethanol and acetaldehyde reactions are evaluated on the basis of laboratory light-off experiments with several catalytic monolith samples (noble metal loading 9-140 g/cft; Pt, Pd, and PtPd; at space velocity 30 000-240 000 h-₁).
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