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Journal Article

Water Recovery and Urine Collection in the Russian Orbital Segment of the International Space Station (Mission 1 Through Mission 17)

2009-07-12
2009-01-2485
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-17 (since November 2, 2000, through October 23, 2008). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is emphasized. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
Technical Paper

The Prospects for Development of Regenerative Life Support Systems of Space and Planetary Stations

2008-06-29
2008-01-2188
Based on experience obtained in operation of the water and oxygen recovery systems installed onboard the Russian space stations Salut, Mir and the International Space Station ISS, data on the water and oxygen balance for a space station are presented as well as operational parameters and performance data of the systems. Using the data obtained design analysis of an integrated life support system for water and oxygen recovery based on physical/chemical means to be installed on a promising space station is carried out. Mandatory verification tests of new process (technologies) and recovery systems are to be conducted on ISS.
Technical Paper

srv-k Status Aboard the International Space Station During Missions 15 and 16

2008-06-29
2008-01-2191
The paper summarizes the experience gained on the ISS water management system during the missions of ISS-1 through ISS-16 (since November 2 2000, through December 31, 2007). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on a board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine, water from a carbon dioxide reduction system and hygiene water is shown.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery on the International Space Station: The Perspectives of Space Stations' Water Supply Systems

2007-07-09
2007-01-3174
The paper summarizes the six years' experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-14 (since November 2, 2000 through October 31, 2006). The water supply sources, consumption structure and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery during space missions and the prospects of regenerative water supply of an interplanetary space station are discussed. The aim of this paper is to summarize the water supply experience and to provide recommendations for a perspective water supply integrated system based on water recovery.
Technical Paper

The Performance of the System for Water Recovery from Humidity Condensate (SRV-K) on International Space Station, ISS Missions 1 through 11

2006-07-17
2006-01-2269
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-11 (since November 2 2000, through October 10, 2005). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station’s water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is shown. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
Technical Paper

Water Supply of the Crew of a Space Station Through Water Recovery and Water Delivery: SRV-K and SPK-U System Operation on ISS

2005-07-11
2005-01-2806
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-10 (since November 2 2000, through November 30, 2004). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station’s water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is emphasized. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
Technical Paper

SRV-K Status aboard the International Space Station and Water Recovery Future Prospects

2004-07-19
2004-01-2489
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda integrated water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS) as of March 31, 2004. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. It is shown that water recovery from humidity condensate has been especially important when water delivery by Space Shuttles was terminated. The SRV-K contribution in potable water supply for crew needs was up to 76%. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown. Water recovery future prospects are discussed.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Urine Collection Abord the International Space Station

2003-07-07
2003-01-2622
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply and urine collection systems of the International Space Station (ISS) as of December 31, 2002. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Oxygen Generation by Electrolysis Aboard the International Space Station

2002-07-15
2002-01-2358
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water and oxygen supply systems of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at the first 14 months of manned station functioning are provided. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The system of oxygen generation “Electron-VM” and its functioning results are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Urine Collection in the Service Module of the International Space Station

2001-07-09
2001-01-2355
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at an initial phase of manned station functioning are provided. The data on humidity condensate and recovered water composition are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The effective cooperation of international partners on part of water supply for the crew is shown.
Technical Paper

A Regenerative Water Supply System for the ISS Russian Segment

1999-07-12
1999-01-1951
This paper reviews the design and properties of the Water Supply System (WSS). It also discusses the water balance and its delivery amounts, as well as it presents diagrams and properties of water recovery system from humidity condensate WRS-CM and regeneration from urine WRS-UM which are the part of WSS. Some results of activities conducted for provision of water intake in a system of WRS-CM from different modules of station are shown and the problems of WSS interaction of Russian segment (RS) and American segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of a Vacuum Distillation Subsystem for Water Reclamation from Urine

1999-07-12
1999-01-1993
This paper reviews the development and testing of the distillation subsystem of water regeneration system from urine (WRS-UM) based on a method of vacuum distillation with a rotary multistage vacuum distiller and a thermal pump. Test results show that with relatively small power consumption the subsystem using rotary three-stage vacuum distiller provides high rates of heat and mass transfer processes, useful productivity and distillate quality. The conducted tests have confirmed that it will be efficient to use the presented system as a part of WRS-UM system in Russian segment of the International Space Station.
Technical Paper

The Use of a Total Organic Carbon Analyzer in Testing of Water Recovery Systems for a Space Station

1999-07-12
1999-01-2034
The paper reviews the results obtained with a Sievers-820 total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer during ground tests of the Mir water recovery system (WRS). Calibration analysis results for water solution samples of individual compounds, typical of spacecraft atmospheric humidity condensate, and their mixtures are provided. Comparison of the test results to the calculated data and laboratory analyses performed by other methods are made. Analyzer readings are in good agreement with the chemical analyses of initial condensate and recovered water. The analyzer shows promise as an instrument for ground and future onboard spacecraft testing.
Technical Paper

Chemical Analysis and Water Recovery Testing of Shuttle-Mir Humidity Condensate

1999-07-12
1999-01-2029
Humidity condensate collected and processed in-flight is an important component of a space station drinking water supply. Water recovery systems in general are designed to handle finite concentrations of specific chemical components. Previous analyses of condensate derived from spacecraft and ground sources showed considerable variation in composition. Consequently, an investigation was conducted to collect condensate on the Shuttle while the vehicle was docked to Mir, and return the condensate to Earth for testing. This scenario emulates an early ISS configuration during a Shuttle docking, because the atmospheres intermix during docking and the condensate composition should reflect that. During the STS-89 and STS-91 flights, a total volume of 50 liters of condensate was collected and returned. Inorganic and organic chemical analyses were performed on aliquots of the fluid.
Technical Paper

Rationale and Selection of a Distillation Subsystem for Water Reclamation from Urine

1998-07-13
981714
A selection of a distillation subsystem with a rotary multistage vacuum distiller (RMVD) and a heat pump (HP) for the system for water reclamation from urine for the international space station is substantiated. The results of computational/experimental analysis of specific energy for distillation with RMVD and HP of different type used are presented. The test results of an experimental system mockup are given. It is shown that the subsystem of a given type is stable in operation, features high condensate processing rate and low specific energy demand.
Technical Paper

Updated Systems for Water Recovery from Humidity Condensate and Urine for the International Space Station

1997-07-14
972559
At the initial phase of the construction of the international space station (ISS) water supply will be provided by the systems located in the Russian segment. The paper reviews the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine to be incorporated in the Russian segment of the ISS. The similar systems have been successfully operated on the Mir space station. The updates aim at enhancing system cost-effectiveness and reliability. The system for water recovery from humidity condensate (WRS-C) features an added assembly for the removal of organic contaminants to be catalytically oxidized in an air/liquid flow at ambient temperature and pressure. The system for water reclamation from urine (WRS-U) incorporates a new distillation subsystem based on vacuum distillation with a multistage rotary distiller and a vapor compression or thermoelectric heat pump. The updating of the WRS-C system will enable an increase in the multifiltration bed's life at least two fold.
Technical Paper

Water Supply Based on Water Reclamation from Humidity Condensate and Urine on a Space Station

1996-07-01
961408
The paper reviews an integrated system for space station water supply based on a combination of water recovery systems and a water resupply system. The water balance data and system performance data in long-duration operation on the Mir space station are presented. A water supply concept for the Russian's segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is substantiated.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Water Recovery Program

1996-07-01
961336
This paper reviews designs of urine distillation systems for spacecraft water recovery. Consideration is given to both air evaporation and vacuum distillation cycles, to the means for improving cycle performance (such as heat pumps, multistaging, and rotary evaporators), and to system concepts offering promise for future development. Vacuum distillation offers lower power consumption, at some increase in system complexity; air evaporation distillation is capable of providing higher water recovery efficiency, which could offset the lower power consumption advantage of vacuum distillation for long-duration missions.
Technical Paper

Physical/Chemical Regenerative LSS for Planetary Habitations

1996-07-01
961549
A concept of LSS building for planetary stations is suggested on the basis of experience in the development, research and testing of physical/chemical regenerative LSS for long-duration ground-based bio-technical complexes of habitat support and for orbiting space stations. A gradual transition from integrated physical/chemical regenerative LSS to hybrid integrated physical/chemical and bio-technical LSS and finally to integrated bio-technical regenerative LSS, is suggested. It is shown that at all phases of integrated LSS development, the systems based on physical/chemical processes will be critical for correlating the interfaces between the biological components that process the products obtained in the bio-components, and enabling the vitality of integrated LSS under emergency situations. The interface of integrated LSS with base power supply system is outlined.
Technical Paper

A Concept of Lunar Base Regenerative Water Management System Construction

1995-07-01
951603
A concept of developing a regenerative water management system (RWMS) for first lunar base missions is reviewed. The principal feature of the concept proposed is the maximum possible unification of RWMS for long-duration orbiting station and a lunar base with due regard to possible modification of the hardware for lunar gravity conditions. The paper is based on the expertise in research, development, testing and flight operation of RWMS in Russia. An upgraded RWMS of the International Space Station may be used for first lunar missions.
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